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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1851, by 

Cyrus Eaton, 

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Maine. 


The following work is one of very humble pre- 
tensions. Its primary object was the history of the 
town of Warren ; but this, in its earlier stages, was 
found so blended with that of the neighboring pla- 
ces, that it was thought best to include a ciusory 
account of their settlement, progress, and condition ; 
down to the time of their incorporation. The form 
of annals has been chosen as best calculated to give 
a panoramic picture of the successive and contempo- 
raneous steps by which the settlements advanced, 
and affairs moved on, toward theii- present condition ; 
but this, more particularly in the latter portion of 
the work, has been freely departed from whenever 
the connexion of events, and the convenience of 
closing a subject, seemed to require. 

In the prosecution of the work, the author has 
availed himself of the records and archives of the 
town, county, State, and United States; many print- 
ed books and pamphlets, early or recent, obscure or 
otherwise ; some private journals and other papers of 
the early settlers ; together with a large stock of 
traditionary information, collected many years ago 
from aged persons now no more, as well as from 
many still living. Much of the last was furnished to 
Judge Williamson when writing the history of the 


State, and is now reclaimed. In gaining access to 
and collecting his materials, it gives the author great 
pleasure to acknowledge the uniform kindness and 
generous aid, not only of his immediate friends and 
acquaintances, but of many others on whom he had 
no claims ; and he would tender his sincere thanks 
to Hon. Rufus Mclntire, Hon. Franklin Clark, John 
McKeen, Esq., many public functionaries. Prof. J. 
Johnston of Middleton, Conn., Marshall S. Rice, 
Esq. of Newton, Mass., and particularly to Rev. J. 
L. Sibley of Harvard University, without Avhose en- 
couragement he would not have undertaken, and 
without whose favors he could scarcely have accom- 
plished, the task. 

Could he now persuade himself that he has been 
at all successful in working up his materials, in col- 
lating and comparing documents, reconciling con- 
flicting statements, verifying traditions by written 
testimony, detailing events with accuracy and recall- 
ing the past as it was, the author would not be over 
sensitive in regard to the minor faults of style, dic- 
tion, punctuation, &c. For some of these, want of 
sight and the difficulty of criticising by the ear, 
may, perhaps, be allowed to plead in apology ; whilst 
others have arisen from alterations and curtailment 
hastily made in the progress of printing. Some of 
the more obvious errors of the press are noted in the 
table of errata. As the work has been extended 
much beyond the number of pages named, and fur- 
nished with maps not contemplated in his prospectus, 
the author hopes the pecuniary sacrifice thus incur- 
red will be accepted by his subscribers as a token of 
gratitude for their generous patronage. 

Warren, July 31, 1851. 



Chap. I. Situation, natural features, &c., of the town of Warren. 1 

Chap. II. Discovery and naming of St. George's River, with a 
glance at the other discoveries, settlements, and claims 
madein the vicinity. — Indian war and Sickness of 1615 
and'18. — Monhegan, Newharbor, Pemaquid and Dam- 
ariscotta. — Patent to Beauchamp and Leverett. — Trad- 
ing-house at St. George's. — The Patentees. — EarHest 
settlers. — Changes of jurisdiction. — Condition of the 
country. — The 1st, (King Philip's,) Indian war. ... 12 

Chap. III. Dutch at Newcastle. — The 2d Indian war. — Pema- 
qxiid taken. — Settlements east of Falmouth deserted. — 
Indian chiefs. — New Charter of Massachusetts, and Gov. 
Phips. — Fort Wm. Henry, and skirmish at Damariscotta. 

Peace. — Death of Madockawando. — Land at St. 

George's piurchased of the Indians. — Suppression of 
pirates. — Queen Anne's war. — Castine, the younger. — 
Peace, and the renewal of settlements. — Missionaries. — 
Conference at Georgetown. — Settlement farther east.— 
Doings at St. George's. — Seizure of Castine. — The 4th 
Indian war. — Attacks at Pemaquid and other places. — 
At St. George's, sloop and mill burnt, — Fort besieged, — 
Made a public garrison. — Expedition to Penobscot.— 
Another attack on St. George's. — Skirmish, and death of 
Winslow. — Naval warfare, and attack on St. George's. 
— Close of the war. — Capt. Gyles. — Dummer's Treaty, 

Chap. IV. Truck-house and agent at St. George's. — Private 
traders. — Indian conference, 1727, and truck-masters. — 
Gyles, justice of the peace. — Gov. Dunbar. — Pierpoint, 
chaplain. — Indian conference, 1732. — Waldo, sole pro- 
prietor at St. George's, — Prepares for extensive settle- 
xaent, — Commences lime-burning, — Visits St. George's, 
— Confers with Indians, — Contracts with 27 settlers for 
the upper town. — Conditions. — Names. — SaAV-mill re- 



biult. — Lots laid out. — Other settlements, — Forbidden 
by the Indians, above tide waters. — Action of the Gen. 
Court thereon. — Garrison reduced. — Location of the 
first settlers. — Their houses, employments, &c. — Earliest 
children. — Fears of a new rupture with Indians. — 
Waldo, colonel. — H. Alexander, first militia captain. — 
Threatening hostilities with Spain, and measures of de- 
fence. — First grist-mill and meeting-house. — Shipwreck 
at Mt. Desert. — First German settlers at Broad Bay. — 
Limits of the Waldo and Pemaquid patents settled by com- 
promise. — Hardships of the German settlers. — Boice 
Cooper. — L. Parsons, &c. — 1741 42 

Chap. V. New tenor currency. — Indian disaffection. — St. 
George's fort rebxiilt. — Bradbury, commander. — Earliest 
death in the upper town. — Lower town extended. — 
War with France. — St. John's Indians hostile. — Precau- 
tions for presei-ving peace with Tarratines. — Militia, and 
scouting parties. — Louisburg expedition. — Effect at St. 
George's, — At Broad Bay. — Indians attack St. George's. 

— Block-houses built. — Province sloop and Capt. Saun- 
ders. — Bounties for Indian scalps. — Skirmish at St. 
George's. — Destruction of Broad Bay. — Another skir- 
mish at St. George's. — Attacks at Damariscotta, &c. — 
Attempt to blow up St. George's fort. — Creighton killed. 

— Cooper and Pitcher, captives. — Scarcity. — Peace con- 
cluded. — Settlers return. — Kilpatrick, captain. — Agri- 
culture, potatoes, &c. — Character, occupations, religion, 
&c., of the early settlers. — Settlement at Broad Bay re- 
vived. — Conrad Heyer. — Currency. — Indian disturban- 
ces allayed. — Rutherford. — New style. — Indian confer- 
ence, 1752-3. — J. Hart. — Additional German settlers at 
Broad Bay, 1752-3. — Their disappointment and suffering. 

— Scottish settlers at St. George's, 1753 64 

Chap. VI. Indians complain. — Fort rebuilt and block-houses 
established. — French and Indian war. — Settlers go into 
garrison. — Their condition there. — Care to conciliate 
Tarratines, occasions dissatisfaction. — Letters of Burton, 
Kilpatrick, Bradbury, and Indians. — Cargill's expedition, 
and death of Margaret. — Scouts at St. George's. — Letter 
of Lieut. Fletcher. — Aggressions at St. George's. — 
Death of Rufherford. — Indians distressed. — Forces at 
St. George's and Broad Bay. — Freeman's journal. — 
Night sldi-mish. — Disasters of the war, Ilenlys, Watson, 


Coltson, Ehvell, Piper and others. — Remilly's journal. 

— North, commander at St. Georges, 1757 87 

Chap. VII. Garrisons. — St. George's fort reinforced. — Attack- 
ed, and cattle killed. — Occupation of Penobscot. — 
Death of Gen. Waldo. — Pownal's popularity at St. 
George's. — Abatement of hostilities. — Condition of the 
people during the war. — Sheep introduced. — II. Libbey. 

— Lincoln County established. — North, judge. — Drought 
and wild game. — T. Fluker, proprietor. — First county 
tax. — Administration of justice. — Ulmer. — Dr. Schaef- 
fer. — Saw-mill rebuilt. — Ship-building attempted. — 
McLean. — Garrison discontinued. — Location of the 
Scottish settlers. — Treaty of peace. — Death of Burton. 

— New settlers. Spear, Starrett, Wheaton, Copelands, 
Vose, Counce, Sumner, Montgomery. — Physicians. — 
Locke, Fales, Packards, Hall, Watts, Buckland. — Census. 
Maize introduced, other crops, trade, &c. — Drown's 
claim at Broad Bay. — First regimental muster. — Death 
of North. — First framed houses. — Mclnt jtto's ferry. — 
Lermond's mills. — New settlements, Keag or S. Thomas- 
ton. — Lermond's cove or Rockland. — Megimticook or 
Camden. — Moravians and others leave Broad Bay. — 
Comet.— Duties, &c., 1770 107 

Chap. VIIL Army- worm. — New settlers at Broad Bay. — 
Ship-building. — Wreck of the Industiy. — Fatal snow- 
storm in October. — Mclntyre, captain. — Disuse of Brit- 
tish goods. — Wooden dishes. — Clothing. — Fashions. — 
Domestic manufactures. — Superstitions. — Education. — 
Religious privileges. — Saw-mill at Back River. — Plan- 
tation meetings. — Fever. — Waldoboro' incorporated. — 
Burton at the tea-party. — Progress of politics. — Private 
calamities. — Fort Pownal dismantled. — The commander's 
letter to St. George's. — Political views of the people 
there. — The Dolpliin built. — Recruits for the army. — 
New government officials. — Rev. J. Urquhart. — Revolu- 
tionary committee, 1775 136 

Chap. IX. New militia officers. — Declaration of independence. 

— Tax in clothing, &c. — Soldiers for INIachias. — Warren 
and Thomaston incorporated. — Stirlingtown or Union. — 
First town meeting in Warren. — Peabody. — J. Lermond's 
saw-mill. — Wyllie. — Oath of allegiance. — Coast guards. 

— Scarcity. — Paskiel. — Second town meeting. — Rokes. 

— Fishery. — Town and other taxes. — Prices. — Vote on 


the constitution. — Proprietors of Waldo patent, absen- 
tees. — District of Maine. — Difficulties with. Mr. Urqu- 
hart. — E,ev. T. Whiting. — Biguyduce expedition. — 
Coast defence. — Drought and fires. — Currency. — Pay- 
son. — Gamble drowned. — First highway. — First repre- 
sentative. — Severe winter, 1780 160 

Chap. X. Consequences of the defeat. — Transactions at Cam- 
den. — Sloops captured. — Arrest of Long. — Wadsworth, 
commander. — Murder of Soule. — Execution of Braun. — 
Tax in clothing and beef. — Urquhart's salary. — First 
bridge over Oyster E,. — Capture of Wadsworth and Bur- 
ton, — Their escape. — Public burdens. — New emission 
of paper. — Controversy with Stirlingtown. — Dismission 
of Urquhart, — Arrival of his wife, &c. — Salem presbytery 
dissolved. — 1782 181 

Chap. XI. Scarcity. — Early run of alemves. — First pound. 

— Payson, Sprague, and Africa Peter. — People of color. 

— Keturn of peace. — Fisher, McCallum, O'Brien. — 
Schools. — Sufferers from paper money, Patterson, Math- 
ews. — Boggs's bridge. — Taxes. — Pebbles, first justice.. — 
Annis. — llefugees. Nelson, Dicke. — Scheme of annexa- 
tion. — Bosworth. — Peace. — Casualty. — First legal 
highways voted. — Davis, the hunter, and Barrett. — New 
settlers, Dunbar, Crane. — First store at head of the tide. 

— Wild animals. — Agriculture. — First carts, breaking- 
up-plow, and sleigh. — 1784 200 

Chap. XII. Paper money. Cooper. — Settlers on eastern and 
western roads to Union, west of N. Pond, east of Pea- 
body's. — Sloop Warren. — Fishery. — Weston. — Sloop 
Friendship. — Tolman. — First legal highway. — "VMiit- 
ing, minister. — First town school. — MiKtia officers. — 
Land titles, settlers quieted. — New settlers, Andrews, 
Davis, Standish. — Meeting-house. — Mills at upper faUs. 

— Head. — First cliild born at the village. — Severe vrin- 
ters and famine. — Roads to Thomaston, Waldoboro', and 
Union. — Jameson, T. Robinson, A. Kelloch, jr., Minger- 
son. — Sloop Jane, mills, &c. at village. — Federal consti- 
tution. — M. Cobb. — Prices. — Spear, captain. — Votes 
for Governor, &c. — Land titles. — Fairbanks, Dodge, 
Webb. — Cushing incorporated. — 1789 213 

Chap. XIII. Additional settlers, Mero, I. Fuller, Cox, Rogers, 
Morison, Keith, Carven, Alford, 6^p. — Tax payers. — 


Sch. Industry. — First ox-wagon. — Brackett & Davis. — 

— Sullivan. — Meeting-house. — Dr. SchaefFer at Warren. 

— Settlers on middle road to Union. — Frost, Moore. — 
Wild game. — Casualties. — Removal of J. Lermond. — 
First brig. — First bridge at village. — New meeting- 
house. — Lovett. — Two-story houses. — Social library. — 
Vote on separation. — Sale of pews, &c. — Burying- ground. 

— Road through village, — To Barrettstown or Hope. — 
Blake, Lawrence, Page, Buxton, McBeath, Parsons. — 
Fulling-mill. — Sloop Polly. — First pleasure carriage. — 
Mail and post office. — Robbery and death of Schaeffer. — 
Early snow storm. — 1793. 226 

Chap. XIV. Oyster R. bridge. — State tax, drafted militia. — 
Destructive frost. — Bears. — Wilde. — Rev. J. Thaxter. — 
Settlement of Rev. J. Huse. — Church organized, &c. — 
Changes in the town. — Knox at Thomaston. — His works 
in Warren, — Bring new settlers, Gerrish, Wilson, Cobum, 
Williams, Lincoln. — Activity of business. — Lime burnt 
at Warren. — W. H. Webb. — School districts. — Vessels. 

— Harriman, Brown. — Fatal accidents. — Currency. — 
Hog-reeves. — Pound. — Overflowmg of roads. — Choii'. 

— Military stores and officers. — Company divided. — D. 
Vose, Vaughan, Leach, F. Jones. — Kelloch neighborhood. 
'— Vessels. — Public bridge at village. — Watsons set off 
to Thomaston. — Divisions, town and national. — Snow, 
Emerson, Wells, Dagget. — Vessels. — French spoliations. 
Wilde's removal. — Court-house. — Accidents. — Thatch- 
er. — Small-pox. — Political parties. — Reg. muster. — 
Fashions. — 1800 243 

Chap. XV. Schools, committee, teachers, and funds. — Bounty 
on crows. — Oyster fishery. — Shad and alewives, a town 
privilege. — Commercial prosperity, and business men. — 
Light-house and fort. — Buildings and trees. — Pleasure 
carriages. — G. Reed and M. Smith. — Cobb, J. Fidler, 
Wilbur, Mallett, Hovey, J. Wetherbee, Gates, Stone, New- 
comb, French, Brackett, Comery, A. Russel, Flack, Swift, 
Jackson, and Hays. — Martin, Douglass, and Brakely. — 
Military. — Musical band. — Masonic lodge. — Civil and ec- 
clesiastical changes in the vicinity. — The Baptist society. 

— Loss by fixe, — By freshet. — Canker-rash. — Spruce 
and hemlock destroyed. — Hoof-ail. — Aurora borealis. — 
Earthquake. — Eclipse. — Casualties. — Death of Knox. 

— 1806 263 


Chap. XVI. Commercial embarrassments. — Brig Sumner. — 
Embargo. — Parties. — Petitions. — Non-intercourse. — 
Betterment- act. — Parkman. — Attempt to impeach Jus- 
tice Copeland. — Vote on separation. — Political move- 
ments. — Lime inspection. — Fish-law. — Wolves. — Mili- 
tary stores. — E. Thatcher, Hoar, Thomas, Harrington, 
Maxey, B. Bussel, D. Vaughan, Lamson, Watton, Ben- 
son, S. French, Isley, S. Lawrence, Starr, T. "Wilson, Bur- 
gess, Miller, McLeUan, Noyce, Knowlton, A. Young, and 
Caswell. — Warren Academy. — Sacred mu^ic. — Agri- 
^ culture and manufactures. — Hard times. — Casualties. — 
Physical and meteorological phenomena. — Second em- 
bargo and war. — Convention at Wiscasset. — 1812. . . 280 

Chap. XVII. Effects of war. — Coasting trade. — High price 
of provisions. — View of a naval action. — Capttu'e of the 
Peggy and Rubicon. — The Alexander. — Measures of de- 
fence. — Abundant crop, and public bxirdens. — The Brit- 
ish at St. George's. — Militia called out for defence of 
Camden. — A false alarm. — Second expedition to Cam- 
den. — Trade with the enemy. ^ — Peace. — Its effects. — 
Moral societies. — Unpropitious seasons. — Emigration 
west. — Bridges petitioned for. — Wolves, and Elephant. 
— A. Lermond. — Paupers. — Bate of labor. — Boad to 
Camden, and bridges. — Meeting-house. — Separation of 
the State. — Party spuit allayed. — Casualties, seasons, 
&c. — New comers, Kimball, Bawson, Hodgman, Howard, 
Hinkley, Jarvis, Howland, Parker, Carriel, Whitney, Hilt, 
B. Bobinson, Waterman, L. Jones, Leeds, Joacliin, Stet- 
son, and Sawin. — Traders, J. Thompson, J. Burton. — 
First dancing-school, education, improvements, &c. — 
Btu'ton's block-house. — 1820 292 

Chap. XVIII. Unanimity at the first State election. — Schools, 
S. agents, districts, &c. — Paupers. — Ministerial tax. — 
Military matters. — Biuying grounds. — Bridges. — High- 
ways. — Fishery. — Inspectors of lime. — Valuation of 
1829. — Beceipts and expenditures. — Surplus revenue. — 
Town-house. — Votes for presidential electors, — On 
amendments of the constitution, &c 309 

Chap. XIX. The history of the First and Second Congregational 
Societies, with other ecclesiastical matters, from 1820 to 
1850 319 


Chap. XX. Benevolent and other societies. — Celebrations. — 
Wild animals. — Losses by fire. — Casualties. — J. G. Lam- 
briglit. — T. D. Raeburn. — Weather and meteoric phe- 
nomena. — Progress of improvement. — Emigrants to Cal- 
ifornia. — Col. B. Burton. — J. H. Counce. — B. B. 
Thatcher. — Conclusion 329 

Tables. I. Highways, 1783 to 1850 • . . 351 

II. Valuation, 1790 to 1850 353 

III. Population, 1790 to 1850 354 

IV. County Taxes paid by Warren and neighboring 

places, prior to 1781 354 

V. Principal town officers, 1777 to 1850. ... 355 
VI. Justices of the peace and other civil officers, 

1782 to 1850 359 

VII. Licenses granted, to residents on St. George's 

river, prior to 1777. • . 360 
" " to residents of Warren, 1778 

to 1837 361 

VIII. Votes for Governor, 1788 to 1850 362 

IX. Taxes raised, proceeds of the fishery, pauper 

expenses, &c., 1778 to 1850 364 

X. Return of the Superintending School Committee, 

1850 365 

XL MiHtia Officers 365 

XII. Officers of the regiment in which the militia of 

Warren has been included 368 

XIII. Vessels built, 1770 to 1850 369 

XIV. Deaths, 1797 to 1850 373 

XV. Vernal progress, 1805 to 1850 374 

Table of Genealogy. 375 


Plan of Warren facing Chapter I, page 1 

Map of St. George's and vicinity " " IV, " 42 

AVood cut, Conrad Heyer "77 


Page 13, 

line 3, 

for rigor. 



" 97, 

" 37, 

" icith. 


" 144, 

« 10, 

" setting, 


" 154, 

" 2, 

« was, 


" 231, 

" 3, 

*' martin. 


« 251, 

" 37, 

" was made 

were ma 

« 350, 

" 9, 

after alloiv, 

insert us. 




The town of Warren, in the county of Lincoln, State of 
j\Iaine, is situated on both sides of St. George's River at the 
head of tide waters ; and is bounded westerly by Waldoboro', 
northerly by Union, easterly and southeasterly by Camden and 
Thomaston, and southerly by Gushing. Its central village is 
not far from 44^^ of N, latitude, and is, by the route traveled, 
about 34 miles S. E. from Augusta and about 617 from 
Washington. It contains 29,636 acres, and is about equal to 
a tract 6| miles square. From this, if we deduct 1600 acres 
for water and 450 for highways, we have remaining 27,586 
acres. According to the valuation of 1840 there were return- 
ed by the assessors an aggregate of 22,245 acres, leaving a 
deficiency of 5,341 acres to be accounted for in one or more 
of the following ways. 1. The liberal measure used in 
locating all the more ancient lots, and the fractions lost in the 
division thereof, will account for a part. 2. The possession 
of lots by persons out of town ma)^ for a time prevent the 
same from coming to the knowledge of the assessors. 3. 
The natural reluctance of every person to paying a high tax, 
may lead to a low estimate, and sometimes to a false rep- 
resentation. 4, Some assessors have been in the habit of 
reducing the quantity of mowing, marsh and other lands, 
to make up for its poor quality, making no account of ledges, 
bogs and flats, as of no value. 

The surface of the town is uneven, being broken into ridges 

and gullies, hills and vallies, and having some eminences of 

considerable elevation. Two of these in the N. E. part of 

the town, belonging to the Gamden group, have been dignified 



with the name of mountain. Of these Mt. Pleasant is the 
highest, and commands an extensive prospect of the neigh- 
boring towns, the Atlantic Ocean and Penobscot Bay, the 
winding coast and adjacent islands, with the tops of many- 
distant inland mountains including the White Hills of New 
Hampshire. It is often visited by parties of pleasure from 
this and the neighboring towns. Its eastern ascent is difficult 
and precipitous, while its western declivity is gentle and easy. 
The approach from this quarter has the advantage, also, of 
having the prospect concealed from view by woods till the 
summit is nearly attained, when it suddenly breaks on the 
astonished gaze in all its magnificence. The apex of this 
mountain consists of naked gneiss, but most of its sides are 
covered with a fertile soil. Crawford's Mt. is more westerly, 
smaller, and covered with wood. Stahl's hill, in the S. W. 
part of the town, though of less elevation, affords a fine view 
extending to White-Head Island and the neighboring waters. 

The geological features of the town are the result of the 
general structure of this part of the country, modified of 
course by local peculiarities. The foundation is primary, 
consisting of trap, granite, gneiss, mica or talcose slate, with 
intervening beds of limestone. These rocks appear broken, 
elevated and depressed into ridges and hollows, hills and pre- 
cipices, often in a most confused manner ; like blocks of ice 
jammed together in a spring freshet, the edges of the strata 
iDrought to the surface, their order and contents exposed either 
in a vertical position, or elevated at various angles. The 
stratification thus exposed and the primary ridges thus formed, 
however undulating in their course, extend as a general thing 
in a N. E. and S. W. direction. This forms the most marked 
feature of the locality. A second is the general ascent of 
the country from the sea-shore northerly, causing its drainage 
to find its way in a contrary direction across these rocky 
ridges in cross fractures and depressions, which give a mean- 
dering, zigzag course to the streams as they pass, now linger- 
ing in the bosoms of ponds and lakes, and now leaping down 
rapids and cascades, to the ocean. 

Such is the character of the river St. George's ; which, 
after the junction of its two most distant branches, the one issu- 
ing from Quantabacook Pond in Belmont and Searsmont, the 
other from St. George's Great Pond in Liberty and Montville, 
proceeds through Appleton, Union, Warren, Thomaston, and 
between Gushing and St. George, discharging its waters and 
those of many tributaries received in its course, into the sea 
between the two last mentioned towijs. Its whole course 


seems to be a continued struggle between a tendency on the 
one hand to pursue a direct southern course to the ocean, and 
that on-the other of foilowing the direction of the vallies that 
stretch southwesterly between the ridges. This sufficiently 
appears in the two great bends which the river makes in the 
upper part of Warren, forming the Starrett and Vaughan 
peninsulas, as well as in those in Union and at the Narrows in 
Thomaston ; in the numerous ponds which it fills in its course 
at present, and the many more which it seems to have filled 
in former ages ; and especially in the facility with which a 
part of its waters in time of a freshet pass into North and 
South Ponds, through which it is not improbable the whole 
once found their way to the ocean ; though these ponds at pres- 
ent only serve as reservoirs to retain the superfluous water, till, 
on the subsiding of the freshet, the current is reversed, the inlet 
becomes the outlet, and the water is restored to the stream 
from whence it vv^as borrowed. 

The many reservoirs of this kind, connected with the river, 
give a permanency and value to its water privileges, which they 
could not otherwise possess. The tide formerly flowed as 
high up as Boggs's shore at the foot of the upper falls, but is 
now stopped a little short of that point, by the dam at the 
lower bridge. This river is about 40 miles long, runs through 
Warren from N. to S., is navigable for vessels of 90 or 100 
tons burthen to Andrews's Point ; and smaller craft go to 
the village about three-quarters of a mile higher. But the 
" Narrows"" a little below the boundary of Warren, render 
its navigation somev/hat difficult. The tide rushes through 
them with such violence that a loaded vessel can pass them 
with safety only at high water ; and their direction is so near- 
ly opposite to the general course of the river that vessels 
ascending or descending with a fair wind are sure to find a 
contrary one here. Two toll-bridges, one in Thomaston and 
one in the lower part of this town, are additional impedi- 
ments ; and, since the exportation of lumber has ceased and 
lime is taken to southern ports in large vessels which stop at 
Thomaston, most of the freighting is taken in and discharged 
at that place which used to be done here. Above the tide 
waters, on the contrary, the navigation of this river has been 
greatly extended by locks and canals, which render its whole 
length navigable for boats and open a market for wood and 
lumber as high up as the Quantabacook. There are valuable 
water privileges at the upper and lower falls in this town ; 
the latter of which, only, are at present occupied. A little be- 
fore this stream leaves Warren, it receives the waters of Oyster 


River, a considerable branch, which drains the eastern part of 
the town from the foot of Mt. Pleasant, and runs in a S. W. 
direction between Warren and Thomaston, several times 
crossing the line, working sundry mills in its course, and 
affording sites for others. It is navigable to the bridge, form- 
erly Lermond's Mills, where shipbuilding was early com- 
menced and is still carried on. Judas' Meadow Brook is a 
smaller branch which drains the N. W. part of the town. 
There are other branches both above and below Warren, the 
most considerable of which is Mill River in Thomaston. 

The S. W. part of the town is drained by Back River 
emptying into South Pond beforementioned ; which is the 
largest sheet of water in town, about two miles long by five- 
eighths of a mile wide, situated between the two Waldoboro' 
roads. Its outlet unites with that from West Pond, a quad- 
rangular body of water, half a mile in extent, on the confines 
of Waldoboro' ; and the united stream passes through North 
Pond, which is deep, but narrow and irregular, into the main 
river as before related. Farther to the S. W. are Little and 
Southwest Ponds which are smaller. Crawford's Pond, 
partly in Union, transmits the drainage of the N. W. declivity 
of Mt. Pleasant and Crawford's Mt. to the main river in Union. 
Seven Tree Pond, mostly in Union, and White Oak Pond, 
just below it, are mere expansions of the St. George's. 

The soil of the town is good ; but varies in character ac- 
cording to the action which has taken place since the period 
of its deposition in the diluvium depo:sitcd above the funda- 
mental rocks, before described. This diluvial earth, formed 
by the disintegration of the rocks beneath the waves of the 
primeval ocean, seems to have been, when the country was 
elevated from the abyss, transported southward by currents, 
glaciers, or icebergs, in such a manner as to grind down and 
smooth the surface of the ledges, leaving grooves and scratch- 
es in that direction, which may be plainly seen whenever a 
ledge is first uncovered. Hence the fragmentary rocks are 
always found to the southward of the ledges from which they 
were taken ; and muscles and other sea-shells have been dug 
up at great depths in situations as high as that of the late 
Oliver Boggs, who, in digging his well, found them in a good 
state of preservation. Appearances indicate that the region 
was subsequently covered with water at about the height of 
the ridge by D. Page's ; which seems to have been a sea-Avall 
beaten by the billows for a period long enough to round and 
polish the boulders in a manner similar to, but less perfect 
than, those of the present sea-shore. Such situations afford 


the poorest soil, being composed chiefly of sand and gravel 
from which the finer and more argillacious particles were 
washed out and deposited in deeper and more tranquil waters. 
At a higher elevation on the declivities of the hills enriched 
by the washings from above, as well as at a lower elevation 
on ridges abounding with unworn boulders, a fertile, loamy 
soil sufficiently rewards the hard labor required in its cultiva- 
tion. But the most profitable soil, all things considered, is 
found in the vallies of the river and its tributaries, consisting 
of clays apparentl}'- deposited from the ancient lakes formed 
by the transverse ridges that obstructed the course of the 
streams. Where this clay is mixed with, or covered by, a 
suitable quantity of sand or gravel, its cultivation is easy, and 
fertility inexhaustible. A more recently made, and for certain 
crops more productive, species of soil, is found in the fresh 
and salt marshes formed, and still forming, from the annual 
deposit of alluvial earth. To these may be added swamps 
and bogs, particularly the great one between Hector M. 
Watts's and A. Andrews's, which consists entirely of decayed 
vegetable matter to the depth of 15 feet or more, in which 
are found, at various depths, trunks of juniper and other 
trees in a sound condition. It has been formed by a supply 
of water sufficient to nourish, but not to drown, the growth 
of moss, bushes and trees, with which it is still in part cover- 
ed ; and may throw some light on the probable formation of 
coal mines. 

The only minerals of value found in the town are lime- 
stone and granite. The principal quarry of the latter, is that 
on the J. Storer farm. Limestone is found in inexhaustible 
quantities between David and Alex'r Starrett's. It is granular 
in structure, white in color, has been extensively quarried 
both for lime and marble, and is unsurpassed by any in the 
State. Limestone is also found in the neighborhood of Craw- 
ford's Pond. Connected with this mineral, or interspersed 
through it, are found small quantities of pot-stone, soap-stone, 
asbestos, lead and zinc. Sulphuret of iron abounds in several 
ledges ; and its crystals, as also those of quartz, mica, tourma- 
line and garnet, are occasionally found, of great beauty. Bog- 
iron ore and yellow ochre also exist in the eastern part of 
the town, but to what extent has not been ascertained. Coal, 
both in this town and Thomaston, has been sought for, and 
at times with strong expectations of success, but, with the 
exception of some fragments found in the bed of the river, 
the indications are not encouraging. There is an extensive 


bed of porphyry near the late Paul Mink's in School District 
No. 16, but no attempt has been made to quarry it. 

Besides the waters of the ocean, to which the inhabitants of 
this town have easy access, the river affords an abundant 
supply, in their successive seasons, of the various finny tribes. 
Frostfish in December and January, smelts in March and 
April, shad and alewives in May and June, throng its waters. 
Salmon formerly abounded, and bass are still taken, but not 
in great numbers. Eels are speared in any quantities at 
Andrews's Point and some places in Oyster River, where they 
hibernate under the ice. Manhaden, flounders, bluebacks, 
garfish, in the salt-waters, and pickerel, trout, lampreys, suck- 
ers, white and yellow perch, pouts, roach, chub, shiners, min- 
ows, &c. are found in the fresh-water streams and ponds. 
Oysters formerly abounded both in St. George's and Oyster 
Rivers, and there is still an abundance of clams and muscles 
in the river below this tov>^n. Pickerel were not caught here 
prior to 3832, a few years before which time they were intro- 
duced to the ponds in Union by Dr. Harding and others, and 
a special act passed for their protection. "^ 

Of the different water fowl which are seen here, the wild 
goose stops a few days only on his passage in spring and au- 
tumn ; the bittern and, more rarely, the spoonbill are seen 
about the ponds and meadows ; the gull up with the 
fish ; the woodcock, snipe, the humility and others of the tat- 
tler tribe, teach their young to elude the eye of man by cling- 
ing motionless to the ground which in color they resemble, 
whilst the parent performs all manner of antics, counterfeiting 
lameness, distress and death to avert attention from her off- 
spring ; the common, and the more beautiful wood, duck di- 
vide the winter between the salt and fresh-waters, flying land- 
ward before, and seaward after, a tempest ; the goosander or 
sheldrake, coot, whistling dipper, and other seabirds, occasion- 
ally pass up and down the river, especially in spring ; and the 
loon, largest and most beautiful of the divers, as remarkable 
for agility in the water as awkwardness on shore, easily, 
before the use of percussion caps, eluded the sportsman's 
aim by diving at the flash of his gun. One of these last, 
while pursuing his way under water, was once caught in a net 
near Stirling Bridge by a person dipping for alewives ; and 
a pair of them for many years hatched their young on an 
abandoned hay- rick in O. Boggs's meadow, till, in 1838, both, 
swimming in North Pond with their helpless offspring on the 
mother's back, were shot by the ruthless rifle of the sportsman. 
The crane and heron are much less frequently seen now than 


30 years ago ; when they were daily observed pursuing their 
steady flight, with eels and other victims still alive and squirm- 
ing, toward their ancient breeding place near Oyster River in 
the borders of Thomaston. There, in countless multitude, 
they built their uncouth, boot-shaped nests, often three or 
four on a tree to the extent of more than an acre ; strewing 
the ground with the shells of muscles and other molluscs with 
which they fed their young, till the axe of industry invaded 
their sanctuary and forced them to seek another home. 

Of the 87 or 90 distinct species of land birds which have 
fallen under our observation, cither as summer, winter or per- 
ennial residents, or mere passengers on their way to distant 
regions, (some of which far outnumber the human dwellers in 
the town,) the limits of this work will not allow us to speak 
particularly. Most of them are, in one way or other, sub- 
servient to the wants of man ; some to our health in removing 
putrescent carcasses and other nuisances ; some to our crops 
in destroying noxious insects, reptiles, and vermin ; some to 
our virtues by the examples they set of courage, industry, 
perseverance, affection, and a cheerful trust in Providence ; 
whilst others contribute to our delight by the beauty of their 
plumage and the sweetness of their music. They seem to 
vary in number and species in different years and periods of 
years. The red-headed woodpecker, the pride of the prime- 
val forest, and the meadow lark, sweet soother of the pensive 
soul, have wholly disappeared. The whip-poor-will is heard 
only in the most woody situations ; the scarlet tanager rarely 
flashes through the orchard ; and the cuckoo comes only when 
the hairy caterpillars, which other birds refuse, require exter- 
mination. The suspicious sagacity of the crow, acquired from 
the experience of a hundred years, seems to outwit itself; 
since a simple string suspended from pole to pole is sufficient 
to protect a cornfield from his depredations. The fish-hawk 
though a skilful purveyor, sometimes allows his ambition to 
exceed his strength ; as one was seen in North Pond, by O, 
Boggs, to pounce upon a fish so large, that, after a doubtful 
struggle for some minutes, the assailant, unable to loose his 
hold, was dragged down and never rose again. The bald or 
white-headed eagle, that in times of plenty disdains to cater 
for himself, stimulated by winter famine has been seen to dart 
suddenly down and snatch the eel from beneath the fisher- 
man's eye. But instead of pursuing the subject farther, we 
invite our young readers to " behold" for themselves " the 
fowls of the air" and not give over the instructive amusement 
till they become familiar with the names, powers and habits 


of these tenants of the fields and forests ; from the humming- 
bird, animated blossom of the garden, the redstart, moving 
gem of the forest, the yellow-bird, tulip of summer, and the 
goldfinch, vainest of dandies, to the oven-bird concealing his 
nest with an arch, the small woodpecker that chips out a 
chamber for his winter lodgings in the trunk of a rotten 
beech, the blue-bird, repairing his nest in autumn in hopes of 
a joyful return in spring, and the robin whose mellifluous 
notes not only cheer his mate at her tedious task, but by skilful 
variation telegraph to her ear every shade and degree of ap- 
proaching danger. 

For the quadrupeds originally found here, and their gradual 
disappearance as the country became cleared, the reader is 
referred to subsequent chapters. Of the reptiles it is remark- 
ed that the frogs have greatly diminished since the introduction 
of the pickerel to our waters. Of snakes we have only a few 
small and harmless species, except perhaps the spotted adder, 
abounding at the rocky hills, and the water snake, occasionally 
met with in the ponds. Insects, though numerous and at 
times destructive, are greatly repressed by the mutability of 
the climate, which seldom allows the same species to continue 
formidable for more than two or three years at a time. The 
study of their ditFerent arts, contrivances and modes of living, 
is also an endless field of amusement and instruction. In the 
vegetable kingdom, the number of species met with in the 
limits of the town, exclusive of grasses, mosses and other 
cryptogamous, as well as cultivated plants, amounts to 353, 
divided among 193 genera. A farther examination, particu- 
larly of the cryptogamous plants, grasses, and sedges, would 
greatly add to the number. But the limits of this work will 
not permit us even to glance at the beauty and utility of these 
tribes which adorn the field and forest, rock, mountain and 
swamp, from the Epigeum whose fragrant flowers bloom 
beside the April snowdrift, to the witch-hazel whose yellow 
petals open amid the storms of October. 

The climate of the place, situated as it is on the confines 
of the ocean, whose waters, mingling with those of every 
zone, have a great effect in equalizing temperature, is neither 
so hot in summer nor cold in winter as in more inland situ- 
ations. Yet the mercury ranges from 24P below to 98^ 
above zero in the shade ; and, in places favorable to the con- 
centration of heat by reflection and of its dispersion by radia- 
tion, a still greater range may be obtained. Influenced by 
the waters, which, heated by a tropical sun, rise to the sur- 
face and flow northwardly, forming the gulf stream, and by 


the denser current from the north, which flows in a contrary 
direction beneath, and is forced to the surface in passing over 
the shoals of our coast, the temperature vacillates with their 
different influences as brought by the winds more or less near 
to the coast. Changes accordingly sometimes occur with 
great suddenness, and form the most peculiar feature of the 
climate. The easterly winds are damp and disagreeable, the 
westerly dry and bracing. In summer the vapor with which 
the South winds become surcharged in crossing the gulf 
stream, is condensed by the cooler water nearer shore and 
hangs in dense fogs sometimes for days and weeks together. 
Thunder showers and snow squalls usually come from the 
N. W. and the lightning is probably the eflect rather than the 
cause of the cooler wind that brings them, acting upon the 
warmer one which it meets. Our great tempests usually 
proceed from the S. W. and are about three days in reaching 
us from the Gulf of Mexico. They seem to be huge vortices 
or whirlwinds, whereof the front portion, blowing from the S. 
E. comes warm and moist from the ocean attended with rain 
or snow ; whilst the latter half, blowing cold and dry from the 
N. W. is usually denominated fair weather. The year con- 
sists of a winter of about five months, extending from Nov. 
to April, a muddy and tardy spring, a short and hot summer, 
and a frosty and delightful autumn. But all these are fre- 
quently reversed ; as the second great feature of the climate 
is the uncertainty of one year compared with another, and 
of a series of years compared with another series. 

Diseases vary with the irregularity of the seasons, but the 
most common are colds, influenza, consumption, rheumatism, 
dysentery and fever. From the table of deaths appended to 
this work it will be seen that the average yearly number of 
deaths from 1800 to 1809 inclusively, was in proportion to the 
average number of inhabitants as one in 109, from thence to 
1819 as one in 131, from thence to 1829 as one in 85, from 
thence to 1839 as one in 77, and from thence to 1849 as one 
in 78, making an average mortality for the last 50 years of 
one in 88. According to the History of Concord the annual 
mortality of that town is one in 66, of Salem one in 48, Boston 
one in 41, Philadelphia one in 45, London one in 40, Paris 
one in 32, Vienna one in 22. 

The population of this town may be divided into four 
classes ; 1st. the descendants of the Scotch Irish who origin- 
ally settled the town in 1735, 2d. the descendants of the 
Scottish colony who came hither in 1753, 3d. the descend- 
ants of natives of this country, mostly of English extraction, 


who came hither from western places before the revolution, 
4th. later immigrants and their descendants, including a few 
of German, English, Highland Scotch and Celtic Irish origin, 
with one small school district of African descent. The char- 
acteristics of these several classes, with the exception of that 
of color, have now become assimilated and combined into a 
tolerably homogeneous population, although certain peculiari- 
ties of dialect occasionally betray the origin of each. For 
their present numbers, occupation, taxable property, &c., at 
the recent and former enumerations, the reader is referred to 
the following chapters, and to the tables appended. 

Of the former races, that for unknown ages prior to the 
white man's coming, roamed over, if they did not cultivate, 
this region, little can now be known ; as their whole history, 
however tragical in itself and all-engrossing to its actors, has, 
for the want of literary monuments been lost in oblivion ; 
with the exception of a small portion, which, like the rem- 
nants of the tribes themselves, still lingers little regarded 
amid the achievements of their successors. It is not known 
that this river was the permanent residence of any distinct 
tribe ; but, situated on the confines of two mighty confedera- 
cies whose dominions were parted by the Megunticook Moun- 
tains, it must, in all probability, have witnessed many an 
artful ambush, and many a deadly conflict. It belonged to 
the brave tribe of the Wawenocks, the immediate subjects of 
the great chief called the Bashaba, near Pemaquid, till the 
conquest of that tribe by the Tarratines in 1615, after which 
it was claimed by the latter. The Wawenocks were active, 
strong, very witty, and, as their name implies, fearing noth- 
ing; the men beardless, the women well-favored, and all 
dressed in skins.* The Tarratines were a numerous, power- 
ful, discreet, warlike tribe, more hardy than their western 
neighbors, and escaped the disease which nearly exterminated 
the latter in 1617 and 'IS.t Few monuments of either of 
these races are to be found in this vicinity. Stone axes, 
chisels, spear and arrow heads are sometimes picked up near 
the principal fishing stations. In digging the cellar under 
the house of M. II. Smith, Esq. early in the present century, 
a skeleton supposed to be that of an Indian was dug up and 
interred elsewhere by the workmen. On the 7ih of May, 
1836, five entire skeletons were disinterred on removing the 
alluvial soil near the Smelt Creek 'on the east bank of the 
river south of the village. They were apparently deposited 

* Smith, p. 19, 214. t Will. Hist. Maine, &c. 


in a careless manner in one hole, the feet towards tlie east, 
but with so little care that the leg of one was bent back parallel 
with the thigh. Possibly this may have resulted from the 
sitting posture in which Indians are accustomed to bury their 
dead. Some of them were of a large size, others smaller, 
as if females or children. The teeth were perfectly sound ; 
the other bones somewhat decayed, brittle and friable. Two 
of the skulls were entire and empty; the other three partially 
decayed so as not to hold together, and filled with red earth, 
though that in which they lay was black. No hair, orna- 
ments, or utensils, nor any remains of a coffin were to be 
found ; and the whole bore the appearance of persons slain 
in a skirmish and hastily buried together. Nothing at all 
resembling the mounds, fortifications, and other structures 
found in the western country, has been observed in this re- 
gion, with the exception of a huge deposit of oyster shells on 
the western bank of the Damariscotta, which, if it be indeed 
the work of human hands, is well calculated to fill the mind 
with wonder. According to Dr. Jackson it measures 108 
rods in length, from 80 to 100 rods in width, and at the high- 
est point is 25 feet above the sea level, containing 44,906,400 
cubic feet.* Probably this measurement is altogether too 
large, including a considerable space but scantily supplied 
with shells. The main cliff, however, which slopes down 
within 6 feet of highwater mark and cannot be less than 40 
feet in length, 30 in width, and 20 in height, is one entire 
mass of oyster shells, open, unmixed with soil, and in a good 
state of preservation. It rests upon diluvial earth, and is 
covered by about a foot of soil on which oaks and other 
trees are standing of the usual size. How and whence was 
this mass of shells accumulated ? Can this be ihe native bed 
where these countless molluscous generations lived and died 
beneath the ancient waters ? Can they have been brought 
there by the Indians, perhaps by the subjects and tributaries 
of the great Bashaba, from all parts of the coast as far as the 
Piscataqua or Mistic in token of their allegiance, to be here 
piled up, after their contents were consumed in an annual 
high festival of the collected tribes, as a monument of royal 
magnificence ? If so, what an idea does it give of the ex- 
tent and duration of that dynasty which has passed away and 
left few other marks of its greatness. 

Of the discovery and settlement of the country by another 
race, the decline and well nigh total extinction of the savage 

* Rep. on Geol, of Maine. 


tribes, ihe planting of this and the neighboring towns, the 
condition at diflerent epochs, more especially of the town of 
Warren, and the various steps and agencies by which that 
town has arrived at its present state, an account will be at- 
tempted in the following chapters. 



When in 1492 Columbus lifted the veil which had for 
untold centuries concealed the American continent from the 
civilized world, he found it inhabited only by savage tribes 
destitute of the mechanic arts, unacquainted with tlic use of 
iron, unprovided with domestic animals, dependent for sub- 
sistence on the productions of nature and some feeble attempts 
at agriculture. These people, from an erroneous idea that the 
country was but a continuation of India, were called Indians; 
and, despised as heathen or regarded as enemies, their rights 
were little respected by the European nations, who hastened 
to discover and claim the country as their own. The claims 
of the English in North America originated with the expedi- 
tion of John and Sebastian Cabot, who under the authority of 
Henry VII. in 1497 discovered and gave name to Newfound- 
land, applying the name to the whole coast, which they ranged 
from 38^ to 56*^ of N. latitude. This claim was strengthen- 
ed by few subsequent expeditions till towards the close of the 
16lh century; when, under the vigorous reign of Elizabeth, 
formal possession was again taken of the Island of Newfound- 
land, the coast granted to Kaleigh and others by the general 
name of Virginia, and two abortive colonics established in 
N. Carolina, where Virginia Dare, the first child of English 
extraction in America, was born in 1587. In the mean time 
the French had laid claim to a portion of the same region, 
founded on discoveries made in 1523 and 1531, of the coast 
between 30® and 50® of N. latitude, to which they gave the 
name of New France. They maintained a commercial inter- 
course with the natives, particularly in the Gulf of St. Law- 
rence, and introduced many traders and missionaries. Private 
adventurers from various nations visited the coast, and espe- 
cially Newfoundland, where in 1583 Sir Humphrey Gilbert 
found 36 English, French, Spanish and Portuguese vessels 


engaged in the fisheries. In the following century the rival 
claims of France and England began to be prosecuted with 
more rigor. DeMonts and Champlain, under a grant from 
the French king of the territory between 40® and 46*^ of N. 
latitude by the name of Acadia, made farther discoveries 
up the St. Lawrence and Bay of Fundy ; began a settlement 
at Port Royal, now Annapolis, N. S. and also on an island in 
the Schooclic, where in 1605 a crop of rye was sown, the 
first European grain raised in this State, if not in the Union. 
Within the limits assigned to this French province, the English 
were about the same time prosecuting discoveries in the 
northern parts of their province of Virginia. Under the Vir- 
ginia company, voyages were made by Bartholomew Gosnold 
and Martin Pring ; the latter of whom in 1603 fell in with 
the numerous islands in Penobscot Bay, to one of which, from 
some silver-grey foxes seen there, he gave the name of Fox 

1605. To avoid the jealousy of the French and yet 
maintain their own claims, the English despatched Captain 
George Weymouth across the Atlantic, ostensibly for the 
purpose of discovering a N. W. passage to China. On 
the 11th of May, 1605, he made Cape Cod, and, running 
northerly, anchored on the 17th upon the north side of a 
prominent island which he named St. George. This is now 
known by its Indian name of Monhegan, signifying Grand 
Island. Two days after " being Whitsunday," he sailed two 
or three leagues farther north among the islands and entered 
" a goodly haven" which he named Pentecost Harbor, now 
known as George's Island Harbor. Plere he and his men 
regaled themselves for several days ; the commander with an 
armed party exploring the islands and shore, while the sailors 
engaged in the fishery, taking " plenty of salmon and other 
fishes of great bigness, good lobsters, rock-fish, plaice and 
lumps, and with two or three hooks, enough of cod and 
haddock to supply the ship's company for three days." Upon 
the land they found " various sorts of trees, besides vines, 
currants, spruce, yew, angelica, and divers gums, and about 
the shores abundance of great muscles, some of which con- 
tained pearls, one having fourteen in it." On the 22d they 
'' dug a garden and sowed some peas, barley and garden 
seeds, which in sixteen days grew to the height of eight 
inches." This was the first attempt at cultivation made by 


the whites in this vicinity, and the second that we know of in 
the State.'* 

On the 10th or 11th of June, Weymouth left Pentecost 
Harbor and sailed up Penobscot Bay and River. On the r2th, 
anchoring abreast of the mountains in the present town of 
Camden, ten of his men " with a boy to carry powder and 
match"t went ashore and amused themselves in hunting. 
All the way up the river, the adventurers were delighted with 
the picturesque scenery, listened to the notes of wood-birds 
in the lofty branches, and admired the wide, deep, and glassy 
waters, with convenient coves and green, grassy, margin. 
Having erected a cross at the end of their route, " a thing," 
says the journal, " never omitted by any Christian travelers," 
they reluctantly returned to St. George's. They spent some 
time here trading with the natives, giving them knives, 
glasses, combs, and toys in exchange for furs. This traffic was 
very profitable to the adventurers, 40 skins of beaver, otter, 
and sable being obtained for 5s. worth of trinkets. But this 
friendly intercourse was not allowed to terminate peacefully. 
A misunderstanding ensued ; and five of the natives were 
seized and carried off to England, whither Weymouth sailed 
not long after the middle of June. This, with several subse- 
quent acts of a similar kind by others, laid the foundation of 
that hostile feeling towards the English, which the French 
learned to profit by, in the wars that ensued ; although, being 
restored to their country after they had learned to speak 
English, these captives were found very serviceable as 

The name St. George, first applied to Monhegan and 
afterwards extended to the adjacent islands, the river opposite, 
and the neighboring coast, was probably chosen by Weymouth 
in compliment at once to himself and to his patron saint. 
It seems to have been customary, in giving to a place the. 
name of one who bore that of a saint, to divide the honor 
and commemorate both by prefixing St., as St. Johns for 
John Cabot, and other instances. When, from intercourse 
with the natives, their names of Monhegan and Matinicus were 
applied to the two largest of these islands, the name of St. 
George was restricted to the remaining ones, which, together 
with the river and one town on its banks, still retain the ap- 
pellation. With regard to the river, however, the origin of 

* 2 Belk. Biog. Weymouth's Jour. 1 Will. His. p. 192-3-4. 
t From this it appears that flints were not yet generally used. 
t Rosier's Acct. 2 Belk. Biog. 1 Will. Htet. &c. 


the name is a matter of some doubt. By early writers it was 
called " Segochet," and sometimes, perhaps by misprint, 
" Segocket."* This name is not recognized by the present 
Tarratine or Penobscot Indians, who have other appellations, 
also, for Monhegan and Matinicus. These terms then, if In- 
dian, must have belonged to the Wawenocks in whose domain 
they were situated. Lieut. Gov. Neptune, the oldest of the 
Penobscots now living, says the Indian name of the river was 
' Joiges,' meaning delightsome. It was generally called 
' Georges,' or ' George's River,' by the early settlers. If 
Neptune's explanation be correct, the early traders might 
have received it from the Penobscots who conquered the 
country in 1615, whilst Smith received that of Segochet from 
the Wawenocks, in whose possession it was when he visited 
the country. It is hardly to be supposed that the Indian 
name of so important a stream should be forgotten, while 
others of less consequence have been retained by the settlers; 
and the term ' Georgeekeag,' applied by the Penobscots to 
Thomaston, or rather that part of it between St. George's 
and Mill rivers, would, on Neptune's explanation, be very 
appropriate, — pleasant point.1 

1606-7. In 1606 the territory of Virginia was divided ; 
the southern part, called South Virginia, was granted to the 
" London Company," and the Northern part or North Virginia 
to the " Plymouth Company." Both these companies took 
immediate measures for commencing settlements. The lat- 
ter fitted out an expedition in May, 1607, and established a 
colony at the mouth of the Kennebec. 1: This colony, con- 
sisting of 45 persons, erected a fortress which they named 
Fort St. George, and remained for one year ; but, discouraged 
by the unusual severity of the winter, the death of their pat- 
rons Popham and Gilbert, and the loss of their storehouse by 
fire, they returned to England, taking with them a small ves- 
sel which they had built during the winter. This vessel was 
probably the first built in the State, and the commencement 
of a branch of business now one of its principal sources of 
wealth. In the French colony at Port Royal a harvest of 

* Smith's Hist. Vir. 

\ D. Crockett, Esq. of Rockland; who in early youth acquired 
some knowledge of the Indian tongue. Sullivan's description of 
Thomaston in Mass. His. Coll. 4, p. 20-25. Keag signifies a point 
of land formed by the junction of two streams, as Kenduskeag, eel 
point, &c. 

t Called by the Indians 'Sagadahoc' or "the going out of the 


grain was gathered in 1607, a grist-mill erected, and farther 
assistance sent from France, together with two Jesuit mission- 
aries for converting the natives. But a controversy arising 
with the proprietors, the Jesuits removed to Mt. Desert, where 
they planted gardens, began a settlement, and continued the 
business of the mission, till in 1613 both they, and the settlers 
at Port Royal, were dispossessed as intruders by an expedi- 
tion from South Virginia. 

1614- Among other voyages under the Plymouth Com- 
pany, Capt. John Smith, sent out from London in 1614 on a 
w^haling and fishing voyage, with orders to search the country 
for mines and to trade with the natives, arrived at Monhegan 
where he built seven boats, and, whilst his men were engaged 
in the fisheries, ranged the coast from Penobscot to Cape Cod, 
bartering with the natives and making observations on the 
shores.* On his return, prince Charles, afterwards king 
Charles I. being presented with a map of the country, gave it 
the name of New England. This name was officially recog- 
nized in the charter by which that monarch granted the terri- 
tory between 40^ and 48^^ N. latitude to " the Council of Ply- 
mouth" which in 1620 took the place of the " Plymouth Com- 
pany." From this time the name of North Virginia was lit- 
tle used and soon became obsolete. Under this grant, in the 
course of the subsequent ten years, several smaller ones were 
made and settlements prosecuted with more or less vigor. 
The first of these grants was that made to the puritan pilgrims 
from Holland, who in 1620 established the colony which, 
from the town of that name in England, they called Plymouth, 
and sometimes for distinction New Plymouth. This was the 
earliest, permanent, English settlement made in New England, 
and was followed by other puritan colonies, which, founded 
on republican principles, and nourished by persecutions in 
England, soon grew up into respectable communities. To 
the eastward, grants were made upon more feudal principles. 
Sir Ferdinando Gorges obtained a patent, with the right of 
government therein, of the territory extending from the Pis- 
cataquato the Kennebec, afterwards, in 1639, named the Pro- 
vince of Maine ; and several smaller grants were made be- 
tween the latter river and the Penobscot. 

1615. But prior to this time the coast was frequented by 
many private adventurers for fishing, hunting and trading; 
some of whom erected huts and fixed their residence for a 
longer or shorter period on shore. The coast between the 

* 1 Will. Hist. p. 212. Smith's Hist. Sullivan's Maine, p. 15. 


Penobscot and Narraganset Bays was, to a great extent, 
stripped of its native inhabitants by the war, which in 1615 
was waged by the two great confederacies of the Etechemins 
or eastern Indians headed by the Tarratines on the Penob- 
scot, and the Abenaques or western Indians under the chief of 
the Wawenocks called the great Bashaba, at Pemaquid. 
This war, which raged with fury for two years, during which 
the defeated Wawenocks and their allies were kept from their 
planting and hunting grounds, was followed by a famine and 
some unknown disease, which, spreading from tribe to tribe, 
in 1617 and '18 desolated the country from Pemaquid to 
Cape Cod. It is remarkable that the English, some of whom 
wintered at Saco during the height of this disease and slept in 
the same cabins with the diseased natives, were wholly unaf- 
fected by it.* 

1621. Monhegan was at this time a general resort for 
European fishermen and traders. A part of a crew of a 
vessel, sent out by Sir F. Gorges, spent the winter of 1618 
and '19 on this island. In 1621 it is mentioned as "a settle- 
ment of some beginnings ;" and the following year provis- 
ions were obtained from the ships at this place, by the infant 
settlement at Plymouth. The island seems not to have been 
destitute of inhabitants, after this, down to the first Indian 
war ; and some cabins for fishermen and temporary resi- 
dences were constructed at various points on the main land 
between the rivers St. George and Saco.t One of these 
earliest settlers was John Brown, who fixed himself at New 
Harbor, near Pemaquid, as early as 1621, and four years 
later obtained from the Indian Sagamores, in consideration 
of 50 skins, a deed of the land between Broad Bay and 
Damariscotta River to the extent of 25 miles into the country. 
He and his descendants inhabited there till driven away by 
the Indians, and claimed the land till the adjustment of 1812.| 

1623. Fishermen and settlers also established them- 
selves about this time at Sagadahoc, Merry-meeting, Cape 
Newagin, Pemaquid and St. George's, as well as at Damaris- 
cove and other islands ; though at St. George's it is believed 
there were not as yet any permanent residents. Adventur- 
ers from other nations also frequented the coast ; and it is 
said that the Dutch as early as 1607 and again in 1625 at- 
tempted to settle at Damariscotta. § Cellars and chimneys, 

* Gorges's Narr. as quoted by Will. Hubbard's N. E. p. 195. 
t Prince's Ann. 1 Will. His. p. 226. t Com. Report, 1811. 
§ Sullivan's His. p. 15, 166, &c. 1 Will. His. p. 228, 


apparently of great antiquity, have been found in the town of 
Newcastle ; and copper knives and spoons of antique and 
singular fashion are occasionally dug up with the supposed 
Indian skeletons at the present day, indicating an early in- 
tercourse between the natives of the two continents. Similar 
utensils and the foundations of chimneys, now many feet 
under ground, have also been discovered on Monhegan, as 
well as on Carver's island at the entrance of St. George's 
river, where are said to be also, the remains of a stone house. 

1626. In 1626 the merchants of Plymouth, who had 
establishments at, and claimed the island of Monhegan, sold 
their right to Giles Elbridge and Robert Aldsworth, mer- 
chants of Bristol, for £50 sterling. These gentlemen carried 
on traffic there and also at Pemaquid, where their agent, 
Abraham Shurte, resided, and for a long time held the office 
of magistrate. The river and harbor at the latter place 
offered attractions to visitors, and the settlements increased. 
A fort was built there in 1630, and called Fort George. 
Having in 1631 obtained a patent of the lands between the 
Muscongus and Damariscotta, with exclusive privileges of 
hunting, fishing, fowling, and trading with the natives, to- 
gether with the power to establish a civil government, 
Elbridge and Aldsworth extended their business, and by 
additional offers, induced many to settle in the country. 
Under their charter, the plantation had a gradual and uninter- 
rupted growth for many years. The settlements extended to 
Damariscotta, and especially at the lower falls, were seen 
rising on both sides of the river.* The name Pemaquid 
in the Indian language signified long point, and Damariscotta, 
the river of little fishes. 

1630. About this time serious apprehensions were en- 
tertained that the Council of Plymouth would be dissolved. 
Under this apprehension, the Council seems to have made 
various and hasty grants to different adventurers, of nearly 
the whole territory between the Piscataqua and Penobscot ; 
in the expectation that these would be confirmed, though their 
own should be abrogated. One of these was the grant made 
of the lands on the river St. George's March 23",t 1630, to 
Beauchamp and Leverett, called the " Lincolnshire, or Mus- 
congus Patent," or grant. Its extent was from the seaboard 
between the rivers Penobscot and Muscongus, to an unsur- 

* 1 Will. His. p. 242. Corr. of Bos. Trav. 

t Williamson, p. 240, says March 2d ; but as it was dated March 13, 
O. S., its corresponding date N. S. is March 23. He seems to have 
Bubiracted IJ instead of adding 10 days for the difTerence of style. 


veyed line running east and west and so far north as 
would, without interfering with any other patent, embrace 
a territory equal to 30 miles square. It Avas procured ex- 
pressly for the purposes of an exclusive trade with the natives, 
and contained no powers of civil government. The paten- 
tees, and their associates, appointed Edward Ashley their 
agent, and Wm. Pierce an assistant, and despatched them, the 
same summer, in a small new made vessel, with five laborers, 
one of them a carpenter, and furnished them with provisions 
and articles of trade equal to the exigencies of the enterprise. 
They established a truckhouse on the eastern bank of St. 
George's river, five miles below the head of tide waters; 
where possession and traffic were continued till the first In- 
dian war. This establishment was probably near the upper 
wharf, or perhaps the seat of the late Gen. Knox, in Thom- 

This is the grant which afterwards, when it passed into 
the hands of Brigadier Gen. Samuel Waldo, was called the 
Waldo Patent, and is the origin of most of the land titles 
on the river. The grant was made to " John Beauchamp of 
London, gentleman, and Thomas Leverett of Bostonf in the 
County of Lincoln, gentleman." Of these gentlemen we 
would gladly give some account, but find very little on record. 
Whether the former ever visited this country we are not 
able to say ; but it is most probable he did. For in 1633 the 
Court at Plymouth ordered " that the whole tract of land, 
between the Brook of Scituate on the northwest side and 
Conahasset, be left undisposed of till we know the resolution 
of Mr. James Shirley, Mr. John Beauchamp," &c. And in 
Oct. 1637, the same tract of land was granted to Messrs. 
Hatherly, Andrews, Shirley, and Beauchamp. As these 
names were associated with that of Leverett in the trade at 
St. George's, it is highly probable that they belonged to the 
same persons, and that Beauchamp visited the country with 
a view of settling here, if he did not actually carry his design 
into execution. Leverett seems to have been a member of 
Mr. Cotton's church in Boston in old England, and to have 
come over with that clergyman and others to Boston in New 
England in 1633. For we find that he was that year, Oct. 
10th, chosen a ruling elder of the church there. He was 
the father of John Leverett afterwards Governor of Massa- 
chusetts. He is honorably mentioned by Winthrop and 

* Boston in England; its namesake in this country not being set- 
tled till the year this grant was made. 


Hubbard for his gift in the practice of discipline. Among 
the contributors to free schools in 1636 we find " Thomas 
Leverett, c£]0," and the year before that, grants of land 
were made to him at Muddy River now Brookline. It was 
also agreed at a meeting hold " upon publique notice" among 
other things, " that none of the members of this congregation, 
or inhabitants amongst us, sue one another at the law, before 
that Mr. Henry Vane, and the two ruling elders, Mr. Thomas 
Olyver and Thomas Leverett, have had the hearing and dc- 
syding of the cause, if they cann."* 

1635. East of the Muscongus Patent, no grants were 
made, and no English established, except at the two trading 
houses of the New Plymouth Colony at Biguyducct and 
Machias. Even these did not long remain undisturbed ; for, the 
province of Acadia having in 1632 been restored to France 
without any definite boundary, the French claimed the coun- 
try and in 1635 seized these establishments and forbade the 
English to trade to the eastward of Pemaquid. The English, 
however, claimed to the St. Croix, and when in 1635 the 
" Council of Plymouth" was dissolved and the whole of New 
England divided into 12 provinces, one of these, extending 
from the St. Croix to Pemaquid, was granted to Sir Wm. 
Alexander; but it does not appear that he ever took posses- 
sion or exercised any jurisdiction here. St. George's, there- 
fore, was, for a long time, the frontier possession of the 
English ; and, consequently, little progress was made in its 
settlement. The proprietors, however, maintained their pos- 
session, and continued their traffic with the Indians. Many 
English vessels also, sent out to the new and thriving colony 
of Massachusetts, often stopped here and at Pemaquid on 
their return. Winthrop says, in '' July, 1634, the Hercules 
of Dover returned by St. George's to cut masts to carry to 
England ;" and " May 6, 1635, the Gabriel was in a tempest 
lost at Pemaquid ; and Mr. Witheredge and the Dartmouth 
ships cut all their masts at St. George. "J There were about 
this time or a little later, " 84 families besides fishermen," 
residing between the Kennebec and St. George's ; viz : 20 
near Sagadahoc, 31 east of that river to Merry-meeting, 6 
from Cape Newagen to Pemaquid, 10 at New Harbor, and 2 
at St. George's, besides those farther " within land," at 

* Winthrop's Journal, vol. 1, p. 14, 2 ed. and note, 
t Generally pronounced Bagaduce, an Indian name signifying had 
harbor, now Castine. 

t 1 Win. Journal, p. 134 and 1G5. 


Sheepscot and Damariscotta. The two at St. George's, 
denominated " farmers," were said to be '^ Mr. Foxwell, 
on the west side, at Saquid Point, and Philip Svvaden on 
the east side of Quisquamego." John Brown, also, of 
New Plarbor, not long after this period, claimed land 
at the mouth of St. George's River, at a place called Sawk- 
head.* To what places these names refer cannot now, per- 
haps, be ascertained. Possibly Quisquamego may have been 
the high ridge between the bay at Thomaston and the West- 
keag river, called by the present Penobscots '•'■ Quesquitcume- 
gck^'''' or " high carrying-place." Saquid, pronounced with 
the a broad as in Saco, was probably the same as Sawkhead ; 
and both appear to have been the ancient names of Pleasant 
Point in Gushing, still called, we believe, by the Penobscot 
Indians, ' Sunkheath.' This point, situated at the mouth of 
the river, answers to Brown's description of Sawkhead, and 
is probably the oldest farm in this region, having been culti- 
vated for more than 200 years. 

1635-1688. From this time the nominal jurisdiction of 
this river, for it was merely nominal, several times changed 
hands. The French claimed as far as Pemaquid and occu- 
pied as far as Penobscot, till the whole province of Acadia 
was again taken possession of by the English in 1654, and in 
1655 confirmed to them by treaty. Sir Thomas Temple was 
appointed Governor, and afterwards obtained a patent of all 
the country from Merlinquash in Nova Scotia " to Penobscot, 
and the river St. George, near Muscongus" — situated on the 
" confines of New England." On the restoration of Charles 
II. the despotic plan of dividing New England into 12 provin- 
ces was revived, the Duke of York appointed viceroy over the 
whole, and commissioners sent over to regulate the affairs of 
the country. These commissioners erected a county east of 
the Kennebec which they named " Cornwall," and appointed 
magistrates at Sheepscot, Pemaquid, &c., but none east of 
the Muscongus. But the territory from the St. Croix to Pem- 
aquid and the Kennebec having in 1664 been granted to the 
Duke of York along with the Dutch settlements on the Hud- 
son and Delaware, his government was extended and for 25 
years exercised over this part of the country, as the County 
of Newcastle appendant to his province of New York. The 
Duke caused a city named Jamestown,t and fort, called fort 

* Sylvanus Davis's Accl.' as quoted in Sull. His. p. 391. Coin. 
Report, J. Brown's Dep. p. 115. 
t Gyles's Captivity. 


Charles, to be built at Pemaquid and many Dutch families to 
be transported thither from New York. Considerable uneasi- 
ness was occasioned to these eastern settlements by the war 
declared by France in 1666, and by the recession of Acadia 
to France by the treaty of peace in 1667. However disa- 
greeable, the French were allowed to take possession as far 
as the Penobscot ; but on their demanding the rest of the 
Province as far as Sagadahoc, the people of Pemaquid and 
vicinity, averse to the jurisdiction of France, preferred com- 
ing under that of Massachusetts. This province at first seems 
to have been contented, as its northern boundary, with a line 
drawn 3 miles N. of the Merrimac to its source and thence 
due W. to the Pacific ; but in 1652, encouraged by the dispo- 
sition of the settlers under Mason and Gorges, she extended 
the last mentioned line E. as well as W. terminating at Clap- 
board Island in Casco Bay. On the present occasion having 
discovered a new source of the Merrimac six miles farther N. 
she in 1672 ordered a new survey and in 1673 extended her 
jurisdiction to a line passing through the present town of Bath 
and terminating at White Head Island in Penobscot Bay. By 
her commissioners a new County, called Devonshire, extend- 
ing from the Sagadahoc to St. George's river, was organized, 
civil and military officers appointed, a court held, and a tax 
of c£20 levied, as follows, viz. : — Sagadahoc £4, 10s., Mon- 
hegan £b, 10s., Cape Newagen ,£3, 10s., Damariscove and 
Hippocrass £5, and Pemaquid £2. But in consequence of 
the Indian hostilities which arose in this eastern country after 
the death of King Philip in 1676, most of the inhabitants of 
this county removed, the jurisdiction of Massachusetts was 
discontinued, that of the Duke of York was resumed, and 
continued till his abdication of the crown as James II. king of 
England in 1688.* 

During all these changes, as little mention is made of St. 
Georges, and as no memorials of the government either of 
Temple or the Duke at that place are to be found, it is pre- 
sumed that the establishment there was little more than a trad- 
ing house and fishing station. After the death of Beauchamp, 
Leverett, in right of survivorship, succeeded to the whole pat- 
ent. His son, Capt. John Leverett, afterwards Governor, 
being frequently employed by Massachusetts in her eastern 
affairs, especially at and after the conquest of Acadia by the 
English in 1654, probably kept an eye to the effect these 
changes might have on his interest here, and maintained pos- 

* Will. & SuU. His. of Maine, passim. 


session by his traffic with the natives. The fishery on the 
coast was extensively carried on, and, in 1674, it was said 
" Pemaquid, Matinicus, Monhegan, Cape Newagen, where 
Capt. Smith fished for whales, and Muscongus, were all filled 
with dwellinghouses and stages for fishermen, and had plenty 
of cattle, arable land and marshes."* There were no corn- 
mills nearer than Falmouth and Black Point. Walter Phillips 
had a dwellinghouse, orchard, and extensive improvements on 
the west side of Damariscotta river at the lower falls, where 
he claimed a large tract ; and John Taylor had fixed himself 
next above him on the same side, whose possessions included 
the Oyster shell Neck. On the other side Robert Scott had 
his dwellinghouse about east from the great bank of oyster 
shells ; and John Brown, 2d, was now, or had lately been, es- 
tablished near the salt-water falls. Sander, or Alexander, 
Gould lived at Broad Cove, on Broad Bay, and claimed eight 
miles square between that bay and the Damariscotta under 
deed from his father-in-law John Brown of New Harbor, 
dated 1660. Richard Pierce, another son-in-law of Brown, 
lived farther down about eight miles from New Harbor, and 
claimed an equal tract, carved, like the preceding, out of the 
original claim of said Brown and conveyed to him in 1663, 
under the name of Greenland, by Wm. England of Muscon- 
gus, or, " as called by the Indians, Seremobscus."t But most 
of these establishments, and that at St. George^s, were broken 
up in the Indian war that ensued. 

In 1675 a general war against the New England colonies 
was commenced by the Indian tribes headed by Metacomet, 
chief of the Wampanoags, otherwise called King Philip. 
Thus far the eastern Indians, though they had many wrongs 
to complain of, had lived on friendly terms with the settlers 
both English and French. But their resentment was smother- 
ed rather than extinguished, and inclined them from the first 
to take part in the general confederacy against the English. 
The Wawenocks had been greatly broken up by the war of 
1615 and the sickness which ensued, and, being constantly 
exposed to the incursions of the Tarratines, had now dwindled 
down to a small tribe, whose principal residence was at the 
lower falls of the Sheepscot. The Tarratines, although some- 
what weakened in 1669 by the part they took in the war 

* Joscelyn's Voyages, p. 200-5. 

t Papers on file in Sec. Office, Best. Com. Rep. p. 117 — 18 and p. 
99. J. Pierce and S. Small's Dep. 


against the Mohawks, in which they were pursued by their 
victorious enemies to the banks of the Penobscot and many 
of their villages destroyed by fire, were still a powerful tribe. 
Their present chief, Madockawando, whose influence was 
great, and whose political relations extended as far as Massa- 
chusetts and Quebec, was averse to a war with the English ; 
and the influence of his son-in-law, the Baron de Castine, 
then engaged in a successful trade at the place which now 
bears his name, and unwilling to have it interrupted, was 
exerted on the side of peace. This nobleman, a man of 
taste and education, who had been a colonel in the French 
army at Quebec, when discharged from that service had 
united himself with the Indians, adopted their manners, and 
for 30 years carried on a profitable traffic in which he 
amassed the sum of 300,000 crowns. By the arms, ammu- 
nition and other articles, with which he supplied the natives, 
and his fascinating address, he acquired an unbounded influ- 
ence over the tribe ; and his counsels, together with those of the 
Sachem his father-in-law, prevailed in favor of a pacific policy, 
A similar course having been pursued by the Canabas, or 
Kennebec Indians, no outrages were for a time committed 
east of the Kennebec ; but the inhabitants were forbidden by 
Massachusetts to sell any munitions of war except to those 
Indians whose friendship was fully £iscertained ; and meas- 
ures were taken to require the tribes along the coast to de- 
liver their arms into the hands of the English. This demand 
being complied with at Sheepscot and Kennebec, nothing but 
prudence on the part of the settlers see^ned requisite to secure 
them from molestation. But in consequence of attacks made 
at New Meadows, Saco, Scarboro', and other places, many 
minds became excited against Indians in general ; and the 
people of Monhegan offered a bounty of £b for every In- 
dian's head that should be brought them. An agent, sent up 
the Kennebec to invite the natives to deliver up their arms, 
exceeded his instructions, and by threatening language so 
terrified them, that they left their residence, repaired to Pe- 
nobscot and called a council at the house of Castine. But 
by the exertions of Abraham Shurte of Pemaquid, a sensible 
man, well acquainted with the Indian character, who left no 
efforts untried, the disaffected chiefs were persuaded to hold 
a parley at that place, and finally agreed to desist from hos- 

In December, the snow, four feet on a level, prevented the 
English on the one hand, from attacking the Indians, and the 
Indians on the other, from procuring ^heir wonted supplies by 


hunting. An armistice was in consequence entered into with 
the Saco and other neighboring tribes. But during the win- 
ter, the eastern traders were accused of supplying them with 
arms and ammunition ; rumors were in circulation that a 
conspiracy was formed for exterminating the settlers ; and 
this was so fully believed that general warrants were issued 
for seizing every Indian " known to be a manslayer, traitor, 
or conspirator." Some of these warrants got into the hands 
of unprincipled men, who used them for sinister purposes. 
One of these with his vessel lurked about Pemaquid and in 
spite of the earnest remonstrances of Shurte, who also 
warned the Indians of their danger, succeeded in kidnapping 
several, carried them into foreign parts and sold them for 
slaves. Great complaints were made by the natives, and 
great fears were entertained of their hostile intentions. The 
downfall and death of Philip, the following year, 1676, com- 
pelled many of his adherents to take refuge among the east- 
ern tribes, whose vengeful feelings they soon were able to 
arouse. Besides outrages farther west, a successful and mur- 
derous attack was made upon the trading house at Woolwich 
and the fort at Arrowsick, and, after much suffering farther 
east, and the burning of Pemaquid, New Harbor, Corban's 
Sound and Damariscove, the inhabitants fled, first to Monhe- 
gan and other islands, and then to Piscataqua, Boston and 
other western places. This bloody and destructive war was 
terminated April 12, 1678, by a treaty concluded at Casco, in 
which it was stipulated that the Indians should restore their 
captives, and the English pay them an annual quit-rent of one 
peck of corn for every English family, except Major Phillips 
of Saco who was to pay one bushel.* 

* Holmes's American Ann. p. 403-7. Hub. Ind. Wars. Sulli- 
van and Williamson. 


C H A P T E R 1 1 1 . 


1688. After this pacification till the abdication of James 
II. the arbitrary conduct of the agents sent by his deputy at 
New York for the management of affairs here, gave little 
encouragement for the re-settlement of the country ; but 
many Dutch families were induced to settle at Pemaquid and 
on the west bank of the Damariscotta, who, especially at the 
latter place, then called New Dartmouth, now Newcastle, 
entered upon the business of agriculture with such spirit 
and success as to gain for the settlement the name of " the 
garden of the east."* In 1688 Sir Edmund Andros made 
two expeditions to this quarter, in the first of which he at- 
tempted to take possession of the country east of Penobscot, 
but contented himself whh plundering the Baron de Castine 
of his goods, furniture, and ammunition. This affair irritat- 
ing the Baron, led the tribe, over which his influence ex- 
tended, to unite with the Abenaques in a second Indian war, 
which in August, of that year, was begun by an attack on N. 
Yarmouth. In September, New Dartmouth was burnt, and 
the inhabitants, with the exception of two families taken 
prisoners, saved themselves only by taking refuge in the fort. 
At the same time the fort and buildings at Sheepscot were 
also destroyed and the settlements entirely broken up. The 
Dutch settlers, discouraged, left the country ; and both places, 
so lately and so long inhabited and flourishing, lay waste 
about thirty years.f 

1689. In consequence of the revolution in England and 
the accession of William and Mary to the throne in 1688, 
war was, in May, 1689, declared between England and 
France; and the dread of the latter power added to that of 
the Indians, excited the most gloomy apprehensions in the 

This war, commonly called " King William's war," though 
conducted with spirit and interesting in its details, was 
mosfly carried on in places too remote to come witliin the 
scope of this work. In August, 1689, the fort at Pemaquid 
was taken by assault and most of the inhabitants killed or 

* 2 Math. Mag. p. 507—9. 

t Sullivan, p. 165. 1 Will. His. p. 587, 609. 


carried into captivity. Discouraged by this and fresh depre- 
dations upon the Kennebec, the inhabitants eastward of Fal- 
mouth withdrew to that town, or removed to other places of 
more security. Madockawando, though he entered into this 
war with reluctance, and in 1693 and 4 was frequently in ne- 
gotiation with the English for a temporary truce and the ex- 
change of prisoners, was yet actively engaged in it and made 
his prowess felt as far west as Dover, N. H. The Wawe- 
nocks were chiefly withdrawn to other tribes ; and Jack Pud- 
ding, or Sheepscot John, was the only chief of that tribe 
now remaining.* 

1691. The arbitrary measures of James in New Eng- 
land being ended with his reign, and the grants of territory 
made to him in America having been declared vacant, a 
new charter was granted by William and Mary, Oct. 7, 1691, 
embracing the former colonies of Massachusetts, Plymouth, 
Maine, Sagadahoc, and Acadia including Nova Scotia. The 
last of these provinces was, a few years after, relinquished 
to the crown, and the " Royal Province of Massachusetts 
Bay" terminated eastward at the St. Croix. The territory 
from the Piscataqua to the Kennebec, which Massachusetts 
previously claimed by purchase from the heirs of Gorges, 
continued to be known as the province of Maine, and that 
from the latter river lo the St. Croix as the colony of Saga- 
dahoc. Sir William Phips was the first royal Governor under 
the new charter. 

Phips was born in Woolwich, upon the Sheepscot, Feb. 2, 
1650 ; one of the youngest of his mother's twenty-six children, 
twenty-one being sons. Bereaved of his father when a child, 
he passed his boyhood with his mother till he was 18; after- 
wards learning the trade of a ship carpenter, and acquiring 
some education. About the time of Philip's war, he built a 
ship in Sheepscot river ; and, being driven away by the 
Indians, he became a seafaring adventurer. In some of his 
voyages he heard that a Spanish ship laden with silver, had 
been wrecked and sunk, half a century before, not far from 
the Bahama islands. He told the interesting story to the 
Duke of Albemarle, and, entering into an agreement with 
him, sailed twice under his auspices from England into those 
waters, in search of the wreck. During the second voyage, 
in 1687, after indefatigable efforts, he found it, between forty 
and fifty feet under water ; and took from it the immense 
treasure of thirty-four tons of silver, besides gold, pearls and 

* Sullivan, p. 147 &, 8. 1 Will. His. p. 606. 


jewels — equivalent in value to $1,350,000. Of this treas- 
ure, his part exceeded $70,000, besides a golden cup, worth 
$4,000, presented to his wife by his noble patron. For his 
enterprise, success, and honesty. King James conferred upon 
him the order of knighthood, and appointed him High Sheriff 
of New England. This was during the administration of 
Andros, whh whom he differed so widely in politics that he 
declined the office. In 1690 he was appointed to the com- 
mand of an expedition which sailed from Boston, April 28th, 
and in the space of ten days captured Port Royal and the 
other French ports in Acadia. 

He was less successful in an expedition against Quebec in 
the autumn, which failed and was attended v/hh such loss, that, 
to defray the ex[>enses, paper money was for the first time 
issued by Massachusetts. His administration continued till 
his death in Feb. 1695.* 

1692-99. In 1692 the celebrated stronghold, Fort Wm, 
Henry, was built of stone by Gov. Phips on the site of the 
old stockade at Pemaquid. This in 1696 was disgracefully 
surrendered by its commander, Capt, Chub-b. Several expe- 
ditions into the eastern country were made by Captains 
Church, Converse and March, the last of whom, landing his 
men, Sept. 9, 1697, at Dam.ariscotta, was attacked by the sav- 
ages ere well ashore, and, though he gallantly charged and 
repulsed them, had twelve or thirteen of his men killed and 
as many more wounded. The same year peace between 
the French and English was concluded at Ryswick ; but the 
war lingered among the savages through the following year. 
In Oct. 1698 a conference was held at Penobscot with the 
Indians, then in mourning for Madockawando and several 
other Sachems of the east, who had lately fdlen victims to a 
grievous unknown disease raging among them. They were? 
anxious to terminate the war ; and June 7, 1699 a final 
treaty of peace was signed and ratified at Brunsv/ick.t 

During the whole of this war, little is said of the territory 
at St. George's ; the proprietors having kept up no establish- 
ment there. In May, 1694, Gov. Phij)S, apparently without 
any knowledge of the Muscongus patent, obtained of Ma- 
dockawando, at Pemaquid, a deed of the lands on St. GJeor- 
ge's river as far up as the lower falls, or head of tide waters.}: 
But Acadia having, on the conclusion of peace, returned to 

* Hohnes' American Ann. p. 474, 8. I Will. His. 596, 8. 
t 2 Math. Mag. p. 5-53. C. Soutliac's Dcp. — Sec. Office. 
t Whipple's Acadie, p. 71. 


France without any definite limits, and the territory between 
the Kennebec and St, Croix being again in dispute between 
the two countries, no attempt was made to occupy, either 
under the title of Phips or that of the patentees. 

1700. The year 1700 was distinguished by the suppres- 
sion of pirates or buccaneers, who had for thirty years 
infested the American coast, and, since the late war, become 
very troublesome to the eastern coasting and fishing vessels. 
Their leaders, Kidd and Bradish, were sent to England and 
executed.* But the stories of hidden treasures guarded 
by the ghosts of murdered slaves, which imagination and 
credulity have assigned to almost every island and headland 
along the coast, long continued to haunt the minds of the 
simple and try their courage and perseverance in fruitless 
attempts to disinter them. Even at the present day, excited 
by some idle dreamer, or designing wag, a party is occasion- 
ally seen in solitary places near our river's mouth or on the 
neighboring islands, armed with charm of mystic power dig- 
ging by the dim lantern's light for that treasure, which, from 
some supposed omission of the rites required, still eludes 
their grasp and disappears. 

1702. On the death of King William, March 8, 1702, 
Anne, the sister of the late queen, ascended the throne of 
England ; upon which, war was declared by the King of 
France who supported the claims of her excluded catholic 
brother. As the English had now no settlements east of Fal- 
mouth, few of the events of this, the third Indian war, fall 
within the limits of this work. The remains of the Wawe- 
nocks and the other tribes west of the Penobscot, were soon 
after induced by the French to remove to the river St. Fran- 
cois, there forming a settlement and tribe often denominated 
" the St. Francois Indians." Castine had now returned to 
France with his wealth ; but his son, generally called Castine 
the younger, born of a Tarraline woman, continued at Big- 
ayduce. He was a person of an excellent character and 
amiable disposition, inheriting neither the bigotry of the 
French nor the ferocity of the savages. Seeing the wasting 
effect of war upon the Indians, he lost no opportunity in 
promoting a friendly intercourse with the English ; yet a 
small party of the latter, actuated we know not by what 
motives of wickedness or folly, visited his house under the 
mask of friendship and plundered it of " great spoil." This 
act was deeply regretted by government and ample indemnity 

* 2 Will. His. p. 31. 


promised ; the English being desirous of giving the natives 
no provocation for engaging in the present war. They were 
however not to be detached fronn their French allies, and 
soon made fresh inroads upon all the frontier settlements.* 

1710-1716- By the surrender of Port Royal to Gen. 
Nicholson, Oct, 2, 1710, Acadia again fell into the hands of 
the English; and by the treaty of Utrecht, March 30, 1713, 
that province was made over to the crown of Great Britain 
forever. The peace in Europe was soon followed by a 
treaty with the Indians, which was signed at Portsmouth, July 
13, 1713, by eight Sagamores in behalf of all the eastern 
Indians and afterwards more extensively ratified at Falmouth. 
The English, notwithstanding, were cautious in renewing 
their deserted settlements ; but license was granted for the 
re-settlement of Saco, Scarboro', Falmouth and Arrowsick, on 
condition that the houses should be placed so compactly on 
small lots near the sea as to be easily defended, with suffi- 
cient outlets for cultivation. In 1715 Fort George was erect- 
ed at the lower falls of the Androscoggin, and the following 
year a town of twenty-six families incorporated at the mouth 
of the Kennebec, and named Georgetown in honor of George 
I. crowned in 1714. Encouraged by this, the proprietors of 
the Plymouth patent on the Kennebec, erected a stone fort at 
the head of tide waters on that river. Saw-mil!s were also 
built there, and large quantities of lumber manufactured and 
exported. Dr. No^s, one of these proprietors, engaged in 
the sturgeon fishery, which he carried on in the Kennebec 
and its branches for several years, sometimes employing no 
less than twenty vessels in taking and transporting these fish 
to London where they were highly esteemed. The county 
of Yorkshire, which liad hitherto embraced only the late 
province of Maine, was now extended to the St, Croix ; and 
York established as its only shire town.t The fort at Pem- 
aquid was also ordered to be repaired and garrisoned. But 
these forts, and especially the mills, were viewed with much 
jealousy and repugnance by the savages ; and dread of their 
opposition and the rumor of an approaching rupture with 
France, deterred the former settlers from returning. Eflbris 
were made, however, which for the present proved success- 
ful, to pacify the Indians and deter them from any hostile 

1717. As a means of conciliating the Indians and coun- 
teracting the influence of the Jesuits, the General Court in 

*'2 Will. His. p. 40,42. t 2 Will. His. p. 88, 91. 


1717, and again in 1720, offered a salary of =£150 a year to 
any minister who would reside at Fort George, acquire the 
language of the natives and instruct them in religion. In con- 
sequence of this offer Rev. Joseph Baxter of Medfield made 
two visits to this region, one in 1717 and 18, the other in 
1*^21. His coming was viewed with jealousy hy the Jesuit 
Rale, a French missionary at Norridgewock, whose influence, 
deservedly great, was exerted to prevent the Indians from 
attending his instructions.* 

On the 9th of August, 1717, a conference was held at 
Georgetown between Lieut. Gov. Dummer, attended by sev- 
eral members of the Council and other gentlemen, with eight 
principal chiefs of the Indian tribes ; in which he endeavored 
to impress upon their minds the power and importance of the 
king, the common sovereign of both the Indians and English, 
and the superiority of the protestant religion, offering them a 
Bible and presenting them Mr. Baxter as a missionary to re- 
side there for their instruction, with the promise of a school- 
master to teach their children to read. He told them that 
these eastern forts and settlements were undertaken partly 
for their accommodation in the way of trade, partly for mutual 
protection ; and, being on land which the English had pur- 
chased, must not be molested. After making some com- 
plaints of Indian aggressions, he invited them freely to com- 
municate any thing they had to suggest or complain of Con- 
sulting over night, they returned an answer remarkable for 
its wariness and the struggle going on in their minds between 
necessity and inclination. " We shall be," said they, " very 
obedient to King George if we like the offers made us, and if 
we are not molested in the improvement of our lands. We 
embrace the English that have settled among us in our 
bosom, but desire there be no further settlements made — we 
cannot hold them all in our bosom." As to the missionary, 
" it would be strange if they should not love one that came 
from God ;" but as to the Bible they begged to be excused, 
as they had teaching already, and, if they should go from 
that, should displease God. They expressed great uneasi- 
ness about the forts and mills ; and said they " should bo 
pleased with King George if there was never a fort in the 
eastern parts." After being repeatedly and sharply inter- 
rupted by the Governor, who insisted on the rights of the 
English to what they had purchased, and of the king to 
build forts in his own dominions, they abruptly departed, leav- 

'* Baxter's MS. Journal, as quoted in Francis's Life of Rule. 


ing behind the British flag which they had carried when they 
came. Being refused an audience under the French colors, 
and a letter from Rale rejected as unworthy of regard, they, 
all but one, returned the next day with an apology for their 
impoliteness, and finally consented to confirm existing treaties 
and allow the English to settle where they had done before.* 

1719-20- In 1719 some steps were taken towards the 
re-settlement of places farther east. Fearful of losing their 
possessions by the statute of limitation, many of the former 
settlers seriously made preparations for returning. In this 
and the following summer, Michael Thomas, as tenant for 
Rev. Christopher Tappan of Newbury, who claimed under 
deed from Walter Phillips, settled with his family and two or 
three workmen on the western side of Damariscotta at the 
lower falls, there being then no other inhabitants there except 
Indians. Wm. Hilton, Richard Pierce, and John Brown, Jr, 
had returned, and resided at Broad Cove, Muscongus, and New 
Harbor. Hilton was one of the heirs of Sander Gould. t 

John Leverett, who since the death of his father had be- 
come the proprietor of the Muscongus patent, also seriously 
contemplated the re-occupation and settlement of that grant. 
But considering the enterprise too formidable for a single 
individual, he, Aug. 14, 1719, associated others with him 
and divided the grant into ten shares ; one of which was 
given to Spencer Phips, adopted son and heir of Governor 
Phips, in exchange for the Indian title from Madockawando. 
It was subsequently divided into 30 shares, and others, called 
the 20 associates, admitted into the company as tenants in 
common, under mutual obligations for procuring settlers and 
making preparations for their accommodation. For this pur- 
pose, in 1719 and 20 they erected two strong blockhouses on 
the eastern edge of St. George's River, with a covered way 
to the water side and a large area between them enclosed by 
palisades. This was situated in front of the mansion of the 
late Gen. Knox in the present town of Thomaston. The 
Indians " daily resorted there in great numbers and oft-times 
threatened those employed in building and clearing the land, 
who used several stratagems to get them from off those 
lands." The company also built a double saw-mill, probably 
on what has since been called Mill Creek or River ; bought 
a sloop, and employed other vessels and a number of men 
in the undertaking ; erected near 30 " frames for houses ;" 
and were engaging persons to begin the settlement. In con- 

* Ind. Conference of 1717. t Com. Rep. p. 95, 6, 111, 127. 


sequence of the jealousy and hostile disposition of the In- 
dians, a garrison of 20 men was maintained, provided with 
cannon, small arms, and other means of defence. These 
were put under the command of Capt. Thomas Westbrook, 
one of the " 20 associates."* 

1721. Instigated by the French Jesuits, the Indians in 
1721 began to make aggressions in various places, killing 
cattle and insulting and threatening the inhabitants. Meas- 
ures were taken by the English to counteract this French in- 
fluence ; the Rev. Mr. Baxter, missionary, spent a portion of 
this year at St. George's, and efforts were made to conciliate 
the tribe at Penobscot, who had not yet committed them- 
selves. The more aged chiefs of that, as well as other tribes, 
were inclined to peace ; but, by the redoubled efforts of the 
French, the tribes were divided in opinion and outrages fre- 
quently committed. On the arrival at Arrowsic of 200 or 
more, accompanied by Rale and Castine, threatening to de- 
stroy the inhabitants unless they immediately removed, the 
Indians were directed to deliver up Rale and every Jesuit 
priest, on pain of being treated as rebels and traitors, and an 
order issued for seizing and sending to Boston any Indian 
seen in arms. Under this order Castine was seized at his 
residence and transported to Boston. But, as it was difficult 
to define his offence, and he gave a satisfactory account of 
his conduct, he was discharged after a confinement of five 
months. t 

1722. In 1722 a farther attempt was made to reconcile 
the natives and attach them to the English interest; but many 
things combined to frustrate and render hopeless all farther 
efforts of the kind. The fourth Indian war, called " the three 
years, or Lovewell's war," was commenced June 13, 1722, 
and carried on by the savages alone, unaided, openly, by 
their former allies. The first attack was made at Merry-meet- 
ing, where nine families were taken captive. At Damaris- 
cove a party of six took a fishing vessel, pinioned and beat 
the master and crew, who at length getting loose, fell sud- 
denly upon their assailants, mortally wounding two and 
throwing one overboard. About this time some persons at 
Pemaquid, and Wm. Hilton at Broad Cove, were killed ; and 
the family of Mr. Pierce at Muscongus removed for safety. 
It was probably about this time, also, that Mrs. Gray and her 

* Report of Committee, General Court, 1731. Waldo's petition to 
Gov. Belcher, Mass. MS. papers, vol. 114, p. 116, 152. 
t 2 Will. His. p. 106, 8, &c. 


six children were massacred at Damariscotta on the place 
subsequently purchased by Hon. John Farley.* 

The next attack was at St. George's, On the 15th of June 
a body of 200 Indians surprised and burnt the proprietor's 
sloop, killed one and took six men prisoners, burnt the saw- 
mill, some houses and frames, and made a vigorous attack 
upon the blockhouses, which with difficulty were saved by 
the bravery of the garrison.t 

On the 24th of Aug. during the absence of Capt. West- 
brook at Boston, a still larger body from Penobscot, accom- 
panied by a friar and two Frenchmen, renewed the attack, 
killed five men that were out of the garrison, and " continued 
the assault twelve days and nights furiously," now and then 
sending a flag of truce to invite the garrison to surrender, 
promising to give them good quarter and transport them to 
Boston. The garrison replied that they " wanted no quarter 
at their hands, dared them to come on, told them that these 
were King George's lands, and that they would deliver them 
up but with the last drops of their blood." The assailants 
persevered, and made considerable progress in undermining 
one side of the fortification ; but a heavy rain causing the 
earth to cave in upon them, they finally abandoned the siege 
with a loss of twenty of their number. James Armstrong 
was Lieutenant, and probably commanded at the time of this 
affair. Three of the men killed were Joseph Hunter, Joseph 
Muckamog and James Nigh. The Indians brought with 
them five of the captives taken in June ; and the other, 
Joshua Rose, being left at Penobscot, made his escape, found 
his way to St. George's after six days travel, and was taken 
into the fort the second day of the siege. On the breaking 
up of the siege, one of the five captives was sent in to know 
if the English would ransom them, and, being told they 
could not for want of orders, he returned to his captors, but 
on arriving at Penobscot was " frankly released," with two 
others. According to these captives, the Indians during the 
siege subsisted chiefly on seals, which they caught daily in 
the river.| 

This fort having been supported thus far by the proprietors 
at their own expense, it had been proposed by Mr. Leverett, 
as the country was in a state of war and the work needed 
for the general defence, to make it a public garrison. This 

* Com. Rep. p. 111. J Pierce's Dep. p. 152. Hon. J. Farley's 

t Rep. Committee, General Court, 1731. Mass. MS. papers, 
t Westbrook's Letter, Sec. Office, Bos. 


was accordingly done ; and Capt. Westbrook returned soon 
after the siege with two sloops and a reinforcement of men. 
The soldiers' wages, paid in paper money at 60 per cent, 
discount, were at this time as follows ; to a captain per month, 
.£7, equal to $12,44; to a Lieutenant c£4, equal to $7,11 ; 
to a Sergeant, £2^ 18s. equal to $5,15 ; to a Corporal £2, 5s. 
equal to $4 ; and to a private £2^ equal to $3,55.* 

1723. On the 11th February, 1723, Capt. Westbrook, 
now Colonel and Commander in Chief in this quarter, left 
Kennebec with two hundred and thirty men, and with small 
vessels and whale boats ranged the coast as far eastward as 
Mt. Desert. He then sailed up the Penobscot ; marched 
thirty-two miles by land ; arrived at the principal Indian fort, 
which was a stockade, seventy yards by fifty in extent, en- 
closing twenty-three houses, or wigwams, t which at this time 
were deserted ; and, having burnt the whole, together with 
the chapel J and priest's house, returned to the fort at St. 
George's, with the loss of the chaplain. Rev. Benj. Gibson, 
and three men, whose bodies on his arrival were buried at 
that fort. 

During this season, great sickness prevailed among the east- 
ern soldiers ; and little, besides defensive measures, was ac- 
complished. No settlement, house, or vessel at anchor, in 
these eastern parts, was safe from aggression. On the 25th 
of Dec. the Indians made an attack upon the fort at St. 
George's river. Being fortunate enough to take two prison- 
ers, who gave them intelligence concerning the indefensible 
condition of the garrison, the assailants, about sixty in num- 
ber, were encouraged to prosecute the siege for thirty days, 
with a resolution, or rather madness, that was desperate. 
They seemed to be flushed with the absolute certainty of com- 
pelling a surrender of the fort. But Capt. Kennedy, who 
was now the commanding officer, being a man of intrepid 
courage, held out till Col. Westbrook arrived and put the 
enemy to flight. § 

* 2 Belk. N. H. p. 45. 

t Westbrook says in his letter to the Governor, '* 23 houses built 
regular." See his Letter, Mass. MS. Papers, Vol. 51, p. H76. 

t This, according to the captives previously released, who were 
forced to assist in rebuilding the fort and retained by Westbrook as 
guides in this expedition, was 60 feet long, 30 wide, 12 high, and 
furnished with a bell which was rung morning and evening. The 
captives also stated that they saw, in July, 12 or 13 barrels of gun- 
powder brought there from Canada. Westbrook's Letter to Gov. 
Shute in Sec. Office, Mass. 

§ 2 Hutch. His. p. 276. 


1724. In the following spring, Capt. Josiah Winslow was 
left in command of this fort. He was a young man of great 
promise, a recent graduate of Harvard college, and a mem- 
ber of one of the most respectable families of the colony. 
His grandfather and great-grandfather had each been gover- 
nor of Plymouth ; and his father and other members of the 
family were distinguished for their civil and military services. 
On the 30th of April,* it being an inviting morning, he select- 
ed sixteen of the ablest men belonging to the garrison, and, 
in a couple of staunch whale-boats, proceeded down the river 
to the Green Islandt which at this season of the year was fre- 
quented by the Indians for fowling. Here they hauled up 
their boats and lay close during the night, and part of the 
succeeding day. Not discovering any Indians, they left the 
island, about two hours before sunset, on their return. But as 
they were ascending the river, they were beset by a large 
party of natives who were passing down the same in canoes 
and now lay concealed on both of its banks. The Indians 
being undiscovered, the party, but for an accidental occur- 
rence, might perhaps have passed them in safety. One of 
the men in the second boat, perceiving a flock of water-fowl, 
imprudently fired and shot one of them. Turning to pick up 
the fowl, Sergeant Harvey, who commanded the boat, was 
called to by Capt. Winslow, in the other, then somewhat 
ahead, and advised not to follow the fowl, but keep close to 
him, as they knew not what they might meet with, before 
reaching the fort. Harvey replied " go easy upon your oars 
and I will be presently up whh you." But following the 
fowl too long and going too near the western side of the 
river, the Indians fired from the shore, killed three of the 
men, and attempted to surround him in their canoes. Harvey 
gallantly returned the fire, but, finding himself overpowered, 
retreated and landed with his party on the opposite side. 
Here they were attacked by another party and maintained a 
sharp contest with abundance of courage, till the whole were 
slain, except three Christian Indians who escaped and carried 
the news to the fort. Capt. Winslow, who was considerably 
uhead and out of danger, when the attack was made upon 

* May 11th, new style. 

t Penhailow and Williamson suppose this to liave been one of the 
Green Islands in Penobscot Bay ; but the time was liardly sufficient 
for so great a distance ; and Mather, who published a sermon on the 
occasion, and whose information was derived from the Christian In- 
dians who escaped, evidently believed tlie island was in the river. 
Might it not have been Henderson's or (jorulola Island ? 


Harvey, immediately hastened back to his assistance. But 
before reaching the scene of action, he was himself siu'- 
rounded by thirty or forty canoes filled with armed savages, 
who rushed upon him from both sides of the river. Com- 
mencing the attack with a hideous yell, they attempted to 
board his boat and make prisoners of the whole party. He 
suilered them to approach within a short distance and then 
opened upon them a brisk and destructive fire. This did not 
deter them from coming alongside, where they were so 
fiercely repulsed and beat off with clubbed muskets, that they 
fell off and maintained the contest at a distance. They were 
so struck with young Winslow's courage, that they offered 
him quarter, if he would surrender himself and company ; 
but he refused it ; and continued the fight until the dusk of 
the evening, when the most of his men being slain, he has- 
tened ashore on the western bank with two or three that were 
left. Here they were again beset and all cut off. Winslow 
being shot down and having his thigh broken, the Indians, when 
they saw him fall, ran towards him ; and yet then he recovered 
on his other knee and shot down one of his enemies ere they 
could despatch him. Thus perished this gallant little band, 
leaving none but the Indians aforesaid to tell the story of their 
melancholy end. Their accomplished commander had been 
observed in a pensive mood some days before the expedition, 
and on divers occasions had let fall expressions, which, like 
that to Harvey when turning aside for the fowl, seemed to 
indicate a presentiment of his fate. He fell, greatly beloved 
and universally lamented, in the twenty-third year of his age.* 
In this action, inconsiderable as were the numbers engaged, 
there was a remarkable display, on both sides, of boldness 
and good conduct. The Tarratines, who were rather a val- 
iant, than a cruel people, composed the Indian party ; and 
their loss, though never known, is supposed to have doubled 
ours. For want of men to go in search of their bodies, it 
was never known whether our gallant little band were interred 
by the savages, or their flesh devoured by wild beasts, and 
their bones left bleaching in the sun till concealed by the 
leaves of autumn.t 

* Cotton Mather's Sermon dedicated to Col. J. Winslow. Pen- 
hallow's Ind. Wars, p. 99. VVestbrook's letter to Gov. — Sec. Otfic©, 

t The winds, that through tlie vernal bowers 

Or AutLiinn's leafless branches moan, 
Passed, sighing, o'er their place of rest 

To all surviving friends unknown. 


So well prepared, this year, were most of the places as- 
sailed, to defend themselves, that the Indians were unable to 
take any considerable booty from the frontiers ; and therefore 
they rushed down upon the seacoast, and undertook to sieze 
upon all the vessels they could find in the eastern harbors. 
New to them as this kind of enterprise was, they were, in a 
few weeks, in possession of twenty-two vessels of various de- 
scriptions ; one of which was a large schooner armed with 
two swivels ; two were shallops taken at the Isles of Shoals ; 
eight were fishing vessels, found at Fox Island thoroughfare ; 
and the others were surprised and taken in different places. 
In these seizures, they killed twenty-two men and retained 
a still greater number prisoners. Generally these were the 
masters or skippers, and the best sailors, whom they compelled 
to serve on board their prizes. 

A part of the fleet proceeded up the river St. George's, 
once more fully determined to lay the fort in ashes. To ef- 
fect their purpose, the savage crews now filled a couple of 
their shallops with combustibles, which were set on fire and 
urged so near the block house that they would have com- 
municated the flames, had not individual exertion prevented. 
The Indians then offered favorable terms, provided the garri- 
son would surrender. But every lisp of the kind was 
promptly rejected ; and as they were utterly unable to take 

The tears which fond affection poured, 

Or love in secret sadness shed, 
Uodewed indeed a distant sward, 

But fell not on their lonely bed. 

No column proud, no humble stone, 

To mark the spot, was reared for them ; 

The evening thrush and heating surge 
Performed their only requiem. 

But oft, I ween, the maiden's heart, 
Who walks with pensive step at eve, 

By some mysteri(jus influence lield 
Shall pause upon the spot to grieve j 

And spell bound, 'neath the silent moon 
And stars that saw that night of anguish, 

Allow her soul, she knows not why, 
In sorrows unexplained to languish. 

Watch on, from age to age, ye stars ! 

And beat, thou surge, with ceaseless moan 
Sing on, sweet thrush, and maiden weep, 

Whei*e rest the brave to all unknown ! 


or destroy the fortification, either by force or stratagem, they 
retired without doing any considerable injury. 

Against this new force of the enemy, two vessels were 
despatched with twenty men from New Hampshire, but re- 
turned without success. Two others were sent under Jack- 
son of Kittery and Lakeman of Ipswich. These, after an 
action with the enemy, in which Jackson and several of his 
men were wounded, and his sails and rigging so badly cut up 
that his pursuit was impeded, finally drove them into Pe- 
nobscot. Here they found them assisted and covered by so 
large a body of natives that they were forced to retire. When 
another expedition of three vessels went from Boston against 
them, they had become tired of this maritime warfare ; their 
vessels were dispersed, and no intelligence could afterwards 
be obtained of them.* 

Thus far the Indians had conducted the war with great 
spirit and prudence, and their success greatly preponderated 
over that of the English, whose measures were chiefly of a 
defensive character. But the destruction of Norridgewock 
and the death of the Jesuit Rale, in August of this year, 
broke the spirit and strength of the Canibas tribe ; whilst the 
several expeditions of Capt. Lovewell in the winter, and his 
sanguinary engagement at Pegwacket the following spring, 
so discouraged the remainder of the Abenaques tribes that 
they never recovered. The star of the confederacy, pale 
and declining, from that time gradually settled in darkness. 

1725- Proffers of negotiation were made and recipro- 
cated by means of the hostages that were still retained at 
Boston ; but its progress was retarded by several untoward 
events not very creditable to the English name. The first 
of these was the expedition of Capt. Heath to Penobscot. 
Learning that the Indians had rebuilt their villagef in a more 
advantageous situation, about three miles above the mouth of 
the Kenduskeag, he marched across from the Kennebec, and 
finding the inhabitants fled, laid their dwellings in ashes, and 
returned without meeting the enemy. This was a bold en- 
terprise ; but, hearing on his return to St. George's river that 
the Indians had proposed a negotiation for peace, he and the 
authorities kept the particulars as secret as possible. | 

The second occurrence, June 20th, reflected much dishonor 

* 2 Will. His. p. 128, 129. 

t This was in the present city of Bangor and consisted of about 50 
dwellings. — Hutch. 
t 11 Mass. Rec. p. 396. 


upon the English character. This was a violent assault by 
a scout from the garrison at St. George's upon a party of 
Indians bound to the fort, under a flag of truce. There was 
for a few minutes a smart combat between them, in which 
one of the scout was killed and another wounded. The best 
excuse which could be framed for this error, was the honest 
jealousy excited by repeated instances of savage treachery. 
The effect of this outrage was aggravated by a treacherous 
assault upon Castine the younger by the captain of a sloop, 
who by a flag of truce enticed him on board his vessel and 
violently took from him a captive whom he had redeemed 
from the savages. After some farther outrages, Castine shot 
one of the men and with his boy escaped to the woods.* 

Notwithstanding these events, so disposed were the natives 
for peace, that thirteen of their chiefs on the 2d of July held 
a conference at St. George's fort with John Stoddard and 
John Wainwright, commissioners sent by Massachusetts to 
treat with them. This conference was conducted in a very 
pacific manner and led to an appointment of another meeting 
at Boston for the conclusion of a treaty. In the mean time 
two vessels, being seized by the enemy at Damariscove, 
were committed to the flames, and the masters and crews, 
consisting of seven men and a boy, were carried to Sagada- 
hoc and barbarously beat to death. But this was among the 
last efforts of the eastern Indians, and closed the scene of 
blood for the present year. 

At th-p meeting in Boston, Nov. 10th, the Indians long 
insisted that Fort Richmond on the Kennebec and the block- 
house at St. George's should be abandoned, and that a bound- 
ary should be drawn straight from Teconnet to Saco. But 
these terms not being acceded to, it was finally agreed that 
the Indians should enjoy the lands and liberties not conveyed 
to the English nor possessed by them, together with the 
privileges of hunting, fishing, and fowling, as formerly ; that 
they should maintain peace and enter into no combinations 
against the English, who, on their part, were to regulate the 
whole trade of the country, and open a trading-house at St. 
Greorge's to be constantly supplied with goods 1o the amount 
of c£700 for the supply of the Indians in fair and honorable 

The command of St. George's fort and garrison was, Dec. 
13, 1725, committed to John Gyles, the builder and late 

* 2 Will. His. p. 144. Penhallow'^Ind. Wars, «fec. 


commander of Fort George at Pejepscot, now Brunswick. 
He was the son of Thomas Gyles, Esq. of Pemaquid, who 
had been Chief Justice of the County of Cornwall when 
under the government of the Duke of York. When his 
father was killed by the Indians, Aug. 2, 1689, John, then a 
young lad, was, together with his mother, one brother and 
two little sisters, taken captive and carried off into the wild- 
erness. After a captivity of nearly nine years, during which 
he had many narrow escapes and became familiar with the In- 
dian tongue, he was set at liberty and was immediately taken 
into public service at Boston. He was employed as Indian in- 
terpreter at various places, had a lieutenant's and afterwards 
captain's commission at Casco, Pejepscot, and St. George's 
where he probably commanded till 1736 or later.* 

The last mentioned treaty was signed Dec. 15th by the four 
Sagamore delegates, and has since been denominated Dum- 
mer's treaty ; than which, none ever made by the parties has 
been more celebrated or lasting. 

1726- This treaty was finally ratified at Falmouth, 
Aug, 6, 1726, by Gov. Dummer and a large retinue from 
Boston, who there met Wenemovet, chief Sachem of the 
Tairatines, and 40 other chiefs of that and the associate 
tribes. They made an earnest request that no vessels in the 
harbors nor taverns on shore should be permitted to sell liquors 
to their young men ; and Gov. Dummer gave them the most 
solemn assurances that this request should be complied with. 
They insisted, also, upon the " removal of those two houses 
mentioned last winter," (Forts St. George's and Richmond.) 
" If they were removed there would," said they, " be no 
diflnculty among the tribes. We can't find any Record in our 
memory nor in the memory of our Grand Fathers, that the 
Penobscutt tribe have sold any land. As to the deeds mention- 
ed last winter made by Medoccewanda and Sheepscutt John, 
they were not Penobscutt Indians, one belonging to Mechias 
Madockewando, the other towards Boston, If we should find in 
reality that the lands were purchased of the right owners we 
should not have insisted upon it, nor have opened our Mouths, 
we would not pretend to tell a Lye about it, for we know that 
God will be angry with the man that tells a Lye, We do not 
remember of any settlements at St. George's, we remember a 
pretty while, and as long as we remember, the place where the 

* See (lyles's Captivity first published in 1736 and republished in 
Tragedies of the Wilderness, by S. G. Drake, 1846. 



garrison stands was filled with Great Long Grown Trees."* 
But after a farther conference on the subject of these deeds 
with the committee of claims in attendance, they agreed to 
waive the matter for the present, and solemnly ratified and con- 
firmed the treaty. Thus terminated this fourth Indian war, 
the first which the natives had carried on without foreign as- 
sistance, and remarkable alike for the boldness and success with 
which it was conducted on their part, and the brilliant achieve- 
ments of the English, which finally brought it to a close. 



George's and broad bay. 

One of the first measures of the government after the 
peace, was the establishment of truckhouses for the accommo- 
dation of the Indians according to the provisions of the treaty. 
The most eastern of these was at St. George's fort ; and the 
first truckmaster there, as the superintendent was called, was 
Thomas Smith, one of the 20 associates, who had been re- 
commended by the Indians at the conference. Goods were 
furnished by the government, and the agents were allowed to 
add to the first cost a sufiicient sum to cover the freight and 
waste. At times, also, presents were made and entertain- 
ments given to the Indians at the public expense. Care being 
taken in the selection of suitable agents, these truckhouses 
had a salutary effect ; and the Indians soon finding they could 
purchase goods here cheaper and better than in Canada, a 
friendly disposition grew up amongst them. Every thing 
now indicated a permanent peace. 

It was, however, difficult for the government to carry out 
these amicable intentions. Private traders were eager to 
participate in the profits of Indian traffic, and too often un- 
scrupulous in the means of augmenting them. Ardent spirits 
were sold, and, in the intoxication they produced, every ad- 
vantao-e was taken, perhaps, and every fraud practised. Gov- 
ernment agents, and sometimes the Indians themselves, en- 
deavored to restrain these practices by indictments and prose- 

* Printed Indian Conf. qf 1726. 


cution. In retaliation, charges were made against the agents 
as guihy of the same conduct, and wishing for their own ben- 
efit to monopolise the profits. From the unsettled state of the 
country and the distance of the place of trial, it was difficult 
to obtain conviction. One Michael Micum, Macom, or Mal- 
com, seems to have been engaged in this illicit traffic at va- 
rious places, and was frequently complained of; though he 
was usually discharged on the payment of Court fees. In 
1726 he is described as Michael Micum of Georgetown, in 
1736 as Michael Macom of a place called Augusta,* and in 
1744 he is styled Michael Malcom of St. George, trader. He 
was, probably, the son of John Malcom of Brunswick, who 
also, as well as Elizabeth Malcom of the same place, was 
indicted for the same offence in 1739 and 1740.t 

1727. At another conference held with Gov. Dummer, 
1727, the Indians called the attention of the Governor to 
truckmasters, said " the first sent to St. George's we liked 
very well ; we liked Mr. Mountfort very well ; we have noth- 
ing to say against Capt. Gyles at all ; he is a man that is 
agreeable to us. But it is very strange to us that now the 
truck master is come away, the door is fast ; the key is 
turned on the lock, and we cannot get any thing now, nor can 
our wives and children get the necessaries of life. We desire 
Mr. Mountfort may be sent there." But the Indians at Pejep- 
scot and Ammerescoggin spoke highly of Capt. Gyles, and 
wished to have him appointed to Fort George. The Indians 
having also desired that a gunsmith reside at St. George's, 
the Governor promised to furnish one. The Chief then in- 
quired whether " they must pay the gunsmith that comes to 
St. George's, or whether the English government would pay 
him ?" To which the Governor replied that the smith should 
charge moderately for his work, and, to enable him to do so, 
should be victualled at the blockhouse ; and, in case he 
cheated or made exorbitant charges, he should be discarded. { 

From the language, somewhat ambiguous, used by the In- 
dians at this and the preceding conference, we infer that Capt. 
Gyles was not altogether popular among them. Perhaps, 
like his father at Pemaquid, he might have been too rigid and 
puritanical in the discharge of his duty to suit these undisci- 
plined sons of the forest. It is probable, also, as the office of 

* This was an abortive settlement commenced at Small Point. — J. 
McKeen's communication to the author. 

t York Records and communication of Hon. R. Mclntire. 
t See printed Ind. Conf. of 1727. 


truckmast^r was lucrative and annually filled by the Legisla- 
ture, that some little competition had sprung up and the influ- 
ence of the Indians was sought for by the different candidates. 
Something, not fully explained, on both these points, may, 
perhaps, be inferred from the following letter of the truck- 
master to his son, the first settled minister of Falmouth. 
" To ye Rev. Mr. Thomas Smith at Falmouth, Casco Bay. 
Per Lt. Wright. St. George's Fort, April 6, 1727. Last 
night arrived here Lt. Wright with express from his Honor 
the Lt. Governor, chiefly relating to the Lidians killing of a 
cow and some swine in the beginning of February at Montin- 
icus. I suppose there is not paper or ink at Falmouth or you 
would have wrote me. I wrote you by Sanders, as also by 
Mr. Nutting, both which I suppose you have received. Capt. 
Giles gives his service to you and entreats you will favor him 
so far, if you can so order it, as to give us a visit here and 
preach on a Sabbath ; Lt. Wright offers that if you will do 
it, he will both come with you and carry you back in his 
schooner free from all charge. I expect to hear from you by 
return of Mr Nutting and all opportunities. I am, your affec- 
tionate Father, T. Smith." In a postscript he adds, " at 
Boston it's much talked of that here is great difference and 
disagreement between Capt. Giles and myself ; if there 
should be the same at Falmouth, you may assure any body 
that we have not had the least angry word or difference since 
my arrival here from Boston. By Sander's last trip I had 
letters which inform me of the great interest that J. G, has 
with his Honor, &c. And now I would that you treat Lt. 
Wright with all possible civility, he having made sundry ob- 
servations here that he says he will commit to writing and 
deliver to you ; the copy of which I would have you transmit 
to me, but the original to keep safe and very private. T. S."* 

1728. George II. having succeeded to the throne, Wm. 
Burnet was the following year appointed Governor of the 

On the 28th of Nov. 1728, Capt. Gyles, commander of 
the garrison at St. George's Fort, received a commission as a 
Justice of the Peace, and was, probably, the first civil magis- 
trate resident on the banks of this river.t 

1729. The eastern country had not, since the peace, 
been filling with settlements and multiplying improvements 

* Willis's Jour. Rev. T. Smith, p. 65 and Editor's note, 
t Giles's Captivity. 


equal to expectation. Encouragement was not offered suffi- 
cient to induce settlers to leave the older towns ; and the 
introduction of foreigners was discouraged by burdensome 

The proprietors of the Muscongus Patent, however, renew- 
ed their efforts for a settlement at St. George's. They had 
actually engaged a minister of the gospel and 120 families 
to go down and settle there; but the measure was interrupted 
by Col. David Dunbar, who positively forbade their proceed- 
ing upon any other condition than that of taking deeds under 
him, to the acknowledgment of the invalidity of their own 
title.* Dunbar, a reduced and indigent colonel of the army, 
recently appointed surveyor of the king's woods in America, 
by the aid of persons inimical to the puritans, had obtained a 
royal order by which the entire Province of Sagadahoc was 
given into his hands, and he directed to settle, superintend, 
and govern it ; little more being required of him than to pre- 
serve 300,000 acres of the best pine and oak for the use of 
the crown. Having secured the aid of the Governor of 
Nova Scotia, he took up his residence at Pemaquid, repaired 
the fort which he now named Fort Frederick, laid out a city 
near it, and, by regranting the lands without much regard to 
the rights of the former occupants, added to the conflicting 
titles which already existed in that neighborhood. The gov- 
ernor of Nova Scotia was called upon to take possession in 
opposition to the jurisdiction of Massachusetts ; and troops 
were sent from Annapolis to garrison the fort. Three towns 
were laid out and named Townshend, Harrington, and Wal- 
pole ;t which names continued in use for many years, and 
are occasionally heard to this day. Settlers, many of them 
most valuable and estimable, were drawn thither by the offer 
of 100 acres of land each ; and the erection at Damaris- 
cottaof a grist-mill and two double saw-mills afforded an addi- 
tional inducement. These mills were built in 1730 by Wm. 
Vaughan, Esq. at that time extensively concerned in the 
fisheries at Monhegan and Matinicus.J 

1730-1. There were at this time between Muscongus 
and Kennebec about 150 families, probably 900 or 1000 
inhabitants. Such of them as acknowledged the jurisdiction 
of Massachusetts, or refused to take deeds from Dunbar, who 
showed much firmness and ability in his office, were violently 

* S. Waldo's petition in Leg. Rep. 1731. 
t Now liootjjbay, Bristol and Nobleboro'. 
t Pemaquid papers and land claims. 


ejected from their lands ; and some complained that he had 
even seized their timber, burnt their houses, and threatened 
themselves with imprisonment. Petitions and complaints 
against him being presented to the General Court, a commit- 
tee of that body made a full report of the claims of Massa- 
chusetts and the conduct of Dunbar ; and a statement of the 
whole was ordered to be presented to the Lords of Trade 
and his removal solicited. Samuel Waldo of Boston, a 
gentleman of good capacity and great activity, having now 
a large interest in the Muscongus Patent, was chosen agent 
by the proprietors and sent to London on the same errand. 
The proprietors of other grants also petitioned for the removal 
of this troublesome officer. 

The King's Attorney and Solicitor Generals, having, Aug. 
11, 1731, given their opinion in favor of the claim of Massa- 
chusetts, Dunbar was at length, through the persevering 
efforts of Mr. Waldo and the colony agent, deprived of his 
extraordinary commission, though he still continued surveyor 
of the king's woods for nine or ten years, afterwards.* He 
returned and spent two years in the vicinity of Pemaquid 
after his authority was revoked. During his residence there, 
he erected a commodious dwellinghouset at the head of the 
Bay in Walpole, which he surrounded with a farm and good 
accommodations, and beautified with a well cultivated and 
tasteful garden. 

Some farther provision was at this time made for the ac- 
commodation of the garrison at St. George's ; and, at the 
request of Capt. Gyles, the General Court voted, that " for- 
asmuch as transporting of wood for the garrison in the usual 
manner is found too difficult, the said Gyles have liberty, at 
the charge of the province, to purchase one yoke of oxen, 
one cart and sled for that service, (the soldiers to cut and 
cart the wood, and get hay for keeping the oxen in the season 
thereof.") It was also voted, August 10, 1731, that the treas- 
urer *' be directed to supply Mr. Thomas Pierpoint, chaplain 
at the blockhouse on St. George's River, to the value of ten 
pounds, for supplying him with sundry conveniences, as hath 
been heretofore accustomed for persons of his function. "| 

1732. In 1732 Gov. Belcher made a visit with a large 
retinue as far east as St. George's, having previously held a 
talk with the Indians at Falmouth and communicated the 

* Sullivan, Williamson, &c. t Com. Rep. 1811, p. 156, &c. 

t Jour. House, for June and August, 1731. 


intelligence that three missionaries of the " Society for pro- 
moting Christian knowledge" were intended for this Province, 
and that the General Court had granted them an annual 
salary of =£100, on condition of their officiating as chaplains 
also to the garrisons. One of these was to reside at St. 
George's, one at Fort Richmond, and another at Cushnoc, 
now Augusta, where a town and church were about to be 
built. The Indians at this conference complained that there 
" was not a prudent care as to the giving out of liquor at 
St. George's ; they give the Indians too much rum, which 
makes them drunk, and we desire that care be taken to pre- 
vent it. They also said the smith at St. George's does not 
take proper care to mend our arms, but does it negligently ; 
and that when we come to St. George's we have not liberty to 
lie in any of the houses but are exposed to lie abroad in the 
rain and bad weather ; we therefore desire a house to lodge 
in." The Governor assured them that these requests should 
be attended to, and said complaints were made at Kennebec 
of damage done by their dogs not being muzzled according 
to the treaty ; and also of their killing Mr. Vaughan's cattle 
at Matinicus six years before, to the value of <£30, and more 
recently an ox, for which no payment had been made. The 
Indians said the ox was killed by mistake, but agreed to give 
32 pounds of beaver for it, and likewise to pay for the dam- 
age done to the cattle. They also complained that some 
"sour meal and damnified tobacco" had been dealt out to 
them at St. George's fort, and two of their dogs, which they 
valued at <£10 apiece, were killed there for only barking at 
a cow. Being assured that restitution should be made on 
their giving the offenders' names, they said the damaged 
goods were sold in the absence of Mr. Wainwright, the 
superintendent at the time, and as to the dogs they thought it 
so light a matter they did not mention it to Capt. Gyles, and 
should not have done so now but for the complaints about the 
cattle. 'J he Governor assured them that all their injuries, 
if seasonably made known, should be redressed ; and con- 
cluded by distributing presents among them and drinking the 
king's health. In a subsequent message to the Legislature, 
he pronounced a high eulogium upon the soil, rivers, and 
natural advantages of the country ; and, amongst other meas- 
ures, recommended the rebuilding of the fort at St. George's, 
which was then in a state of decay. As an additional in- 


dncernent, he added that good stone and Hme abounded 

1733-4. Peace being now well established, and likely 
to continue, both the government and individual proprietors 
turned their attention more earnestly to the formation of new 
settlements. Mr. Waldo, having his portion of the Muscon- 
gus patent, or, as it was usually called after this time, the 
Waldo patent, now set off in severalty, and being in exclu- 
sive possession of the lands on the St. George's, b(^gan the 
work of settlement in good earnest. Having made experi- 
ments upon the limestone found near the river, and finding it 
good, he caused a lime kiln t to be erected by ^Robert Mclntyre, 
who commenced the burning of lime in considerable quanti- 
ties for the Boston market. From this time the manufacture 
began to increase and has continued to do so down to the 
present time. The lime was for many years put up in hogs- 
heads which had been used for molasses ; it being then sup- 
posed that casks could not be made here for the want of 
suitable hoops. Mr. Waldo also began to make surveys 
about this time, and other preparations for an extensive 

This, together with similar preparations in other places, 
excited the jealousy of the Indians. Great complaint was 
made, also, that individual traders and adventurers furnished 
them with large quantities of intoxicating liquors, and prac- 
tised upon them every kind of imposition. | Yet, at a talk 
with several Sachems held by the Governor at Pemaquid in 
the summer of 1734, he received the most unequivocal as- 
surances, that notwithstanding these grievances, the Indians 
were peacefully disposed and determined to continue on 
friendly terms. 

The paper currency was now reduced to nearly seventy 
per cent, discount; and, as it remained a legal tender at its 
nominal value, it produced great confusion in business, and, 
to some extent, discouraged new settlements. § 

1735. Not at all discouraged, however, Mr. Waldo in 
April, 1735, paid a visit to St. George's, and, with the aid 

* See printed Indian conference of 1732 and Waldo's petition. 

t The remains of this kiln are, or lately were, still to be seen on 
the bank of the river between the lower toll-bridge and the site of 
Mr. Paine's old store. The Mclntyre here mentioned as the father of 
lime burners was the son of William Mclntyre, who was afterwards 
one of the first settlers in the town of Warren. — Com. of A. Kel- 
ioch, 1st, and I. Spear. 

t 2 Will. Hist. p. 183. § Belknap's New Hampshire. 


of Captain Gyles as interpreter, held a conference with the 
Penobscot or Tarratine Indians, to whom he presented a 
friendly letter from Gov. Burnet, and gave such explanations 
of the intended settlement as to gain their apparent consent. 
A number of people, attracted from various quarters by the 
offer of liberal terms, met him at the fort, and, after exam- 
ining the place and the advantages it offered, concluded to 
settle on the river. Sensible of the benefits of similarity of 
customs and national associations, Waldo determined to 
l-ocate those of the same origin in the same neighborhood ; 
and accordingly this company consisted wholly of natives of 
Ireland, or their immediate descendants. They were all 
from the north of Ireland, of the Protestant religion, and 
originally descended from Scottish families who emigrated to 
Ireland at an early period, usually called Scotch-Irish. Some 
of them came over to this country with the company that 
settled at Londonderry and otlier adjacent towns in New 
Hampshire in 1719. Others had been in the country a short 
time, residing at Pemaquid, Portsmouth, Boston and other 
places along the coast. But as most of them had been bred 
up as mechanics only, they were not very well fitted to act 
as pioneers in the warfare that was now to be waged with the 
obstacles of nature in the primeval forest. Notwithstanding 
this, however, a competent number of them formed the reso- 
lution of settling on this river. It is said that seven of them, 
viz. : Alex. McLean, Wm. Mclntyre, James Howard, Robert 
Spear, and three others not recollected, had previously been 
deputed, by their associates in Boston and vicinity, to select 
a suitable place for settlement ; and that, after visiting Pema- 
quid, the Kennebec, and other places, they were so struck with 
the advantages of this river as at once to give it the prefer- 
ence. But whether this was previous to 1729 when 120 
families were engaged to settle there, or whether the present 
settlers had any connexion with those, we are unable to state. 
Certain it is, that 27 persons now entered into an agreement 
with Mr. Waldo, dated St. George's Fort, April 18th,* 1735, 
by which they engaged to settle themselves and families 
on St. George's river, to build on their several lots a con- 
venient dwellinghouse within eight months and dwell there- 
in three years, either in their own persons, or by their 
tenants or agents ; and within two years to clear and sub- 
due four acres of land. Mr. Waldo, on his part, agreed 

* This was in the old style, and equivalent to April 29tb, new 


to give to the said settlers a tract of land on the western 
branch* of said river, consisting of one lot of 100 acres to 
each settler to be laid out 40 rods wide on the river and to 
extend back till the quantity was completed. The tract was 
to begin 100 rods above the upper lime-kiln on the north side 
of said western branch, and extend up toward the falls, 
leaving a sufficient space below the same for building a mill, 
dam and other appendages ; and the rest of said lots were to 
be laid out in the same manner on the opposite side of the 
river. These lots were to be given without any rent or ac- 
knowledgment, although when he came to give deeds after 
the settlers had performed their part of the conditions, Mr. 
Waldo took care to reserve a quit-rent of " one pepper-corn 
per annum if lawfully demanded," which was probably intend- 
ed to preserve a kind of feudal claim in the family and 
prevent the lands from escheating to the crown. He also 
agreed to give them as much land in the rear of their front 
lots as they severally subscribed for, on condition of paying 
him an annual quit-rent of one penny sterling per acre. 
Most of them subscribed for two or three hundred acres, but 
so formidable was the payment of this sum that few of them 
ventured to take deeds. Those who did, however, as events 
turned out, were the most fortunate, as, from political changes 
or the neglect of the proprietors, the rent was never called 
for, and was ultimately forfeited. He also agreed that if 
said lots contained, on an average, less than ten acres of 
good marsh or meadow, the deficiency should be made up by 
a grant of other meadow lands in the vicinity and the same 
amount deducted from the rear of said front lots ; and, like- 
wise, that for the space of seven years the said settlers should 
be entitled to cut one half the hay on all Mr. Waldo's 
meadows in the vicinity. It was further agreed that Mr. 
Waldo should lay out good and commodious highways 
into the country, one at least to every five lots ; should build 
a meeting-house at his own expense and give " what he 
phases''^ for the support of the ministry ; that he should give 
a lot of 100 acres to the first settled minister, two others, 
one for the support of the ministry, and the other for the 
support of a free school forever ; that he should take at con- 
venient landings on the river, all the cord- wood furnished by 
the settlers, at seven shillings New England currency, per 
cord, provided tliey could not more advantageously dispose 

* By the western branch was intended the main river, in contra- 
distinction to the mill creek, or eastern branch. 


of it ; that the settlers might dig any lime-stone on his lands 
not otherwise appropriated, for burning lime for their own 
use, but not for sale or exportation; and that the settlers 
should lay out a road four rods wide across their lots, or on 
the bank of the river, as most convenient. The quit-rent on 
the back lots was to commence in ten years from the 25th 
day of June ; and the several settlers were to draw lots for 
their respective farms on the 4th day of May at Pemaquid. 
Thither they probably repaired ; as some of them, with 
others of their countrymen, had, not many years before, 
settled in that place and at Damariscotta. The names of 
those who signed the contract were Henry Alexander, John 
North, Jr., David Patterson, John McLeen,* Samuel Boogs, 
Thomas Garven, James Howard, Thomas McCordy, John 
McCraken, Daniel Elliot, Thomas Gregg, John Malcom, 
Thomas Kirkpatrick, Wm. Walker, Wm. James, Daniel 
McCleester, Thomas Henderson, James Sprawl, David Creigh- 
ton, Brice Blair, Wm. Starret, Moses Young, John Young, 
Robert Spear, Daniel Morison, Alexander Larman and John 
Scot. But, as several of these had children or friends whom 
they wished to provide for, they contracted not only for them- 
selves but also in behalf of 19 others, who were either at 
this time absent or under age. These were John Alexander, 
John Hasty, John Boogs, John McFarland, Samuel Howard, 
Edward Sulfridge, John and Andrew Kirkpatrick, Wm. 
Mclntyre, James Nelson, Abraham Creighton, Andrew Fos- 
set, Robert Lushe, Wm. Larman, Hugh Scot, Alexander 
McLeen, John McCordy, James Long and Simon Elliot. t 

Nothing farther was done by the settlers till the following 
year ; but Mr. Waldo continued to make improvements, erect- 
ed a saw-mill on the eastern branch, since called Mill River, 
and caused the lots contracted for to be surveyed so far as 
to mark their bounds at the river and run the lines back a 
short distance, leaving the rest to be finished at a future time. 
In November he visited the place in person and held a sec- 
ond conference with the Indians, who appeared satisfied with 
his proceedings. 

1736. Such was the train of events which prepared the 

* His descendants speh their name McLean, those of Mr. Boogs 
spelt theirs Bogs and latterly Boggs ; and those of Mr. Larman 
changed theirs to Lermond; whilst Kirkpatrick, as he wrote his 
name on this occasion, seems on all others to have written it as it 
was uniformly pronounced, Killpatrick, — a name which in Ireland 
is synonymous with Kirkpatrick in Scotland. 

t See the contract at large in York Records. 


way for a settlement on this river ; such were the preparations 
made ; such was the state of the country ; and such the 
men who undertook the enterprise — the orijirinal fotliers of 
the present town of Warren. One hundred and five years 
had now elapsed since the firet trading-house was established. 
on the banks cf this river ; yet with the exception of the 
mill, fort, and perhaps a few houses in its immediate vicinity, 
no marks of civilization existed ; no inroads were made upon 
that yet unbroken forest, which over the whole country 
sheltered the moose and the Indian, alike from the scorching, 
suns of summer and the howling storms of winter. 

The patron of the undertaking in the agreemrent entered into 
with the settlers, styled himself Samuel Waldo of Boston, 
merchant; and, from the business which he carried on in 
that place and the eastern country, was ready to supply 
them with boards, nails, provisions and other necessaries^ 
in exchange for wood, staves, and other productions of the 
forest. The lots assigned to the settlere commenced with th© 
Shibles lot in the present town of Thomaston and extended 
up on the eastern side of the river as far as the southern line 
of the Kirkpatrick lot near M. H. Smith's in Warrea ; iheu 
commencing opposite, they extended down on the western side 
till the required number was made up, omitting such as con- 
tained mill privileges, which were reserved to the proprietor. 
The original number contemplated to be settled was forty ; 
and so the contract reads ; but as it purported also ta grant 
a lot to each settler and was signed by and in behalf of forty- 
seven persons, that was the number granted ; the proprietor 
probably considering, as things were, that every lot given to 
an actual settler was so much gained towards the accomplish- 
ment of his object. The forty lots originally contemplated^ 
together with the three to be given for public uses, v;ero sur- 
veyed and numbered as follows. Beginning above Oyster 
E-iver with the lot now owned by Capt. D. Lermond, which 
Avas Number 1, they extended up the eastern side of the river 
to Number 15 at the head of the tide ; then omitting two mill 
lots on the other side of the river, were numbered downward, 
and ended at the line of the present town of Gushing, with 
the farm of Rufus B. Copeland, Esq. which was No. 43. This 
was the tract intended for the first forty settlers ; but to ac- 
commodate the whole number included in the contract, seveiii 
additional lots on the eastern side below Oyster River, num- 
bered southerly from 44 to 50, were added, extending down 
to within 100 rods of the old lime-kiln. The southernmost 



of these was thn Shibles lot in the present town of Thomas- 
tou, the boundary line of which was near the house built by 
the late J. Paine, Esq. and afterwards occupied by his son, J. 
G. Paine.* 

This was called " the upper town of St. George's." Mr. 
Waldo, besides making a similar contract for the settlement of 
" the lower town" extending to the mouth of the river, pro- 
posed to continue his settlements above to its source. But Mr. 
Pebbles having taken up the mill-lot now owned by H. Hilt, 
the Indians observing this and preparations for constructing 
mills going on, made strong remonstrances against the same, 
and, marking a tree on the shore at the Uead of tide waters, 
positively forbade all intrusion of the whites above it. Re- 
ceiving no sufficient assurances from the proprietor, they at 
length became so dissatisfied with the proceedings here, that 
they sent a delegation to the Legislature to remonstrate 
against them. They represented that they had never con- 
sented to let Englishmen build houses above the tide waters of 
the St. George's ; and yet Mr. Waldo and his people were 
encroaching upon Indians' lands and rights to a fearful extent; 
and they could no longer endure the sight of such flagrant 
wrongs. A committee to whom their complaints were re- 
ferred, reported that Madockawando had assigned to Sir 
Wm. Phips, in 1694, the lands on both sides the river St. 
George's as far as the upper falls; that the chiefs, although 
they denied the right of Madockawando to make such assign- 
ment, acknowledge they have consented to have settlements 
made as far up the river as to the falls, or flowing of tide 
waters ; and the committee believed that neither " Mr. Waldo 
or any others" ought to be protected " in settling or improv- 
ing any lands on that river above the falls, until this govern- 
ment shall be satisfied that these lands have been fairly pur- 
chased, "t In spite of the active opposition of Mr. Waldo, 
the report was accepted by the Legislature ; presents worth 
^100 were sent to the tribe ; and their delegates returned 
home well satisfied. So entirely tranquil were all the tribes, 
that the fort at Pemaquid, and others, were dismantled ; and 
the garrison at St George's was reduced to one commissioned 
officer and ten sentinels. On this occasion Capt. Gyles re- 
tired from ihe command of the garrison and settled at Rox- 
bury, Mass. where he was living in 1753. t 

* Old plan in possession of J. Gleason, Esq. Old deeds and tra- 

t A. Kelloch, Mass. C. Records p. 359—361. 
t 2 Will. Hist. p. 191. 



Having determined their several possessions by lot, the 
settlers of tlie " upper town of St. George's" in the summer 
of 1736 proceeded to the place, and, after several transfers 
for mutual accommodation, located themselves as follows. 
On the southernmost lot on the eastern side of the river, 
marked No. 50, John Kilpatrick ; on the lot above. No. 49, 
Thomas Kilpatrick ; No 48, Moses Young, who was succeed- 
ed first by John North, Jr. and secondly by Patrick Porter- 
field ; No. 47, Henry Alexander; No. 46, John Alexander ; 
No. 45, John McDowel ; No. 44, Abraham Creighton, suc- 
ceeded by David Creighton, 2d. The lot above, marked No-. 
1, was taken by Wm. Walker ; No. 2, by Joseph Giffen ; 
No. 3, Wm. James ; No, 4, Alex. Lermond ; No. 5, John 
Scot, who in 1737 assigned the same to W^m. Lermond aiid 
remained at W\ilpole ; No. 6, Plugh Scot ; No. 7, John 

McCraken ; No. 8, Heinbury ; Nos 9 and 10, Thomas 

Plenderson ; No. 11, John Young; No. 12, Robert Lushe ; 
No. 13, John McLean ; and No. 14, by Alex. McLean. 
The two mill lots on the western side of the river, and per- 
haps No. 15 on the eastern side, at the present WaiTcn vil- 
lage, were, either at this time, or not long after, taken by 

Campbell, on an agreement with Waldo to erect mills 

there on certain conditions. There is some uncertainty 
respecting No. 16, but No. 17 fell to James Howard, No. 18 
to Samuel Howard, No. 19 to Andrew Kilpatrick ; No. 20, 
Wm. McTntyre; No. 21, Robert Spear; No. 22, Moses Rob- 
inson ; No. 23, Phinley Kelloch ; No. 24, Wm. Allen ; No. 
25, Thomas Gregg ; No. 26, Mountford ; No. 27, Pat- 
rick Pebbles ; No. 28, Barnard ; No. 29 was reserved 

for the first settled minister ; Nos. 30 and 31, for the support 
of the ministry and schools ; No. 32, Thomas McCordy ; No. 

33, Lincoln ; No. 34, John McCordy ; No. 35, David 

Patterson ; No. 36, or 37, Brice Blair ; No. 38, Wm. Star- 
rett; No. 39, David Creighlon ; No. 40, Archibald Ganiblo ; 
No. 41, John Walker; a"nd No. 42, .Tames McCarter. No, 
43 was drawn by Samuel Boggs ; but disliking the soil, he re- 
linquished that, and, with Waldo's consent, took up three 
lots for himself and sons above the mill lots on the western 
side of the river. It will be observed that several of these 
names are different from those appended to the contract. 
This is accounted for by the fact that several of the lots were 
taken for minors, whose interest might have been disposed of 
by their parents ; and by the supposition that some of the 
rest changed their minds and allowed others to settle in their 
stead, or, having settled, died or remo\^d so early that we 


find no nncmorials of them here. It is observable that while 
many, who from relationship or intimacy wished to be near 
neighbors, located themselves on contiguous lots, as the 
Alexanders,* Kilpatricks,t McLeans,* Scots,* and afterwards 
the Lermonds ; others, for the same reason, settled opposite 
each other on different sides of the river, as David and Abra- 
ham Creighton,* Wm. and John Walker,* as also Robert 
Spear and Phinley Kelloch, who settled opposite their fathers- 
in-law, John McLean and John Young. The last of these 
placed his house so near the edge of the river that one side 
of his cellar afterwards caved off and slid down the bank. 

Some of these settlers brought some catde, which found 
ample subsistence in the woods and marshes. They pro- 
ceeded to erect their several houses of logs near the banks 
of the river, covering the roofs with boards supplied by Wal- 
do's mill and probably brought round in rafts from Mill River. 
Most of them had a cellar, unwalled, large enough to contain 
a small store of potatoes, and entered through a trap-door 
near the centre of the principal, or, rather, the only room. 
In one corner of this room a large fireplace was constructed 
by erecting the back and one jamb of stone cemented with 
ciay or lime, having a post of wood at the opposite angle sup- 
porting a mantel-tree and cross timber of the same material. 
All above this was constructed of cat-and-clay, that is, clefts 
of wood laid up cob-howse fashion, with interstices filled and 
sides plastered with clay irjortar. Upon a spacious hearth of 
flat stones an ample store of wood that grew at the door was 
heaped ; and the open jamb allowed a free passage into the 
room of the light and heat from the blazing pile. To assist 
in bringing the building materials together, the settlers sent 
twenty miles to Damariscotta for a yoke of oxen. Something 
was done towards clearing the land ; hay Wvas secured for 
winter ; and in the autumn twenty-five or thirty families re- 
moved to their new homes. f 

As their chief dependence, at first, was on provisions pur- 
chased of Waldo, they betook themselves to getting out cord- 
wood and staves, which, as the trees grew near the river, were 
transported to convenient landings on hand-sleds. This mode 
of transportation continued for several years, till, in progress 
of improvement, horses were introduced and cars substituted 

* These, it is believed, bore the relation of father and son. 
t These were brothers, and, with Andrew Kilpatrick probably 
another brother, lived bachelors and left no posterity. 
I A. Kelloch, 1st., M. Copeland, Esq., Rev. J. Huse. 


for hand-sleds. The car was formed of two shafts framed 
together, one end resting on the ground, the other attached 
to the horse in the manner of thills. One foot of green 
wood, or ICO staves, made the usual load on this vehicle. 
Hunting and fishing were occasionally resorted to, and, at 
particular times, furnished a copious supply of food. Moose, 
deer, bears, and beavers abounded in the woods ; and frost- 
fish, smelts, alewives, shad, and salmon succeeded each other 
in the river ; while the ocean opened its stores to such as had 
the means of taking them. Clams and oysters were also 
very abundant. The settlers, being unacquainted with the 
management of new lands, did but little in the line of hus- 
bandry, except raising a few patches of potatoes, which they 
cultivated, after the Irish fashion, in beds with trenches be- 
tween, the marks of which are still to be seen in many places 
near the ancient cellars. These they usually manured with 
rock-weed. When supplies of provisions failed to arrive 
from Boston, they subsisted on fish, clams and ground-nuts, 
in a manner the present generation can form but a faint idea 
of. Though collected from different places, and composed of 
various characters, yet, being from the same country, a broth- 
erly feeling prevailed, and hospitality and kindness were 
common to all. A moose or a bear slain by one, was divided 
among the whole colony ; and when one had a house to 
build, or other work of magnitude to perform, all, or as many 
as were needed, turned out to assist him. Although they had 
many difficulties to encounter, yet their Christian fortitude 
and native buoyancy of spirits enabled them to do so with 
cheerfulness. Some had been used to poverty at home, and 
had little reason to complain ; others were men of property 
and were consoled in their present hardships by the prospect 
of future advantage. Waldo had at this time two lime-kilns 
in operation ; the upper one, mentioned in the contract, stood 
at the shore of the river near the present State Prison ; the 
other lower down. Among the earliest children of these set- 
tlers were John Spear, father of a numerous family, and 
Thomas Starrett, afterwards a distinguished chizen, both born 
on the western side of the river, about 1738. 

1739- Gov. Belcher continued assiduous in his attention 
to the eastern country, frequently visited all parts of the 
coast, held many conferences with the Indians, and tried 
every means to induce them to remain friendly. But on his 
return he communicated to the Legislature his fears that a 
rupture would again take place, and recommended various 
precautions and measures of defence against such a contin- 


gency. A small garrison was placed in Fort Frederick, 
whilst the strictest care was enjoined upon the agents at the 
truck-houses, who were required to post up the invoice prices 
of their goods; to render a fair account upon oath of all the 
sales made, and furs purchased ; and, if possible, to preserve 
a good understanding, at least with the Tarratines. 

VVm. Pepperell of Kittery was at this time Colonel of the 
Yorkshire regiment ; by whose exertions a better military 
spirit was diffused among the officers and soldiers, the ranks 
filled, and new companies established. The next winter, his 
regiment was divided, and the command of the eastern or 
new one given to Samuel Waldo, who had now removed to 
Falmouth, and whose appointment met with entire accept- 

In pursuance of these measures of defence, and at the re- 
commendation of Waldo, the inhabitants of St. George's 
about this time, assembled and made choice of Henry Alex- 
ander as a candidate for the office of captain. t This was 
an honor not to be passed over without acknowledgment ; 
and the Captain elect invited the people to a kind of enter- 
tainment, at his house, on a subsequent day. Tradition re- 
lates that on this occasion he procured at the fort one gallon 
of rum and a pound of tea. Directing his wife to prepare 
the latter for the women, he served out the former to the men 
who were enjoying their rude mirth out of doors. On com- 
ing in to see how matters went on within, he found his wife 
had served up the tea leaves, well buttered, as a species of 
food. On apprising her of her mistake and inquiring for the 
broth, his wife said, " that is g;ood for nothing, for I poured 
it out, and the very pigs would not drink it." When we con- 
sider that tea had been used even in England but seventy 
years before this, we may well believe the truth of this an- 

1740. Letters of marque and reprisal having been au- 
thorized against Spain, and danger from Spanish privateers 
and the French influence with the Indians being apprehended, 
c£3,000 were, on the 23d of June, 1740, appropriated for 
putting the various eastern fortresses in a posture of defence. 
A vessel was likewise built for the protection of the coasting 

* 2 Will. His. p. 201. 

t Militia officers under the royal charter were appointed by tJie 
Governor ; this cl)oice therefore amounted only to arecomineudation. 
Charter of Wra. &. Mary. 


and truck trade ; and a fortress was erected or enlarged at 

Notwithstanding the apprehensions of war, Waldo contin- 
ued the prosecution of his settlement at St. George's with 
vigor, and in 1740 erected a grist-mill at Oyster River, a 
little ahove the present bridge ; a strong proof that the set- 
tlers had made some progress in agricultural operations and 
were beginning to supply themselves with bread. In the 
same year he built, on the lot given for the support of the 
ministry near the western niargin of the river, a meeting- 
house ; the outside of which was well finished in all respects 
but the hanging of the doors. It was 40 feet long and 30 
wide, without porch or belfry, with one door on the front or 
south side, and one on the west end towards the burying 
ground. The timber was cut on the same lot, and being 
of clear pine, the posts and beams were planed and beaded 
to save the trouble of casing. The walls were formed of 
plank spiked on without studs, and well clapboarded. The 
window frames and door casings, only, were painted. The 
windows were glazed with small 3 by 4 inch panes, set in 
lead-sashes, but not in the diamond-form which prevailed in 
the earlier houses of New England. On the inside nothing 
was done but the completion of a pulpit ; and temporary 
seats of rough boards were provided for the worshippers. 
Meetings were more or less frequently held in this house 
until after the dismissal of Mr. Urquhart in 1783. Another 
frame of a meeting-house was prepared at the same time 
and place, intended for the lower town, the settlement of 
which Mr. Waldo was then projecting or enlarging ;* but it 
was never moved from the spot. 

It was at, or about, this time that letters were brought by 
the Indians from some shipwrecked persons on Mt. Desert, 
who were suffering every extremity and dying with hunger. 
The Indians had given them what little aid they could, and 
now came with letters to this settlement and that at Damaris- 
cotta for farther assistance. Measures were immediately con- 
certed by the people of these two places, and a vessel with 
provisions despatched to their relief. - They proved to be 
passengers from the north of Ireland, who had embarked in 
the ship ' Grand Design,' of two or three hundred tons, 

* There were a few settlers in the upper part of Gushing as early 
as 17*33, where Archibald Robinson, son of JMoses Robinson, was 
born in 1734, probably the earliest child of European parents on the 
river. — Will. Ilis., A. Lerniond, and otherg. 


liouncl to Pennsylvania, which was driven ashore and wrecked 
in a violent storm. Most of them were persons of wealth and 
distinction who were going to rejoin their friends and connex- 
ions in that colony. Many of them had with them a train of 
bond-servants, male and female, all of whom, on landing 
from the wreck, they immediately released and gave them 
an equal chance for life with themselves. After escaping 
from the wreck they examined the island and found it unin- 
habited. Under this discouraging circumstance they exerted 
themselves to the utmost to save what provisions and other 
necessaries they could from the ship. Exhausted by their 
efforts and fainting with thirst, numbers of them repaired to 
a brook to drink, and, overcome by the cooling draught, 
never rose again. Making the best shift for shelter and sub- 
sistence which their situation would permit, they dispatched 
a party of one hundred of their most able and vigorous 
young men to the main land, in hopes of finding a settlement 
there from whom assistance might be obtained. Nothing 
farther was ever seen or heard of this part of their com- 
panions. The remainder, waiting for their return, spent 
many wearisome months of disappointment, exposure and 
starvation, relieved only by the scanty and uncertain re- 
sources which the waves and shore afforded. Many perished 
of want. At length a party of Indians visited the Island, and, 
though without interpreters, a barter was effected of a few 
articles of food in exchange for clothing and other matters 
furnished by the sufferers. Among these passengers were 
a Mrs. Galloway and another lady, who had not been long 
married when they left Ireland. The former of these brought 
with her an infant three months old, whom she nursed in this 
abode of wretchedness, till blood instead of milk followed its 
emaciated lips. Her husband gave to the Indians two pieces 
of fine Irish linen for one duck, which, refusing to taste him- 
self, he reserved exclusively for her. The sufferings of the 
mother were such as often to extort from the father a wish 
that the child might breathe its last. Yet both mother and 
child survived ; whilst the father, as also the husband of the 
other lady, died from exhaustion. These two women dug 
graves and buried their own husbands, there being no men 
of strength enough remaining to afford any assistance. The 
vessel that came to their relief brought some provisions, but, 
as she was sometime detained, these were all exhausted, and 
they arrived at St. George's in a most famishing condition. 
Going on shore at Pleasant Point where there was then only 
one log house, they were received with all the hospitality the 


place would afford. Many of them were richly clad with 
the remnants of their wardrobes wliich had escaped the 
wreck; but now in the impatience of hunger tlicy were 
ready to snatch half roasted potatoes from the ashes into 
lawn aprons and silk dresses, and devour them without plate, 
knife, or fork. Mrs. Galloway had imagined before landing, 
because burdened with a child, that no one would be willing to 
receive her ; but here she found herself provided with a bed, 
whilst the rest were glad to sleep on the floor and in hovels 
as they could. Before landing she had inquired what kind 
of people were settled here, and, hearing they were Irish, 
exclaimed " alas ! I sha'nt be able to speak to them, for I 
do'nt know a single word of the Irish language."* She was 
now rejoiced to find the inhabitants as ignorant of that lan- 
guage as hei*self, being all from the north of Ireland and of 
Scottish descent. Sixteen of these persons went to the 
settlement up the river, the rest to Pemaquid, Sheepscot and 
Damariscotta. Archibald Gamble, a young man from Ire- 
land who had then taken a farm in the upper town, (now the 
Bucklin lot,) offered himself to Mrs. Galloway, and Mr. 
McCarter to her companion before mentioned. Having lost 
their husbands, whose relations they were going to join in 
Pennsylvania, and having no acquaintances there themselves, 
these two women, whose sufferings had bound them together 
in the closest ties of friendship, accepted their respective 
offers and remained in the settlement. They vvere ever after 
extremely affectionate and intimate, more so than any two 
sisters ; and though they could never meet without embracing 
and weeping, it was always a day of rejoicing when either 
of them came to visit the other. The child of Mrs. Gallo- 
way was sent for by his uncle in Pennsylvania, who had 
taken offence at the mother for marrying again so soon, but 
she declined the offer till he should grow up to determine 
for himself. He was afterwards lost at sea. From one of 
these women are descended the Coombses and Creightons in 
Thomaston and the Bucklins in Warren ; and from the other 
the McCarters in Cushing.t 

The same year, 1740, forty German families from Bruns- 
wick and Saxony, tempted by the imposing otTers which the 

* The appellation of Irish was tlien in their own country given 
almost exclusively to liiose of Celtic origin who spoke the Gaelic, 
Erse or Irish language, and were tiien, as now, mostly of the Roman 
Catholic religion. — Macauley's His. Eng. vol. 2. p. 119. 

t Mrs. H. Prince, J. Bucklin, Mrs. S. Fuller. 


indefatigable Waldo when in Europe had made and caused 
to be circulated in their language, after first landing at Brain- 
tree, Mass., arrived at Broad Bay and laid the found- 
ation of the present town of Waldoborough. Prior to this, 
there was no setdement nearer to St. George's than Penaa- 
quid and Damariscotta. 

These German families settled on both sides the river, or bay, 
as far down as the McGuire and Feyler lots. Those who set- 
tled on the western side, or Dutch Neck, were located there 
by Waldo's directions ; who then supposed his patent would 
cover all the lands from the Muscongus river to the Penobscot. 
But, as by that instrument, the patentees were restrained from 
interfering with any other patent, when Shem Drowne, agent 
of the Pemaquid proprietors, in 1746 claimed the land on that 
side, the Waldo patent was, by compromise, construed to 
commence at Muscongus Island and extending, not up the 
Muscongus river, but the main river at the head of the bay, 
usually denominated the Medomak.* It is said that Waldo 
made an agreement with Drowne, by the terms of which the 
latter was to give the settlers deeds of their lots, as also the 
ministerial and school lots which Waldo had promised them. 
However this might be, no deeds were passed till a subsequent 
period ; when the occupants were obliged by the heirs of 
Drowne to pay for their lands. 

These settlers were unable to speak a word of the English 
language, and consequently could hold little intercourse and 
gain but little aid from their English neighbors. They were 
unacquainted widi the art of fishing ; had been unaccustomed 
to seeing lands enclosed by fences ; and were inexperienced 
in the clearing up of new lands. Their progress in agricul- 
ture was slow ; their crops were injured by wild beasts and 
the cattle that strayed from the neighboring settlements ; and 
they suffered incredible and almost insurmountable hardships. 
They had been induced to leave Germany by the promise of 
one hundred acres of land adjoining the salt-water ; a supply 
of provisions for a given number of years ; and the mainten- 

* From this circumstance the name of Muscongus has, in later 
times, been frequently applied to the Medomak ; and the heirs of 
Waldo, the Legislature of 1786, and Williamson, in Jiis History of 
Maine, seem to have considered tlie latter river as the true Muscon- 
gus. By the Indians, however, it was always called Medomak, which 
signifies a ' place of many suckers.' The name Muscongus was 
applied to the stream which empties into the bay between Bremen 
and Bristol, and was sometimes extended to the bay itself. 



ance of a gospel minister for the period of ten years. They 
complained much of disappointment in these promises ; even 
when kept to the ear, they were broken to the hope. Their 
lots were laid out but twenty-five rods wide, and ran back two 
miles in length. This was an inconvenient shape for a farm ; 
but they were easily reconciled to it at the time, as it brought 
their dwellings into close proximity. But the soil was hard, 
and covered with an unbroken forest, haunted by unknown 
beasts of prey, and strange and savage men. The salt-water 
indeed was there ; but no wharves, streets, or places of busi- 
ness were on its margin, and they could not avail themselves 
of the rich abundance which its depths concealed. There 
was then no fort, block-house, or place of retreat, in case of 
a hostile attack ; no grist-mill nearer than St. George's or 
Damariscotta to grind their scanty crops of rocken^ the only 
grain they raised. Most of it was prepared for cooking by 
bruising merely at home. Sighing for their father-land, but 
unable to return, they lingered out the tedious years, till the 
expedition to Louisburg, when they enlisted under Waldo, 
and removed their families to that place.* 

On the arrival of these German settlers, they found estab- 
lished in their neighborhood, near Broad-Cove, a Mr. Burns 
and a man by the name of Boice Cooper, both recently from 
Pemaquid. The latter was a humorous, eccentric character ; 
a genuine son of the Emerald Isle, fearless and reckless, pas- 
sionate and profane, but generous and hospitable, prodigal of 
his money, his time, and convivial hilarity. His father was 
a man of property, who emigrated from Ireland in a brig of 
his own, with a numerous train of dependents bound to him 
for a certain number of years to pay for their passage over. 
He resided first at Portsmouth, and afterwards at Pemaquid, 
coasting in his own vessel ; his wife and family sometimes 
making their home on board. As characteristic of the son, 
it is related that when the vessel needed repairs, the father 
hauled her up at Pemaquid for that purpose and went to Bos- 
ton to procure workmen. During his absence, some of the 
people, influenced either by motives of mischief or profit, 
persuaded Boice that it would be better to build a new one 
with the iron of the old. He seized upon the idea at once, 

* One of the principal men among these settlers was John Ulmer, 
who, though not a regular clergyman, acted as their preacher, and 
as such was paid by Waldo for about half the ten years stipulated — 
that is, till they removed to Louisburg. — Joseph Ludwig, Esq., Capt. 
Sproul, and Land Claims before Com. 181L 


set the brig on fire, and on the old gentleman's return nothing 
remained but her ashes. After this the father removed to 
Broad Bay and contracted with Waldo for several lots of land, 
performed the settlers' duties on two of them, and after two 
years died there, leaving his property to his only child, Boice. 
The latter remained there till after the coming of the Ger- 
mans ; but his habits, temper, and recklessness brought him 
into perpetual collision with them — their fists being more 
than a match for his tongue, especially as the latter was not 
understood. Tired of the unequal contest, he relinquished 
his possessions to Waldo and removed to George's River. 
Thomas Henderson having removed to Pleasant Point, Cooper 
took his two lots in the upper town, which with two back lots 
which he had the liberty of selecting, were deemed an equiv- 
alent for his possessions at Broad Bay. 

Not long after this removal, Mr. Cooper returned to Ireland, 
sold an inheritance there, and brought back a number of men 
and women, who signed an obligation to work for him seven 
years in payment of their passage. Among these were Law- 
rence Parsons, Thomas Holden, and two young women whom 
they afterwards married. Parsons was patronized by Cooper, 
was married at his house, and received from him the farm at 
Broad Cove in Gushing for no other consideration than one 
yoke of steers, which were not to be paid till he had time to 
raise them on the farm. Parsons went on to this farm in 
1750. He built several houses, such as they were, moving 
each time farther from the water, till his son Lawrence, who 
succeeded to the estate, built the two story house still stand- 
ing, set up tanning, and died having acquired a handsome 
property. The father survived him many years in the full 
possession of his faculties, living with his grand-children and 
dying at a very advanced age. Holden was likewise provided 
with a lot of land at Boothbay. Cooper brought up one of 
his daughters who was married to Joseph Skinner of this 

* Wm. Burns' Dep. Com. Rep. 161. Mrs. Montgomery, daughter 
of Cooper. L. Parsons, 1st. and others. 




1741. Gov. Belcher was, in 1741, succeeded by Wm. 
Shirley ; one of the first measures of whose administration 
was the improvement of the currency. The paper money, 
or bills issued by the Colony, having now depreciated, in pro- 
portion to silver, as five and a half to one, a compromise 
iDetween the different parties that divided the province on this 
subject was effected by a new emission of bills at 6s. 8d. to 
the ounce of silver, with a provision, that, when they sank 
below that rate, the difference should be made up to the cred- 
itor. This was called the neio tenor ^ in contradistinction to 
the former emission or old tenor. 

Symptoms of dissatisfaction among the Indians continued 
to be observed. Amongst other things, Alex. Lermond of 
St. George's testified that an ox belonging to his brother 
William, had been killed and his bones and hoofs found in 
the camp of the Indians. Andrew Kilpatrick of the same 
settlement, and two Indians, Col. Lucy and Maj. Moxas, 
confirmed the statement, having seen the same in the Indians' 

1743. Though great pains were taken to arrest this 
dissatisfaction at a conference held at St. George's in August, 
1742, yet the growing apprehensions that France was about 
to engage in the existing war on the side of Spain, and 
the certainty that her subjects would attempt to persuade the 
Indians to join them, induced the Legislature, in 1743, to 
appropriate .£1,280 for putting the eastern posts in a state of 
defence. Of this sum, =£75 were apportioned to Broad Bay, 
and £100 to St. George's. The fort at St. George's was 
rebuiltf and enlarged ; but the expenditure at Broad Bay was 
for the present delayed. The garrison at the former place 
was increased by the addition of 13 men, and placed under 
the command of Capt. Jabez Bradbury ; who also had a 

* Mass. ' Indian' Archives, vol. 2, p. 415. 

t According to tradition by one Capt. Robinson, who had for some 
time commanded the garrison and at his death was buried there. — A. 


Justice's commission.* The settlers above, experienced, pro- 
bably for the first time, the loss of one of their number, 
John McLean ; who died April 14, 1743, in the 58th year of 
his age. The settlement below, continued to increase by the 
accession of new comers, and about this time, was extended 
down the western side to the mouth of the river, forming what 
was called the " lower town of St. George's." Some settlers, 
probably from other parts of New England, were also locat- 
ed at Medumcook, now Friendship. 

1744. As soon as the news of the declaration of war 
by France, which took place March 15th, 1744, arrived in 
this country, the French, who first received the intelligence, 
in concert with the Indians, commenced the war in Nova 
Scotia by an attack on Canseau and Annapolis. Immediate 
measures were adopted for the defence of the eastern coun- 
try ; and encouragement was given to the inhabitants to 
remain and defend their possessions. The garrison at St. 
George's was still farther increased to forty men. 

As the St. Johns Indians were concerned in the attack 
upon Annapolis, it was feared that the other eastern Indians 
would be disposed also to join their old allies in a new effort 
against the English ; especially as all the Etechemin tribes, 
whose country extended from the Penobscot to the St Johns, 
formed, by their own account, one and the same people. 
War was therefore declared against all the Indians east of 
the Passamaquoddy ; and those to the west of that river were 
forbidden to hold any intercourse with them. 

Great prec;iutions were taken to preserve peace with these 
last mentioned tribest. An Indian having been killed and 
others wounded by persons unknown, every thing was done 
to abate the rising indignation of the tribe ; a blanket, other 
articles, and <£40 in money, were given the widow of the 
deceased ; and the others after having their wounds dressed, 
were carefully conveyed to Penobscot. To test anew the 
fidelity and friendship of the tribe. Col. Pepperell came to 

* Jour. House of Rep. 1743. Orig. Deed from Waldo to T. Kil- 
patrick acknowledged by Biadbury as Justice of the Peace, Jan. 31, 

t Rev. T. Smith of Falmouth wrote in his journal, July 12, " Sev- 
eral gentlemen from the Court with others, with the Mohawks, are 
now down at George's, treating with the Penobscot Indians about 
being at peace with us." Satisfactory assurances were given and the 
fears of the settlers allayed. 


St. George's in November, as a commissioner, and requested 
of the Sapjamores their quota of fighting men, according to 
the stipulations in Dummer's treaty which had been so often 
renewed. He told them if they would enter into the public 
service, they should receive soldiers' pay and rations, and 
every supply ; but if they failed in this, war would, at the 
end of forty days, be proclaimed against them. In January 
they sent, by express, their answer to Boston, stating " that 
their young men would not comply with the proposal of 
taking up arms against the St, John's Indians, their brethren." 

There were at this time, in the two eastern provinces, 
Maine and Sagadahoc, 2,855 able bodied or fencible men, 
who were organized into two regiments, one commanded by 
Col. Wm. Peppcrell of Kittery, and the other by Col. Samuel 
Waldo of Falmouth. Of these men there were at Broad 
Bay and St. George's 270. One hundred effective men were 
enlisted to act as scouts between St. George's and Berwick. 
Of these 14 were" placed at Damariscotta to scout as far as 
Broad Bay, and 14 at that place to scout as far as St. 

1745- .In 1745 the celebrated expedition against Louis- 
burg was undertaken. In planning this enterprise. Gov. 
Shirley was aided by Wm. Vaughan, Esq. of Damariscotta, 
a gentleman extensively concerned in the eastern fisheries, 
and son of the Lieut. Governor of New Hampshire. His 
first plan was to surprise the fort in the dead of winter, 
mounting the walls on snow shoes over the drifts, or if neces- 
sary by scaling ladders. Other means were suggested, and 
when the final plan was matured, Capt. Edward Ting was 
appointed Commodore of the fieet ; Col. Pepperell, Lieut. 
General and commander-in-chief of the land forces ; and 
Col. Waldo a Brig. General under him. The two last were 
merchants extensively engaged in business, and were selected 
for their popular manners, energetic character, and great 
moral worth, rather than any skill in military allairs, in whicii 
they had had no experience beyond that of Indian skirmishes. 
But the event proved that indomitable resolution and enthu- 
siastic confidence can sometimes cfiect what the most consum- 
mate skill would shrink from in despair. To Mr. Vaugluin 
was given a Lieut. Colonel's commission, without any partic- 
ular command, he preferring the trust of such special duties 
as the Commander-in-chief might consider his adventurous 
genius best fitted to perform. 

Under the auspices of these determined men, enlistments 
were made, with such vigor especially iu this eastern country, 


that with the aid of the other New England colonies, a force 
was raised, in less than two months, amounting to 4000 men, 
and a squadron of 13 vessels, carrying about 200 guns. 
Many of the settlers at St. George's enlisted in this expedi- 
tion. Several from the upper town, took their families with 
them, some remaining at Louisburg three years, and others 
never returning. So great was the gloom that hung over the 
settlement, that all deserted their farms. Some went into the 
garrison, doing duty and receiving pay as soldiers ; others 
removed to Pemaquid, and yet others to Boston and its 
vicinity. Among those that went to Louisburg, were Walker, 
Kelloch, and Gregg with their families, also Barnard and 
Allen, the latter of whom died there. Pebbles died at home 
after enlisting. Alexander, Starrett, Lushe, Spear, A. Ler- 
mond, M'Craken and Campbell removed to their friends in 
Massachusetts. Wm. Lermond died suddenly from heat and 
exhaustion on a journey to Damariscotta ; and Giffen, North 
and others, went to Pemaquid. Boggs removed his family to 
Boston, and resided there during the war.* Most of them 
previously took the precaution to get their deeds recorded, 
which was done at York, the shiretown of the county, then 
including the whole territory now constituting the State of 

At Broad Bay the prospect was still more gloomy. There, 
no fort or garrison offered its protection to the dismayed in- 
habitants ; they had no friends on this side of the ocean to 
flee to ; and being wholly unused to Indian warfare, they all 
enlisted under Waldo, and, removing their familes to Louis- 
burg, remained there three years. AVilliam Burns, whose 
brother at that time resided at Broad Bay, and had command 
of a transport in the expedition to Louisburg, took a commis- 
sion and raised a company for the defence of that neighbor- 
hood. f 

By a succession of providential events, favorable to the 
English, and equally adverse to their foes, the fortress at 
Louisburg, the Gibraltar of America, surrendered on the 16th 
June, to the great joy of the colonies, and the astonishment 
of Europe. This event was celebrated, in the principal New 
England towns, by bonfires, the ringing of bells, and on the 
13th of July by a public thanksgiving. 

The refusal of the Tarratines to take up arms for the En- 

* Tradition, A Kelloch, 1st. Mrs. I. Fuller, &c. 
t Jos. Luchving, Esq. Com. Hep. 1811, p. 102. 


glish, the withdrawal of their trade from the truck-houses, 
and the removal of many of them to Canada, so evidently 
indicated their hostile disposition, that Capt. Saunders was 
despatched, in the Province sloop, to communicate the news 
of the great victory, in hopes of overawing and bringing 
them into an alliance. The news, however, had a contrary 
effect. The Indians felt a strong sympathy with their old 
allies ; and having little to lose themselves, and seeing the 
frontier exposed by the enlistments into the late expedition, 
they resolved to be neutral no longer. 

The first act of hostility was committed by them, July 
19th, at St. George's. Several of the savages from Cape 
Sable, St. John, and St. Francois, uniting, began by attack- 
ing the fort ; upon which, however, they could make no ini- 
pression. They then set on fire a garrisoned house and the 
saw-mill at Mill River; burnt a few dwellinghouses in the 
vicinity ; killed a great number of the cattle ; and took cap- 
tive one of the inhabitants.* 

Besides the principal fort, block-houses were built near the 
narrows, and also near the mouth of the river. The com- 
mand of the latter, at Pleasant Point, was given to Thomas 
Henderson,f who had alienated the two lots, possessed in 
later times by the Dunbars in Warren, in favor of Boice 
Cooper, as before related. The Province sloop occasionally 
visited the river, supplying the garrison with provisions ; 
and as most, or all, of the inhabitants that remained there, 
did duty as soldiers, their pay and rations enabled them to 
support their families. 

This sloop was commanded by one Capt. Saunders, and 
at a later period by his son ; the latter of whom was once 
taken by a party of French and Indians. Under the guise 
of a happy and contented appearance, he allayed all their 
apprehensions of his escape, and at Owl's Head took an 
opportunity, when they were sound asleep, to abscond with 
their bag of money amounting to about 8200. This he hid 
under a log and returned to the fort at St. George's. Many 
years afterwards, returning from Louisburg with Gen. Am- 
herst on board, he related this adventure to him, and being 
becalmed off that place, requested him to go on shore and 
assist in looking for the money. The General, without much 
confidence in the story, consented ; when, to his great sur- 

* 2 Will. Ilis. p. 236. 

t Previous to the settlement of St. Georges he liad resided at 
Round Pond, Bristol. • 


prise, Saunders, with equal exultation, laid his hand upon the 

A demand having been made upon the Penobscot and Nor- 
ridgewock tribes, either to deliver up the Indians who had 
done the late mischief at St. George's, or furnish thirty fight- 
ing men, according to Dummer's treaty, and the demand hav- 
ing been rejected, the Provincial government proclaimed war 
against all the eastern Indians without exception ; and offered 
for every Indian captive or scalp, taken westward of Passa- 
maquoddy, by a soldier in the public service, ^100, — by a 
person having provisions and not wages, ^£250, — and by a 
volunteer, without rations, pay, or ammunition, c£400, as 

Within two months after the first blow was struck, every 
town on the eastern frontier was visited by parties or strag- 
glers, from some of the savage hordes, thirsting for the set- 
tlers' blood. In the vicinity of St. George's, one Lieut. 
Proctor and nineteen militia-men had a skirmish with the 
enemy, Sept. 5th ; in which they killed two of the savage 
leaders. Col. Morris and Capt. Sam, and took Col. Job pris- 
oner. He was afterwards sent to Boston where he died in 
confinement. To avoid the enmity of his kindred, and the 
ill-will of his squaw, the government, after peace, made her 
a valuable present. Sept. 19th was observed as a public fast 
on account of this war.t 

1746. Although the operations of 1746 were chiefly 
directed against Canada, the garrison at St. George's and 
other eastern posts were strengthened by an additional num- 
ber of men. In none of the Indian wars were the savages 
more subtle and inveterate, but in none less cruel. They de- 
spaired of laying waste the country and expelling the inhabi- 
tants. They rather sought to satiate their revenge upon par- 
ticular individuals, or families ; to take captives and scalps 
for the sake of the premium paid for them by the French ; 
and to satisfy their wants by the plunder of houses or slaugh- 
ter of cattle ; a cow or an ox being frequently killed by them 
and nothing taken but the tongue. 

Outrages were committed at Pemaquid, Sheepscot, and 
Wiscasset ; and May 21st they fell upon Broad Bay and 
destroyed what remained of it, burning the houses, killing 
some of the inhabitants and carrying others into captivity. 
It subsequently lay waste till the close of the war. 

* Wm. Lermond, Mrs. Montgomery, &c. f Smith's Jour. p. 120. 


The next day 13 men being sent about half a gun-shot 
from the fort at St. George's " to strip some bark for the 
preservation of the whale boats," and a part of them having 
strayed from the rest and carelessly laid down their arms, 
seven or eight Indians suddenly sprung up from their con- 
cealment, got between the men and their weapons, which 
they seized and commenced a brisk fire, killing one man, 
wounding four, and taking one prisoner. This fire was re- 
turned by such of our men as retained their arms, and soon 
after by the whole garrison. The party made good their 
retreat into the fort, except one man, who, retarded by age 
and closely pursued by an Indian, suddenly turned and shot 
him dead whilst in the act of raising his tomahawk to dis- 
patch him. The fire of the garrison was so sharp as to 
deter the other Indians from coming up, and the old man 
stopped long enough to take off the scalp of his victim. 
Another Indian fell at the first onset and was carried away 
by his companions ; who, from the traces of blood on their 
retreat, were supposed to have had others wounded. Eliakim 
Hunt was the person killed, and Timothy Cummings was the 

1747- In 1747, among other measures adopted for the 
protection of the eastern country, thirty men were assigned 
to the fort at St. George's, strong bodies of rangers were 
employed farther west, Gen. Waldo was ordered to detach, 
for the eastern service, a portion of his regiment which had 
been designed to act against Crown Point, and the province 
sloop continued to range the eastern coast. Yet ihe frontier 
towns were soon infested with savages ; and among others, 
attacks were made upon Wiscasset, Pemaquid and Damaris- 
cotta, at the last of which the owner of a house was taken 
prisoner and his wife and daughter slain. 

Early in September, a large party of Indians, mixed with 
some Frenchmen, after shooting down a party of five men, 
about break of day made a furious attack upon Fort Frederic 
and continued the assault for more than two hours. But that 
fortress being constructed of stone, they were unable to make 
any impression upon it, and withdrew. This or another 
mixed party of like character, next besieged the fort at St. 
George's in a different manner. They made two several 

* American Magazine, May and June, 1746. Smith in his Journal 
says " May 23, 1746. News came from Georges that the Indians had 
fallen on a company of our men, killed one and wounded a second, 
and that our people killed an Indian whicji they scalped, and wound- 
■"d a second, which they hope is dead." 


attempts to open a subterraneous passage from the bank of 
the river, in order to undermine and blow up the fort. But 
the design was frustrated by the accidental caving in of the 
earth in consequence of heavy rains. This was, as tradition 
relates, after the magazine was introduced, several of the 
miners being buried and killed by the accident. The enemy 
then withdrew ; but straggling parties continued to lurk in the 
woods, watching for every opportunity to annoy the whites.* 

David Creighton and some others, going out a little dis- 
tance from the fort, were fired upon, killed and scalped. 
Some ventured out to work on their farms under a guard of 
soldiers. Boice Cooper before mentioned, and Reuben 
Pitcher, going down the river for rock weed, were beset, 
taken prisoners, and carried off' to Canada. The former 
continuing his usual contented and jovial manner, and ac- 
commodating himself to the Indian humour, readily answering 
their questions respecting the cattle, number of men at the 
fort, and other matters, received good usage. While in prison 
in Canada, a fellow prisoner from Ireland died, and bequeath- 
ed him his violin. Cooper's skill on this instrument, like that 
of Joseph in the interpretation of dreams, soon made him 
known to the governor, at whose house he was well enter- 
tained, till on an exchange of prisoners, he was restored to 
liberty and returned. f 

The winter of this year was, in this eastern country, a 
season of great distress. But little had been raised from 
the soil ; little lumber could be got out, on account of the 
savages ; the depth of snow and severity of the weather 
proved unusually great ; and, before spring, corn was worth 
30s. a bushel, and wheat flour c£10 a hundred. 

1748. In 1748, numerous attacks were made, as usual, 
upon the settlements between the Androscoggin and Saco; 
and these bloody scenes, returning every year, were rendered 
the present season more dismal by the gloomy and desolate 
appearance of the fields and gardens, produced by the early 
and extreme drought. But, on the 2d of July, the joy- 
ful news arrived at Falmouth that the contending powers 
had agreed upon the preliminaries of peace ; and though 
the definitive treaty was not signed, at Aix-la-Chapelle, till 
the 7th of Oct., we hear of no more ravages by the eastern 
Indians in this war. Although troops, to the number of 323 
men, were continued in service through the winter for the 

* WiU. Hist., A. Kelloch, &c, t Mrs. Montgomery, J. Huse, &c. 


defence and safety of the eastern inhabitants ; yet means 
were used to ascertain the wishes and dispositions of the 
Indians upon the subject of a treaty. Early in the spring, 
several chiefs visiting the fort at St. George's, told the com- 
mander, Capt. Bradbury, that the Indians were tired of the 
war ; and if in Boston, they would agree whh the Governor 
upon terms of peace. Thereupon a passage thither was 
given them in the Province vessel. Their professions -of 
peace were favorably received at that place, and on the 
16th of Oct. 1749, a treaty was concluded and signed at 
Falmouth, founded substantially on the provisions of the 
preceding, or Dummer's treaty. 

1749- When peace was restored, the settlers that 
remained in the garrison, and many that had gone to Massa- 
chusetts and other places, returned to their farms and began 
their labors anew. During this war, their houses went to 
decay, or were destroyed by the Indians ; the two mills were 
burnt; the cattle mostly killed or driven away; many of 
the inhabitants were slain or taken prisoners ; and the leaden 
sashes of the meeting-house were taken out by the Indians 
for bullets, although the glass was carefully piled up unin- 
jured. But efforts were now made to repair these losses; 
the huts of the settlers rose again on the bank of the river ; 
which was now as before, their only highway, except a 
footpath leading through the bushes from house to house.* 

Among those that now returned to their farms and formed 
the second settlement of the upper town, were probably, 
Thomas, John and Andrew Kilpatrick, John North, Jr. Joseph 

Giffen, Wm. James, Alexander Lermond, Hugh Scot, 

Heinbury, Boice Cooper, John Young, Alexander McLean, 
James and John Howard, Wm. Mclntyre, Moses Robinson, 

Phinley Kelloch, Thomas Gregg, Montford, David 

Patterson, Thomas and John McCordy, Archihald Gamble, 
James McCarter, and Samuel and John Boggs. To these 
was added, about this time Patrick Porterfield on lot No. 48, 
whilst the young Creightons, Samuel and David, as soon as 
their age permitted, took possession of the lots of their de- 
ceased father and brother. Among the absentees were the 
Alexanders, the Walkers, John Scot, Wm. Lermond, McCra- 
ken, Henderson, John McLean, Lushe, Campbell, Spear, 
Allen, Lincoln, Blair, Pebbles, Creighton and Starrett. Sev- 
eral of these had deceased, as before noted. The Walkers 
removed to Louisburg and afterwards settled in Worcester, 

* A. and "W. Lermond, L. Pardons, 1st, &c. 


Massachusetts, where William, the father, died in 1760. 
Henderson removed to Pleasant Point ; Lushe and Campbell 
died in Boston ; Spear and Starrett remained in Massachu- 
setts, the former at Woburn, the latter at Dedham, though a 
son of each returned at the close of the succeeding war, and 
occupied the lots of their fathers. Henry Alexander, pro- 
bably, returned, or died abroad, as a widow of that name was 
here as late as 1763. In 1780, one half of John Alexander's 
lot was, by a person of the same name (perhaps a son) of 
Providence, R. I. conveyed to Eliphalet Healy of Attleboro' ; 
and the other half, by Henry Alexander (probably another 
son) to Nathaniel Woodcock, both of Attleboro' ; from which 
we infer that a part of the family, at least, settled near those 
towns. Respecting McCraken, McDowel, and Blair, there is 
more uncertainty. Lincoln returned to Ireland. 

In reorganizing the militia, Thomas Kilpatrick was selected 
for Captain, who received a commission as such ; and P. 
Porterfield was a subaltern under him. The settlers continu- 
ed to get out cord wood and staves during the winter, and 
gradually extended their clearings, and enlarged their agricul- 
tural operations. But little was raised, however, except 
English grain and potatoes. The latter were brought to 
New England in 1719 from Ireland by the emigrants who 
settled at Londonderry, N. H., and were first cultivated in 
the garden of Nathaniel Walker of Andover.* They were 
originally found growing wild in the central parts of this 
continent, were carried thence to Ireland by Sir Walter Ra- 
leigh, who cultivated them in his garden for the beauty of 
their flowers. The soil of Ireland was so congenial to this 
root, that the tubers, at first not larger than beans, soon in- 
creased to such a size as led to a trial of their edible qualities. 
Proving a valuable article of food, they were diffused through 
that island, and, about this time, began to extend to the neigh- 
boring countries. The first settlers here, had either brought a 
knowledge of them from their native country, or obtained it 
from their brethren westward. They formed, accordingly, 
one of the first and principal articles cultivated by them ; 
though it was not till a much later period that they were 
raised for feeding cattle. In times of scarcity, when other 
provisions failed, potatoes and alewives were the general 
refuge. Mr. Gregg, when making some purchase of a mer- 
chant in Boston, was once inquired of " how the people down 

* Belk. Hist. N. H. 


east got along, and what they lived on ?" " Oh," said Gregg, 
" we have roast and hoiled every day." " Ah !" replied the 
merchant, " that is better than we fare here, we never think 
of having both at the same meal. If we can get one, we 
are very willing to dispense with the other." " But we," said 
Gregg, " boil potatoes, and roast alewives, at every meal."* 
Most of these early settlers were bred to mechanical em- 
ployments. Lermond was a weaver by trade, but early ac- 
quired the use .of the broad axe, and was much employed in 
the construction of buildings. When about twelve years of 
age, he came to this country in the family of his father, who 
settled in Milton, Mass. Several of the family came to Dam- 
ariscotta, whence one of them, William, removed and joined 
his brother in the first settlement of this town, but died as 
before related. Robinson, who first, a ^ew years before the 
settlement here, lived in the present Gushing, made some 
pretensions to skill in medicine, and was the first physician in 
the settlement. His son, William, succeeded him in the prac- 
tice of blood-letting and extracting teeth ; and many medici- 
nal plants long survived upon their farm. North was a sur- 
veyor, and was considerably employed as such on this river, 
at Pemaquid, Kennebec, and other places. In 1737, he was 
engaged with Shorn Drown, agent of the proprietors, in run- 
ning out the Pennaquid patent. In 1753, he surveyed the 
Kennebec for the Plymouth Co., and, in 1757, was again in 
the employ of Mr. Drown at Pemaquid. f Others of the set- 
tlers were occasionally employed as seamen ; and Mclntyre 
was for a time master of a sloop. He was often employed in 
Boston, where several of his children resided. His son, Neil 
Mclntyre, was established as a tobacconist in that place, and 
Mary, a daughter, was among the creditors of both William 
and his son Robert, of this settlement, at their death.j: Neil 
Mclntyre had a son of the same name, following the same 
business, in Portsmouth, N. H. whose children, 23 in number, 
removed, and carried the name to various parts of the south 
and west.§ Spear, it is said, came with his parents from Ire- 

* L. Parsons. D. Dicke, &c. 

t Their descendants ; and Controversy of Pej. Pro. & Ply. Co., 
published in 1753. 

X York Kecords. 

§ Cora, of Hon. Rufus Mclntire, Parsonsfield. The York Mclntires 
were of a different family, descending frora Micuni or Malcolm 
Mclntire who came from the Highlands of Scotland. He is said to 
have been one of seven brothers taken prisoners, fighting in behalf of 
King Charles, and transported to different parts of America by order 
of Cromwell. 


land, intending to join two brothers who had previously settled 
in Virginia ; but, by some chance, was compelled to land in 
Boston. His mother, according to tradition, was ten years 
old at the siege of Londonderry, and remembered the distress 
and famine of that time, said to be so grievous, that on one 
occasion a rat's head sold for 13 guineas. He worked in 
Boston and vicinity several years, and became owner of 100 
acres of land there, near the drawbridge, which he subse- 
quently sold, and purchased a farm in Woburn. On this, he 
was now comfortably settled, and did not himself return to 
St. George's. He lived, and was able to take a part in the 
battle of Bunker Hill, but died before the close of the revolu- 
tion. Kelloch, when a minor, came to Portsmouth, N. H. 
with his father, who there engaged in the oil trade and stur- 
geon fishery. Incurring a loss by fire, he relinquished that 
business, and settled on a farm at or near Philadelphia ; but 
the son came hither with the first settlers. Starrett was a 
shoemaker, and, with his wife and two children, first landed 
at Pemaquid or Harrington, and resided there a few years 
before settling here. T. Kilpatrick, who also resided a time 
in Harrington, was a tanner ; and Pebbles, a tailor. James 
was a gentleman's son, and brought up to no particular 

Boggs, alone, was bred to farming, and fully entered into 
its spirit. He had quite a stock of cattle, which he, in winter, 
kept in a long hovel of logs and bark, on his farm, then at 
the northern extremity of the settlement, and now occupied by 
J. and J. W. Boggs. These ranged the woods in summer, 
and were wintered on fresh and salt hay, cut on the native 
meadows, and preserved in stacks ; for, as yet, there was no 
barn on the river. He had always a plenty of meat, but 
used no tea or coflee. His wife, inviting Waldo to her house, 
promised him " butter as yellow as the croon o' goold." The 
three lots, which he selected for himself and sons, were chos- 
en, not more for their excellent soil, than for their situation 
and privileges. They were at the very seat of the alewife 
fishery, which afforded an ample resource in times of scarcity ; 
and, being on the confines of the settlement, opened an invit- 
ing field to his restless and daring spirit, in the opportunities 
presented for hunting and trapping. The Indians complained 
of his trespassing on their reservations. Indeed, the uppermost 
lot was so evidently within their claim, that, when Samuel 
Boggs, 2nd, subsequently commenced clearing it, he did not 
venture to erect his house upon it, but placed it just over the 
line, on the lot below. 


Whilst residing in Boston, during the preceding war, one 
of Mr. Boggs's daughters formed a connection with a young 
man from Ireland, residing in Philadelphia, who was well 
off, with regard to property, but of the Roman Catholic 
religion. This was a sufficient objection to the match in 
the mind of the father, who in his own country had 
been so bitter a foe to Catholics and tories, and had al- 
lowed his zeal to carry him so far in hunting up and ex- 
posing them, that he found it necessary to leave the coun- 
try for safety. He, accordingly, set his face resolutely 
against the match. The daughter persevered, and was dis- 
inherited. Maternal affection, however, still lingered in the 
breast of the mother, who contrived, without the knowledge 
of the father, to give her a small dower, chiefly in linen, of 
which they brought great stores from Ireland. This she 
effected by leaving it in situations agreed upon, whence the 
daughter might take it without exciting suspicion. The 
name of her husband is not recollected ; there being no 
farther intercourse between the families, except one visit, 
many years afterwards, from one of her children.* 

Others of these early settlers had resided in Boston, either 
during this war, or prior to their settling at St. George's, and 
worshipped with the Presbyterian society of Scotch Irish 
under the pastoral charge of their countryman. Rev. John 
Morehead, in Long Lane, now Federal Street. This society 
was formed in 1727, and the house in which they worshipped, 
originally a barn, together with the land on which it stood, 
was, June 9th, 1735, sold to the society, by John Little, for 
the sum of c£140 and 5 pence, in good public bills of credit. 
After the death of Mr. Morehead, in 1773, the society assum- 
ed the Congregational order, and has since been distinguished 
by the services of such eminent men as Belknap, Channing, 
and Gannett, their present pastor.t Boggs, and perhaps some 
others of the settlers here, had been educated as Episcopa- 
lians ; but the greater number were Presbyterians, and most 
of them exemplary in all the Christian observances. As 
usual with the church to which they belonged, all, for those 
times, had received a good elementary education. Many 
wrote a fair hand ; and none, so far as known, were unable 
to read and write. 

The Germans, at Broad Bay, also returned after an absence 
of three years, and revived their ruined settlement. A saw- 

* Mrs. I. FuUer, L. Parsons, 1st, A. KeUqph, 2d. 
t Clu-is. Reg. vol. 28, No. 44. 




BORN APRIL 10th, 1749. 

{From a pencil sketchy taken in 1850, hy Wm, E. Rivers.) 



mill was built where Sproul's has since been, by Ector and 
Martin, who were of English descent, and came from the 
westward.* A number of families, we know not exactly 
how many, also arrived from Germany ; among whom the 
earliest birth was that of Conrad Heyer, who is (May 1st, 
1851,) still living in the upper part of Waldoboro'. He was 
the son of Martin Heyer, and born at Schenk's Point ; enlisted 
in the army in the fall of 1775, served upwards of two 
years, has ever been a hard-working, temperate man, and 
now, at the age of 102 years, is able to read fine print without 
glasses, though his hearing is somewhat impaired. 

In 1749, an effectual attempt was made to redeem the 
paper currency, which was now so depreciated that one 
ounce of silver would purchase 50s. of old, and 12s. 6d. of 
the new, tenor bills. Determined to redeem the whole of 
them, take them in, and substitute a specie currency exclu- 
sively, the General Court laid a direct tax upon the Province 
of ^75,000 sterling, which they allowed to be paid in these 
bills at the rate of 4&s. old tenor, or lis. 3d. new tenor, for 
every Spanish milled dollar, thence forward called 6s. lawful 
money, or 4s. 6d. sterling. Accounts were kepi both in old 
tenor and lawful money till the time of the revolution. 

1750. Truck-houses were again supplied with goods, 
and trade opened with the Indians. All traffic with them by 
private individuals, was forbidden. But, in 1750, peace was 
partially interrupted by an affray at Wiscasset, in which one 
Indian was killed, and two others badly wounded. Three 
men were arrested and tried for this murder ; but, as was 
usual in those days when an Indian was killed, none of them 
were convicted by the jury. This led to acts of retaliation 
on the part of the more western and northern Indians, in 
which the Tarratines took no part ; yet these acts, and the 
many rumors which they gave rise to, filled the more eastern 
settlements with alarm. This was the more distressing in 
consequence of the small force that remained for their pro- 
tection ; the garrison at St. George's consisting of only 15 
men, and that at Pemaquid of six. Col. Cushing, who now 
commanded the eastern regiment in Yorkshire, was ordered to 
detach 150 men to scour the woods from Saco to St. 

1751-'2. But the northern Indians returning to Canada, 
no further hostilities, except some acts of private revenge, 

* Joseph Ludwig, Esq. 


were committed ; and, Aug. 3d, 1751, Sagamores, from the 
Penobscot to the St. Johns, met the government commission- 
ers at St George's, and gave the fullest assurances of peace 
and amity. Every practicable method, subsequent to peace, 
was used to keep tlie tribes tranquil. Two trading houses 
were opened and well supplied ; Wm. Lithgow being ap- 
pointed, in 1752, truckmaster at Richmond fort, and Capt. 
Bradbury at St. George's ; and a confidence began to be 
strongly entertained in the future safety of the settlers. 

Thus far, the settlement at St. George's, though a meeting- 
house had been built for them, seems to have had no other 
preaching than that of some transient visitor, or occasional 
missionary. Bat, about this time, the Rev. Robert Ruther- 
ford came to the place, and, for some years, officiated in the 
double capacity of preacher to the people and chaplain to the 

To pave the way for a conciliatory conference with the 
Indians, Government transported to Fort Richmond and to 
St. George's six hogsheads of bread and six barrels of pork, 
to be distributed among them ; and, Oct. 20th, four commis- 
sioners were met at the latter place by delegations of Saga- 
mores from all the eastern tribes, except the Mickmacs and 
those of St. Francois. Col. Louis, a Penobscot chief, in 
behalf of the rest, expressed his joy at this meeting for the 
preservation of peace. In order to bury the mischief that 
is past, he said, we must proceed upon Dummer's treaty, by 
which the English were to inhabit as far as the salt-water 
flowed, and the Indians to have the rest. If we are not dis- 
turbed in our right, it will end in peace, otherwise " it would 
set all these lands on fire." He went on to express his 
approbation of the commander and truckmaster, but com- 
plained that the prices of goods were higher than at Albany, 
whither some of their tribe went to traffic ; and that too much 
rum was dealt out to their women and young men, to the 
former of whom they wished none to be given, and only 
moderate quantities to the latter. They also requested a 
house might be built for them to lodge in, near the mill, a 
bridge made across the stream there, and a causeway over 
the long meadow adjacent. The commissioners endeavored 
to satisfy them on all these points, promising compliance, 
so far as practicable, with their requests. Complaints were 
made by and against some of the other tribes ; but, after 
mutual explanations and promises, all appeared satisfied ; and 
the provisions of Dummer's treaty were solemnly renewed, 
a salute fired from the guns of the fort and the country 


sloop, and three loud huzzas given by both English and 
Indians. The next day, presents were distributed, belts of 
wampum delivered, an ox given them for a feast, and they 
mutually took leave, and departed. The ratification was 
executed under seal, and witnessed by 32 persons, among 
whom were " Rev. Robert Rutherford, chaplain, Jabez Brad- 
bury, captain, Thos. Fletcher, Joseph Robinson, Thos. Kilpat- 
rick, John Shibles, Benj. Burton, Wm. James, Joshua Treat, 
David Kelloch, Samuel Boggs, Moses Robinson, John Mcln- 
tyre, John Howard, Samuel Howard, and John Ulmer," be- 
sides others with whom we are less acquainted.* 

1753. On the 20th Sept. of the following year, a similar 
conference was held, when the Commissioners with sundry 
other gentlemen arrived in the river St. George's on board 
the sloop Massachusetts, Capt. Thos. Saunders, master. In 
the afternoon, the Commissioners being seated at a large 
table near the fort, attended by a number of gentlemen 
and other spectators, and some of the Chiefs and other of the 
Penobscot tribe being seated over against them, a long talk 
was held upon the price of wampum, beaver, and other 
articles, in which the Indians said, " Capt. Bradbury and 
Lieut. Fletcher are very good men; we like them well, and 
desire they may be encouraged ;" but complained that goods 
were higher than formerly, and that sometimes there was but 
a scanty supply at the truck-house. After receiving full 
explanations and further assurances, they appeared satisfied ; 
the treaty of 1749 was ratified and signed by 30 or more of 
their chiefs ; presents were made them by the commissioners ; 
a dance was performed by the young Indians ; and the con- 
ference ended by drinking the health of King George, and 
wishing the peace might continue " as long as the sun and 
moon shall endure. "t 

It was during this interval of peace, that an Indian doctor, 
by the name of John Hart, established himself a little above 
the settlement at St. George's, at the rapids still known as 
Hart's Falls, where he had a wigwam, and cultivated a patch 
of ground. He was allowed to remain unmolested, and, ac- 
cording to tradition, died and was buried there. There was 
said, also, to have been a garden of medicinal plants culti- 
vated by the Indians on the eastern side of White Oak Pond, 
by them called Paionoke.\ 

* Printed Indian Conference, 1752. 

t Print. Conference of 1753. 

X D. Dicke. Rev. J. L. Sibley of CamWidge. 


In the mean time, Gen. Waldo was not idle in procuring 
new emigrants. In 1752, twenty or thirty German families, 
who had arrived the previous year in Massachusetts, whither 
they had been invited and partially provided for by Govern- 
ment, were induced to remove to Broad Bay, and settle with 
their countrymen there, on the Dutch Neck, and down about 
the Narrows. Possibly by means of these, others were in- 
vited to come over from Germany; as it is said fifty families 
were, that year, added to the settlement there. They came 
from the highlands, where wine was abundant, and bitterly 
complained of the want of it here. There were some school- 
masters among them, but no regular clergyman, although 
religious meetings were kept up on the Sabbath without in- 
terruption. Probably Mr. Ulmer continued to exhort, and, 
in some measure, act the part of a clergyman.* 

In 1753, Samuel Waldo, son of the General, visited Ger- 
many, and circulated proclamations inviting farther emigration. 
Of these, the author has been unable to obtain a copy, and 
cannot give the precise conditions offered the emigrants. An 
unskilful translation of a German letter, on file in the Massa- 
chusetts Records, after giving an account of Mr. Waldo''s 
military achievements, the quality and unencumbered title of 
his lands, and the adaptation of the climate to the German con- 
stitution, contains the following. " Such and the like favor- 
able circumstances might, I should think, animate our Ger- 
mans, here and there, to move into such a fruitful land so well 
situated on the sea and rivers, with such good right, and 
privileged, regulated, and of such a mighty and reasonable 
Lord possessed and parently governed, who offers it to those 
that are able to pay their passage without ever expecting the 
least reward or pay for it, where they may serve God 
after their Protestant religion, and are able to maintain them 
and others. "t According to the statement of those who 
were young at the time, Waldo was to give them 100 acres 
of land each, adjoining the salt-water where wood would 
bring 4s., or a German dollar, per cord, and, during the first 
season, furnish them with suitable dwellings and provisions. 
The ofTers made, whatever they were, induced sixty families 
more, to emigrate from that country. Leaving their native 
homes, they passed more than twenty miles by land, em- 
barked in small boats upon the Rhine, descended that river to 
Dusseldorf, where they remained awhile for others to arrive, 

* Joseph Ludwig, Esq. f Mass. Rec. filed July 4, 1785, 


and then proceeded to Amsterdam. Embarking on board a 
ship, they left that city ; but touched at Covves. Here, several 
of their number died. Among these was John Joseph Lud- 
wig, father of Jacob and Joseph Ludvvig, from whom all those 
of the name in the vicinity are descended. He was of Wen- 
demalhae in Nassau-Dillenburg, and his two eldest children 
brought a certificate of membership of the church there. 
Others were from Franconia, Swabia, and Wirtemburg, From 
Cowes they sailed to Portsmouth, and thence to St. George's 
river. At Pleasant, Point they were transferred to a sloop, 
which they filled as close as they could stand, and were car- 
ried round to Broad Bay. They arrived there in September. 
Some were crowded into a house near where the Heads 
afterwards erected a store ; some were disposed of among 
the other settlers ; and the remainder, far the greatest num- 
ber, were put in a large shed erected for the purpose, near 
the present dwelling of J. Bulfinch, Esq. This shed was 
sixty feet long, without chimneys, and utterly unfit for hab- 
itation ; yet here these destitute exiles, neglected by their 
patron, whose promises in this instance, either from his ab- 
sence or other cause, were wholly unfulfilled, dragged out a 
winter of almost inconceivable suffering. Many froze to 
death ; many perished with hunger, or diseases induced by 
their privations ; and their graves are, or were a short time 
ago, to be seen near the bridge. The old settlers were too 
poorly supplied themselves, to afford much assistance to the 
new comers, who were fain to work for a quart of buttermilk 
a day ; and considered it quite a boon when they could gain 
a quart of meal for a day's labor. They sought for employ- 
ment, also, at Damariscotta and St. George's ; and many of 
the children were put out to service in those setdements. 
They were unacquainted with hunting ; and such was the 
scarcity of provisions, that even those who had money were 
unable to procure them.* The next spring, Waldo appointed 
Charles Leistner his agent, to dispose of the emigrants, and 
deal out the provisions provided for them. Instead of the 
hundred acres of land promised them, on the salt-water where 
wood would bring 4s. a cord, this agent took them back two 
miles into the heart of the wilderness, and there, perhaps 

* Though generally poor, there seems to have been some money 
among the emigrants, as it is said, that, of the three schoolmasters 
with them, one was so wealthy, and in consequence, so arbitrary, 
that, on any dispute arising, when arguments failed, he used to 
threaten to knock down his opponent with a t)ag of Johannes. 


from fear of Indian hostilities, assigned them a half acre, each, 
in a compact cluster. Here, they built their huts, carrying 
up boards, or covering their roofs with bark, in the best man- 
ner they were able. Peter MiJhler or Miller, built something 
of a house, quite a distinguished one among its neighbors. 
They cleared up their small lots, and planted them as well as 
they could. The same year, George Varner built a grist- 
mill, near the saw-mill before mentioned, partly on his own, 
and partly on Waldo's account. Leistner, a man of educa- 
tion, had been appointed, by their Prince in Germany, to 
superintend the expedition, and protect the emigrants from 
imposition. He exercised the powers of a magistrate during 
his life, but did not entirely escape the murmurs of the set- 
tlers, who, in their privations and jealousy, accused him, 
perhaps without any foundation, of selling, for his own benefit, 
the provisions which had been furnished for them.* 

Whilst his son was procuring emigrants in Germany, Gen- 
eral Waldo himself was not idle. Being in London, about 
this time, he issued printed circulars, inviting emigrants to 
settle upon his lands " on the great River St. Georges, in the 
Province of Massachusetts Bay, in the colony of New-Eng- 
land." These lands he describes as being fifty leagues 
N. E. of Boston, in lat. of 43^ 40^ N. He represented the 
climate to be as wholesome and safe for British constitutions 
as any part of South or North Britain ; that there was com- 
monly hard frost and snow for about three months every 
winter, during which the sky was so serene that the weather 
was never prejudicial to health ; that the soil was as fertile as 
most lands in South or North Britain, being commonly black 
mould with a bottom of blue or yellow clay ; that the ground 
was capable of producing plenty of Indian Corn, Wheat, 
Rye, Barley, Oats, Beans, Peas, Hemp, Flax, and Roots of 
all kinds, and of raising Black Cattle, Swine, and Sheep ; 
that, besides summer feeding in the woods, natural meadows 
abounded, and the whole summer season being commonly 
fair, great provision of hay might be made early and secured 
with small expense ; that the timber consisted of Oak, Beech, 
Maple, Elm, Birch, and all kinds of Fir or Pine, all which 
were in such demand at Boston as to pay for clearing the 
lands, and well adapted for making pot and pearl ashes ; 
that the waters abounded in cod, haddock, salmon, stur- 
geon, mackerel, eels, smelts, bass, shad, oysters and lobsters ; 

* Joseph Ludwig, Esq. Dep. of Jacob Ludwig, Esq. Com. 
Rep. 1811, p. 164. CoL J. Ludwig, Jr. 


that there was fine opportunity of hunting ; wildfowl, moor- 
deer, and beaver being abundant. He stated the religion 
of the Province was chiefly Calvinistical or Presbyterian ; 
and all sorts of Christians, except Papists, were allowed the 
free exercise of their religion. Upon these lands, emigrants 
were invited to settle, on condition of having their lands free 
for the first nineteen years, and after that, to pay a small 
quit-rent, which was to vary, according to the time the settler 
chose to have it commence, from ten to forty shillings per 
hundred acres. He agreed, also, to aid them in procuring 
cattle, horses, grain, with all necessary victual, seed, and 
whatever else is needed, at the prime cost. He offered, at 
the same time, to transport, at his own expense, house and 
ship carpenters, blacksmiths, masons, lime-burners, brick- 
makers, and ingenious millwrights, and those acquainted 
with building wooden dams across rivers, and to give them 
employment. Finally, if, on their arrival in America, they 
did not find all things by him stated to be strictly true, he 
agreed to pay them for their time, and take them back at his 
own expense. He concluded by naming certain agents, in 
Glasgow, who were authorized to enter into any special 
agreement with such as chose to emigrate, respecting any 
matters that might be judged necessary, particularly the 
method and expense of embarkation.* 

These offers attracted the attention of sundry persons in 
Stirling, Glasgow, and other places in Scotland, who, after 
consultation, entered into an agreement, the terms of which 
are not exactly known, to emigrate. Some of them, who 
were without families, agreed to work for Waldo four years 
in payment of their passage. Others, at stipulated times 
after their arrival, were to pay for their passages as well as 
for supplies furnished. Being collected for embarkation to 
the number of sixty, besides ten or more children, who went 
passage free, they went on board the brig Dolphin, Captain 
Cooters, in the summer of 1753, and, after touching at Pis- 
cataqua, where they remained a week or more, arrived in 
George's river in September. Dr. Robinson had contracted 
with Waldo to erect a house, and have tt ready for their 
reception on their arrival. This he commenced near the 
house occupied by the late Capt. Dagget, since rebuilt by his 
grandson, E. B. Alford. He built the walls of logs, and par- 

* Original Circular, printed witliout date, in possession of Mr. G. 
Anderson ; and recorded in Reg. Office, Wiscasset. 


titioned the inside into fourteen rooms designed to accom- 
modate the whole company, which contained that number of 
families. But from tiie want of materials, or other cause, 
tlie roof was never made, and tlie structure remained unfin- 
ished and unoccupied till the timber decayed. In conse- 
quence of Robinson's failure to complete iiis job, the emi- 
grants scattered round and lived the first winter with the old 
settlers. Provisions were supplied them by Waldo ; who ap- 
pointed Boice Cooper a kind of commissary to take charge of, 
and deliver them out at stated times. The names of these 
emigrants were Archibald Anderson, John Dicke,* Andrew 
Malcolm, John Miller, John Crawford, Thomas Johnston, 
John Mucklewee, John Brison, Andrew Bird, John Kirk- 
patrick, John Hodgins, John Carswell, John Brown, Robert 

Kye, Grenlaw, Wilke, Beverage, 

Auchmuty, and Anderson. They were mostly mechan- 
ics, and unacquainted with all agricultural operations, except 
reaping and threshing. Malcolm was a Glasgow weaver ; 
and Archibald Anderson, who married his sister and belonged 
to Bannockburn, was of the same trade, and had worked in 
the same city. Dicke of Stirling, was a maltster and brewer, 
Miller a delf-ware manufacturer, Kirkpatrick a cooper, Hodg- 
ins a bookbinder, Crawford a shepherd or herdsman, and 
Auchmuty a slaie maker. Having the promise of lands 
within two miles of tide waters, they naturally looked forward 
to the comforts of city life to which they had been accustom- 
ed at home ; and fearful of Indian hostilities, and unacquaiiit- 
ed as they were with the wild beasts that frequented the 
woods, they could not think of going to separate farms, and 
fixing their habitations at a distance from each other.t 

1754. Accordingly when the spring opened in 1754, 
they went out to the place assigned them for a new city, and 
took possession of their half acre lots, on which they erected 
small log huts, in a continuous street between the present 
house of Gilbert Anderson and the school-house No. 13. To 
this embryo city they gave the name of Stirling, in honor of 
that from which most of them had come. They had to learn 
even to cut down a tree, and supposed nothing could be done 
in husbandry until the trees and stumps were entirely eradi- 
cated. Some of these settlers had been delicately brought 
up. Mrs. Dicke was the daughter of a Laird, and unused to 
any kind of domestic labor ; but this distinction was here 

* Pronounced, and often spelled, Dickey. 
t A. Anderson, 1st, and 2d., D. Dicke, &c, 


only one of disadvantage and inferiority. Kirkpatrick, Johns- 
ton, and some others, being unmarried, worked four years for 
Waldo according to agreement. This was of great advant- 
age to them, as they thereby acquired the use of the axe 
and a knowledge of the various operations incident to the 
clearing up of new lands. James and Archibald Anderson, 
John and perhaps Margaret Miller, John and Ann Crawford, 
John and William Dicke, James Malcolm, whom many of my 
readers will remember, and probably others, were then child- 
ren or infants born in Scotland. The first child, born after 
their arrival, was Mr. Dickers, and named Waldo, for which 
the General promised to give him a lot of land as soon as he 
should get large enough to wear breeches. But the General 
dying, the promise was never fulfilled. Education, with 
the most of them, had not been neglected ; and the few 
books they had, especially the bible and psalm-book, were 
doubly dear to them from the absence of public worship in 
their dreary and desolate exile. Mr. Crawford, who, while 
employed as a shepherd in his native country, had committed 
a great part of the bible to memory, used every Sabbath to 
call at the house of one or another and recite portions of Scrip- 
ture, accompanied with commentaries, exhortation and prayer. 
Yet their expectations were disappointed, their spirits cast 
down, and, bringing with them the superstitions of their coun- 
try, and unused to the labors their situation required, they 
groaned under a load of bodily and mental suffering. Strange 
sights, strange sounds assailed them ; fireflies glared in the 
woods, frogs croaked in the ponds, and loons uttered their 
unearthly cries in the evening twilight. They contended with 
hunger and cold, witches and warlocks, till in the following 
year, the Indian war compelled them to enter the fort for 



FROM 1754 TO 1757; commf.ncement and progress of the 6th 


Great complaint was made at this time in the eastern 
country, of trespasses upon the king's woods, and of exten- 
sive fires set by cureless hunters and lumberers. These fires 
gave as much offence to the Indians, as the destruction of 
the timber did to the royal government. Difiiculties with 
the former were apprehended. Amongst other things, they 
complained that the recent Scottish settlement infringed upon 
the line to which they claimed, from the tide waters of the 
St. George's to those of the Mcdomak. They also com- 
plained that the young Boggses were clearing above the 
boundary, molesting their traps, and occupying their hunting 
grounds.* At a conference at St. George's in October, 
Louis, the Penobscot Chief, held this remarkable language, 
'' There has of late mischief been done among us; but now 
we are all come to bury it. In order whereto we are for 
proceeding upon Gov. Dummer's treaty, by which it was 
concluded that the English should inhabit the lands as far as 
the salt-water flowed, and no farther; and that the Indians 
should possess the rest. Brethren, as I said before, so I now 
say, that the lands we own let us enjoy ; and let nobody take 
them from us. We said the same to those of our religion, 
the French. Although we are a black people, yet God hath 
placed us here; God gave us this land, and we will keep it. 
God decreed all things ; he decreed this land to us ; there- 
fore neither shall the French nor English possess it, but we 
will." After the usual explanations and assurances were 
given, however, the treaty was again confirmed.! 

In the mean time new measures of defence were adopted. 
The fort at St. George's, which the preceding year had 
been rebuilt and enlarged, was constructed of hewn timber 
20 inches square, with walls about 16 feet in height. Its 
form was quadrangular, each side being 100 feet. Within 
were the barracks, or apartments, built of timber against the 
walls, for the dwelling or retreat of the people, every one 
to be occupied by a single family or more, according to the 

* Mrs. S. Fuller, D. Dicke, &c. 

t Smith's Journal, p. 149, and Ed. note. 

88 A N N A L S O P W A K K E N . 

size of the rooms or number in the families. In the centre, 
was a good well of water; nnd fram the southern wall, a 
covered way was formed by means of logs, and extended 
to a large timber block-house, 200 feet distant, at the water's 
edge. The settlers, at their own expense, built what they 
called block-houses, about 100 rods or more farther up the 
river, in two ranges ; and surrounded the whole by a picket 
made of posts driven into the ground",, as thick as they could 
stand, and ten feet in height. This was at the place subse- 
quently occupied for a garden and dwellinghouse by the late 
Capt. T. Vose, of Thomaston. Besides the post at Plexisant 
Point, a block-house was erected of stone in the present town 
of Gushing, sun'ounded by pickets, built and occupied by Ben- 
jamin Burton. Works of defence also were constructed in 
Medumcook and Broad Bay. At the latter place, the princi- 
pal fort was a stockade, on tF:e western side of the river,, 
near the mills. There were four others farther down the 
river. Each of these accommodated sixteen families, who 
had their separate huts covered whh bark.* 

In November, an attack was made, by some Indians, on 
the new fort which had been built on the Kennebec •, in con- 
sequence of which, the Governor withheld the valuable 
presents intended for the triibes, and issued orders to the six 
companies of minute men in Maine to be in constant readi- 
ness.t As the French were supposed to have instigated 
these hostile acts, most of the settlers took refuge in the 
garrisons ; and the winter was pas-sed in fearful anxiety. This 
was the commencement of the sLvth Indian war, and the 
last which was waged by the New England colonies against 
the native tribes. From the part that the French, at first 
covertly, and afterwards openly, took in this war, it is gen- 
erally denominated " the French and Indian war,'' and 
finally decided the contest between the French and English 
crowns for empire on this continent. 

From the hopes that were entertained of j)resefving jieace 
Avith the Tarratines, and the greater preparations that were 
made for defence, few or none of the settlers in this region 
removed, as they had done in the preceding war. All, how- 
ever, both at St. George's and at Broad Bay, took refuge in 
the garrisons, and only ventured oat, to work upon their 
farms, under a strong guard. Those who were able to bear 
— — — • ,, 

* Will. His. A. & William Lcnuond. Jo. LudAvig. L. Parsons, &c<. 
t 2 WiU. His. p. 302. 


arms, were organized into companies, and, for a great portion 
of the time, drew pay and rations, which formed the princi- 
pal means of supj)ort for their families. When these failed, 
great distress and misery ensued. One family at Broad 
Bay, subsisted a whole winter on frost fish, with only four 
quarts of meal. Many a German woman was glad to do a 
hard day's work at planting or hoeing, for eight pence, or a 
quart of meal. There were, at this time, but few cattle in 
that place, and a quart of buttermilk would often command 
a day's work. Leistner was Captain of a company of scouts, 
who received pay and rations. Other companies were 
organized for the defence of the garrisons here and at Me- 
dumcook, and placed under their respective commanders.* 

At St. George's, the settlers formed themselves into a 
military company for their mutual defence. In times of 
danger, either they, or the soldiers, were continually scout- 
ing ; such as went to labor in the field were well armed ; and 
when the signal of a general alarm was given at the fort by 
the discharge of a heavy gun, all who were abroad made a 
speedy retreat to the garrison. This was still commanded by 
Jabez Bradbury. The block-house above, was garrisoned by 
a party of the inhabitants, under Capt. T. Kilpatrick ; that in 
Gushing by nnotlier party of volunteers, under Lieut. Benj. 
Burton ; and that near the mouth of the river, at Pleasant 
Point, by others under Capt. Dunbar Henderson. In the 
block-houses under Capt. Kilpatrick, besides his own, were the 
dwellings of Moses Robinson, David Patterson, Phinley Kel- 
loch, J. McCarter, Archibald Gamble, Andrew Malcolm, 
John Dicke, Michael Rawley, Wm. Smith, Joseph Rivers, and 
Thomas Fogg, the four last belonging to the lower town. 
Most of the other residents of the upper town were in the 
fort. Each family cultivated, either here or on their farms, 
a spot of potatoes, which was manured with rock weed car- 
ried up the bank on hand-barrows, by men and their wives 
assisted by all their children who could labor. There were 
a few yoke of oxen ; some had cows, and all had pigs and 
poultry. The stock was wintered on hay cut on the meadows 
and marshes, the men going armed in strong parties for that 
purpose, and part mounting guard while the rest labored. 
Lime-burning was then, as now, the principal business; and 
two sloops were kept running to Boston. The rock was dug 
at the quarry now belonging to the prison, and burnt at four 

* Jo. Ludwig, Esq., A. Kelloch, 1st., &c. 


small kilns near the block-bouse, where was also a smaii 
wharf and lane store. There was cjso a wharf at the fort, 
but no kilns. A large barn, a log school-house on the bank 
between the fort and block-house, and a few deserted log 
houses, were all the buildings without the fortifications. The 
land was pretty well cleared of trees and bushes from the 
present burial ground in Thomaston to the quarry, and 
thence to the block-house and fort. The settlers further down 
the river were chiefly at the stone house under Lieut. Burton, 
and at Pleasant Point under Capt. Henderson.* 

1755. In 1755 the French were found so far concerned 
in the late hostile movements, that the united colonies set on 
foot four formidable expeditions against them and their sav- 
age allies. These were severally directed against Nova 
Scotia, Niagara, Crown Point and Fort du Quesne. In the 
mean time attacks were made upon the settlements at New- 
castle, Dresden, and several other places ; which induced the 
General Court, June 10, 1755, to declare war against all the 
eastern tribes except those on the Penobscot. As these still 
professed to be neutral, Capt. Bradbury at St. George's was 
instructed by the government to cultivate peace with them, 
and if possible detach them from the French interest. In 
obedience to these instructions, he attempted to conciliate their 
favor by presents and kind treatment. If any of them were 
abettors of the late mischief, nothing criminal was directly 
laid to their charge, and it was hoped that they might be re- 
tained as allies. f 

The settlers, on the contrary, unaccustomed to discriminate 
between the different tribes, considered a single Indian acjijres- 
sion as chargeable to the whole race ; and allowed their sym- 
pathy for the sufferers to kindle into indiscriminate resentment. 
This manifested itself in jealousy and murmuring against 
Capt. Bradbury, whom they charged with trading with the 
savages from motives of interest, and even supplying the arms 
and ammunition used in the destruction of their bretiiren. 
This jealousy occasioned the commander great difficulty in 
the discharge of his duty. Indians, caressed by the officers, 
and well treated at the fort, were insulted and sometimes at- 
tacked by the settlers. Those who lived in the fort generally 
took part with Bradbury, whilst the discontented rallied under 
Kilpatrick at the block-house above. The former, employing 
certain friendly Indians to bring him intelligence, had to 

* Z in Thorn. Nat. Republican, 1833, S:c. 
t Will. Ilis. SuUivan. 


warn thcni to beware of tlie block-house men, and was mor- 
tified to find they could not always go unmolested. This 
state of things is sufficiently apparent from the following doc- 

" To Capt. Thomas Proctor Jr. Boston neer the Orringe tree. 
" St Georges June 6th, 1755. 

" Dr Brother 

" yesterday about nine of the Clock we heard about 15 
guns fired, and after that Capt. Bradbury fired an alarm ; 
upon which three men went up to the fort to hear what was 
Doing =: 

" and there is two Scotchs Lads Killed or taken : but we 
supose Kiled = they were Brothers r=: there Sir names is 
Brown — there was three more up the River the Same time, 
but at Sum Distance from them — viz. mr Larmond, Arch- 
bald Gamble & Son, but got safe home = those are our good 
friends the Penobscuts, So ExstolM by our B : the Commander 
here = I hope the Goverment will now Doo Sumthing to pre- 
vent our Ruin by a Savage Enemy. I remain your Loveing 
Brother till Death 

" Benj a Burton"* 

" To his Excellency, William Shirley, &c. 

" May it please your Excellency and honors to take into 
Consideration our present, Dificult And dangerous circumstan- 
ces. Our woods round our garrisons are crawling with lurk- 
ing Enemies, watching our motion, so that we are in contin- 
ual fear and Danger, as is evident by their late Clandestine 
attempts ; for after their killing and barberously using and 
sculping one boy, they at the same time killed or carried cap- 
tive another, and soon after liave killed one man, and carried 
another captive of the Dutch at Broad Bay. And within two 
days after carried a man and a boy captive from Pleasant 
Point. So that no place is free ; by reason of which we fear 
our Garrisons will soon be attacked by them ; which are 
poorly provided to make any proper resistance or probable 
defence, being but poorly manned, ill provided with arms, 
amunition, and provisions, to defend ourselves and families ; 
so that without some speedy assistance we must fall a prey 
into the hand of our Enemies, or leave the Country to 
them — 

" This is the truth of our present Circumstances and Situa- 

* Mass. Archives, vol. 54, p. 453. 


tion, which I humbly offer to your Excellency & honnours, 
on whose wisdom and compassion (under God) our depen- 
dence is, and beg leave to subscribe my self, &c. 

" Tho. Killpatrick." 
" Blockhouse St. Georges 14th June, 1755."* 

" May it please your Excellency. 

" I have this day seen that which was the most surpris- 
ing to me of any thing I ever met with before, viz. when 1 
had read your Ex'lys. letter to nine of the most Considerable 
men of the Penobscot Tribe, and they were going out to con- 
sult and return an answer, Capt. Fletcher Came into the 
Room and told me that many of the inhabitants, with the men 
he had inlisted into his Company, (of this Garrison) which 
were neare twenty in number, and most of the remaining 
part of the Garrison, were all in arms, and had determined 
that the Indians should never go out until they had given them 
satisfaction, by Complying with the Governor's tcrmcs, pro- 
posed to them in his Letter ; upon which I went out to them, 
and asked why they appeared in that manner ; was answcrM 
almost unanimously that they were Resolved the Indians 
should not go well away till they had given them Satisfaction ; 
Capt. Fletcher telling me at the Same Time, he had orders 
for doing what was done & that he must answer it, adding 
that he was oblig'd to do as he had done to prevent greater 
mischief, viz. Bloodshed, (the people being greatly inrag'd.) 
I told the men they had acted directly contrary to the Gover'rs 
Declaration of warr, and to his directions to me, but did not 
prevail with them to quit their armes, nor their Resolution, 
and not being able to use force, thought it best to give Soft 
words ; then some of the Indians went out. Leaving others as 
hostages, and Consulted with their men who were at Sum 
distance from us ; after which they returned, with the inclos'd 
Letter and said they had Concluded to send some of their 
men to Boston to waite on the Governor ; upon which I ven- 
tured to tell them when their men Embark't for Boston I 
would trade with them and not before. 

" Refer your Ex'y to Capt. Fletcher who accompanies this 
for a more particular acc't and subscribe my self &c. 

" Jabez Bradbury." 

" St. George's, June 27, 1755." 

" P. S. I entreat your Excelency, as I have more than 
once already, that I may be Dismis'd from my Charge here ; 

* Mass. Arc. vol. 54, p. l65. 


1 am inc.lined to think that ye penobscots are most of them 
desirous of peace, but whether they have done all that was in 
their power to prevent the mischief Lately done us, I am not 
suer of, though they insist upon it that they have. They now 
seem to be in Earnest that they'l joyn us against the Common 
Enemy but how much to be rehed on I am not able to tell. 

" J. Bradbury." 

" June ye 27th, 1755. 
"Governor Shirly; Brother we salute you and all the 
counsel ; we are glad that you have kept what we agreed 
upon; we always thought that the Cannada Indians wou'd 
bring us into trouble, and what you desired of us, we have 
done ; you told us that those that came against us in a hostile 
manner, we must joyn and goe against them ; let us know 
when we must do it ; they have hurt us as well as you, and 
three of our men are now Come up to wait on you, which 
will be a proof of our Sincerity ; and we exi)ect that our 
wives and children will be Supported at our village till our 
return ; they that have hurt you already are gone off and will 
do it no more ; and we shall always let you know truly when 
there is danger ; there shall no damage be done on this side 
Pemequid. You must not think that we dissemble. If you 
could see our hearts, you'd know that we are true ; war will 
hurt us as well as you, therefore we are strong against it ; 
if there should be war between England and France and we 
should come over to you, our women and children must be 
well used ; we again salute you. 

" Wombemanda, 

" Noodagunawit, 

" & Mefel. In behalf of our tribe."* 

To this letter Lieut. Gov. Phips replied that he expected 
" a competent number of their most able men should join 
with the Enp-lish in avenging the wrongs received from the 
other tribes," and for this purpose, invited them with their 
wives and children to repair to St. George's, to be ready 
for that service when required, promising them pay and 
rations whilst so employed, and suitable provision at the fort 
for their women, children, and aged men. 

But James Cargill of Newcastle, who had a commission 
to raise a company of scouts, and had enlisted men from 
that neighborhood, made an expedition hither, July 1, 1755, 

* Massachusetts Arcliives, vol. 32, p. 647-8. 


for the purpose either of putting a stop tn that trade whicli 
was thought to be carried on to the great danger of the 
whites, or of enriching himself by the booty and scalps of 
unsuspicious Indians. Both these motives might have oper- 
ated, as =£200 for the scalp of a hostile Indian, and .£250 
for a captive, was the bounty then offered to companies of 
rangers, and half that sum to private individuals. Tarrying 
one night at Broad Bay, he proceeded next morning with a 
design of marching back of, and around, the settlements at 
St. George's. But meeting with three men of the garrison 
there, and receiving the requisite information, he persuaded 
them, together with some of Capt. Nichols's rangers whom 
he fell in with, to accompany him ; led his 31 men to Bur- 
ton's block-house, four or five miles below the fort ; crossed 
the river, and, after a march of five miles, fell in with an 
Indian, unarmed, and, as was supposed, intoxicated, accom- 
panied by his wife and an infant two months old. These 
they fired upon, killed the Indian, and mortally wounded his 
wife. She proved to be Margaret Moxa, a friendly squaw 
returning from the fort on one of her wonted expeditions 
of kindness to the garrison, giving them intelligence of some 
hostile design. On their coming up, she held out her infant, 
whom she called Nit, and, with her dying breath, requested 
them to carry it to Capt. Bradbury. One of the party re- 
plied with a pun " every nit will make a louse," and knocked 
it in the head before the eyes of its expiring mother. Seiz- 
ing their canoe and leaving nine of his men to guard it, 
Cargill and the rest of his party (except one, who refused to 
go any farther) proceeded on about four miles, and discov- 
ered about sunset a body of Indians near Owl's Head. 
These they fired upon, killed nine, returned to the men they 
had left, and the next morning exhibited the scalps at the fort.* 
This tragic and treacherous deed was as much regretted 
by the government for its impolicy, as by the greater portion 
of the people for its turpitude. Cargill was apprehended for 
trial on a charge of murder ; a letter of condolence was sent 
by Gov. Phips to the suffering party ; their brethren who 
liad lately visited Boston, returned laden with presents ; and 
the tribe were invited to come under a safe conduct and 
prosecute the offenders, — full assurance being given that 
law and justice would be measured to them by severest rules. 
On the trial, Cargill attempted to prove that some of the St. 

* Cargill's statement. Mass. Archives, vol. 38, p. 167. Brad- 
bury's ditto, vol. 77, p. 382, and tradition. • 


John's, or other hostile Indians were with the party attacked, 
who had such a general resemblance to the Penobscots that 
he was unable to distinguish between them ; the prejudices of 
the country ran high against the natives, and the jury acquit- 
ted him.* 

The fate of Margaret was deeply lamented by the gar- 
rison, who knew the value of her services. *•' Never shall I 
forget," said one of the party, " the deep and unappeasable 
grief of the women in the fort, especially of Margaret 
Lermond and Margaret Patterson, two young ladies in the 
flower of youth and beauty, when they saw the scalp of 
their friendly namesake, whom they had long regarded as 
a delivering angel." The more humane part of the settlers 
loudly condemned the act, and confidently predicted that 
its perpetrators would never die in their beds. This pro- 
phecy was from time to time recalled to remembrance by 
its partial fulfilment with such as belonged to St. George's, 
onet being drowned in the river, and another^ perishing in 
the expedition to Biguyduce in the war of the revolution. 

The Penobscots were now both offended and aggrieved. 
The fresh injuries they had received, rankled in their bosoms, 
and could not be forgiven, nor pass unrevenged. Distin- 
guished among the tribes for coolness and prudence, they 
hesitated between resentment and policy, the friendship of 
the French and the power of the English, till on the 5th of 
Nov. the government publicly proclaimed war against them. 

Besides the regular garrisons at the fort and block-houses, 
a company of rangers scouting to the eastward was this year 
kept in pay from June 19th to Nov. 20th, as follows ; Capt. 
Thomas Fletcher ; Lieut. Alex. Lermond ; Sergeants Alex. 
Campbell, Wm. Young and Joseph Robinson ; Corporals 
David Kelloch, John Standley ; Centinels, John Shibles, John 
Brown, Alex. Kelloch, Samuel Jameson, Moses Robinson, 
Hugh Ross, Thomas Holden, Owen Madden, John Lermond, 
Archibald Gamble, Michael Rawley, Hugh Carr, David Pat- 
terson, Jr., John Carswell, Moses Robinson, Jr. George Young, 
Joseph Rivers, Archibald Robinson, Jacob Heyler, George 
S mouse, Thomas Gregg, David Patterson, John McCarter, 
Ezra King, Nathaniel Bartlett, John Robinson, Samuel Boggs, 

* Mass. Arc. vol. 32, p. 650. 2 Will. His. p. 315. 

t Viz. S. Creighton. 

X Viz. S. Boggs, 2d, then recently married and residing at Pema- 
quid. — Comm. of A. Kelloch, 1st, O. Boggs, S. Boggs, 3d, W. Ler- 
mond, L. Parsons, 1st, and others. 


Jr., Joseph Peters, Joseph York, Thomas Johnston, John Kel- 
loch, Matthew Kelloch, Wilham James, Jr., William Smith, 
Hans Robinson, Andrew Bird, John Annis, William Adams, 
Thomas Carney, Philip Sachamo, Adam Varner, and Joseph 

Fletcher, the commander of this company, was at other 
times Bradbury's lieutenant in the garrison. The following 
is one of his letters to the Lieut. Governor : — ''These are 
to inform your Honor, that this day the Indians fell on us ; 
two men were out a small distance from the garrison ; the 
Indians fired upon them ; one escaped and the other is miss- 
ing. They began about twelve of the clock and continued 
firing on the cattle till almost night. I immediately despatch- 
ed an express to the neighboring settlements. I judge there 
is a great body of them by their appearance. My Lieut, was 
on a march with 30 men, but happily this evening returned. 
This night I design to go out and try to meet them. Being all 
at present, I beg leave to subscribe myself, &c. T. Fletcher. 
St. George's Fort, 24 Sept. 1755." 

Such occurrences as these, together with th.e forbearance, 
which, up to the declaration of war, the commander was re- 
quired to exercise toward the Tarratines, increased the dis- 
satisfaction of the inhabitants on the river and adjacent 
places ; 59 of whom the following year signed a long memo- 
rial to Gov. Shirley against the conduct of Fletcher in not 
allowing; them to go against the Indians.! 

In the winter 35 soldiers only were retained in the garrison 
at St. George's in addition to the resident inhabitants. The 
mingled scenes of civilized and savage warfare which the 
country presented, and the gloom of the season, were ren- 
dered more direful by the shock of an earthquake, themost 
violent one ever before known since the settlement of the 
country. It happened Nov. 18th at about 11 minutes after 
4 in the morning. Its direction was from N. W. to S. E. 
and it was felt through the whole country from Chesapeake 
Bay to N. Scotia. It commenced with an undulatory motion 
and lasted at least 4 minutes. In Boston and Falmouth chim- 
neys and brick houses were considerably damaged. It had 
a surprising effect upon the moral sensibilities of the com- 
munity ; and the 23d of Dec. was observed as a day of 
humiliation and, prayer on account of it.| 

* Com. Muster roll, Mass. Arc. 94, p. 17. 
t Mass. Arc. 54-94, p. 148 and 314. 
t Smitli's Jour. Holmes A. An, 


1756- In June, 1756, war was formally declared against 
France. The settlements which the Indians seemed to have 
marked first for destruction, this spring, were those upon the 
river St. George's. The stone block-house commanded by- 
Lieut. Burton was attacked March 24th, and two of his men 
killed, and another scalped and left half dead. Other depre- 
dations were made upon the coast ; and, Sept. 26th, one 
schooner was burnt and two taken in St. George's river, 
three men being killed and three others missing.* A com- 
pany on this river was this year commanded by Capt. Joshua 
Freeman ; one half of whose company as well as that of 
Capt. Nichols at Sheepscot was ordered to be discharged on 
the 1st, and the remainder on the 20th, of November, it 
being customary for the Indians by that time to withdraw 1o 
their hunting grounds in the interior.! It was also ordered 
that 150 able bodied men be raised to range the Indian hunt- 
ing grounds between the eastern frontiers and Canada, the 
commanders to return a journal of their proceedings. 

In October of this year the garrison and people of St. 
George's sustained a loss in the death of the Rev. Robert Ruth- 
erford, who, for a few years, had taken up his abode there, 
preached to the people, and acted as chaplain to the garrison. 
He was a native of Ireland and a Presbyterian. He came 
over with Col. Dunbar, the celebrated surveyor of the King's 
woods, in 1729, and preached at Pemaquid for four or five 
years. When Dunbar went to Portsmouth in 1734, his house 
and farm were left in the care of Mr. Rutherford. In 1735 
he was employed by the town of Brunswick and continued to 
preach there till 1742. After this he was engaged for a short 
time at Georgetown, and probably returned to Pemaquid. 
From thence, on the marriage of Dunbar's widow with Capt. 
Henderson of St. George's, he removed to that place. It 
does not appear that he had a distinct pastoral charge, or that 
any church was gathered there during his life. He was a 
man of respectable literary attainments, and bore the charac- 
ter of a pious, orthodox minister. He died at the age of 68 
years, and was buried at the fort. His gravestone with sev- 
eral others in a mutilated state are still to be seen near the 
tomb of the late Gen. Knox. His wife survived him 23 years 
and was buried in the same place. They left a family of 
seven daughters whose posterity are numerous in the 
vicinity. f 

* Smith's Journal, p. 66. t Jom'. House Rep. 

t Greenleaf 's Eccl. Sketches. Gravestones, &c. 


1757. Early in 1757 an additional military force was 
ordered to scour the country and two vessels employed to 
range the coast for the protection and relief of the people. 

The Indians suffered greatly from the small pox, and, being 
neglected by the French and distressed by the war, began to 
be weary of the contest. Two Tarratine chiefs stated to 
the government, through Capt. Bradbury, that their numbers 
were much lessened by that pestilence, and that the tribes 
wished to feed again upon the fruits of mutual peace and 
friendship. The Governor was in favor of receiving them 
" provided they would come in and dwell among us."* Noth- 
ing, however, was effected. Yet the Indians communicated 
with the garrison at St. George's by flags of truce so fre- 
quently, as to excite some apprehensions among the more jeal- 
ous of the inhabitants. 

The garrison there consisted this year of Jabez Bradbury, 
Capt. at £4 per month ; T. Fletcher, Lieut, at £'3 ; Benjamin 
Burton, ditto ; William Farnsworth, Ensign, at 30s. ; John 
Dunn, Sergeant, 30s. ; Alexander Campbell, Corporal, 28s. ; 
John McKechnie, Clerk, 30s. ; Joshua Treat, Armorer, 40s. ; 
Walter McFarland, Interpreter, 32s. 4d. : and 32 Centinels 
at 24s., of whom William James, Hugh Scott, Matthew Kel- 
loch, John Kilpatrick, Joseph James, Samuel Creighton, John 
Boggs, Alexander Lermond, John Lermond, John Mclntyre, 
John Carswell, John Patterson and John Crawford belonged to 
the upper town ; Reuben Pitcher, Jonathan Nutting, Robert 
Young, Thomas Palmer, Henry Plendley, John Demorse, 
Joseph York, William Maycook, Ebenezer Thomson, and 
perhaps some others to the lower town, or to Medumcook.t 
In addition to the garrison, 87 men were ordered to be enlisted 
for scouting between St. George's and Frankfort, a plantation 
afterwards named Pownalborough, now Dresden, Wiscasset, 
and Alna. Of these, one company, under Capt. Joshua 
Freeman, rendezvoused at St. George's, and another at the 
mill garrison on the Medomak in what is now Waldoboro'. 
The following is aji extract from the journal of Capt. Free- 
man, who, after receiving his commission in Boston, April 
22d, arrived at St. George's with five men and there enlisted 
the remainder. 

" May 12. Went down to Burton's and Henderson's 
garrisons to see what order they were in, — the same day 
went to Broad Bay. 13th. Returned to the block-house. 

* Gov. Letter, March 31, 1757. 

t Co. Muster roll, Mass. Arc. 96, p. 147. 


16th. Monday, early in the morning, upon a hill to the 
northward of the fort about 40 or 50 rods, there appeared 
a white flag with a company of Indians. Capt. Bradbury 
hoisted another flag, upon which I went over to the fort ; a 
few rods off which Capt. Bradbury, Mr. Fletcher, and the 
Interpreter were discoursing with eight Indians, there being 
three on the hill with the flags. Some of my people gave 
an account that they saw nine more back of lime-stone hill 
which is about one quarter of a mile from the block-house. 
* * About 3 o'clock in the afternoon the Indians marched 
off* from the hill where their flag was, with their flag, and the 
flag at the fort was struck. About 2 hours after, some of 
my people came to me and asked leave to go after the In- 
dians. I forbade them and told them not to go on any 
account, but to let them go off* peaceably. About half an 
hour after, some of my company that was guarding back, 
went in the road that the Indians went off" in near a mile 
and found an Indian asleep and brought him into the block- 
house, the rest being gone out of sight, as they said, and no 
flag to be seen. Those that brought the fellow in, insisted 
that he should be sent up to Boston as there was no flag to 
be seen and the Indians having so much time to go off*, that 
he was a lawful prize, but after many persuasions the fellow 
was dismist. When the Indian had his liberty, he told me 
he was afraid to go off. 1 asked him what he was afraid of, 
he said he was alone, and that he supposed by that time the 
rest of his company was got as far as t^e Owl's Head, (our 
discourse was by the interpreter that belonged to the fort.) 
Sun about two hours high in the afternoon, an Indian with a 
flag came to the fort, his name was Neptune (as I was inform- 
ed) who tarried but a few minutes and went off* with the 
fellow that my people brought in. In the evening I received 
an account by Capt. Kilpatrick that Neptune gave an account 
that there was 26 in their company and that he expected 39 
in the morning, but as there was no likelyhood of any trade 
he supposed they would be stopped. Upon hearing the same 
I expected the Indians would do what damage they could 
before they went off*, there being such a number gathered, 
and that they did not in any wise agree to an accommodation 
agreeable to the purposes of the government. My men was 
very earnest to go out with a party of ten or 20 men and 
see what discovery they could make, to which I consented 
and gave them orders that if they discovered any of them 
they should send me a man and let me know of it, that I 
would with the rest of my company go out and attack them. 


* * Accord ino;ly near about 10 o'clock, 18 of my men went 
out from the block-house, and at 11 o'clock they came back 
and brought one scalp and gave me an account that as they 
were a marching out towards the eastern shore about a 
mile from the block-house, in the road, they came across a 
pack, upon which they discovered some Indians a little out 
of the road and fired upon them and killed one dead which 
they scalped. And as soon as our people fired, the Indians 
fired on them on both sides of the road. Our people found 
themselves ambushed, discharged their guns several times at 
the Indians, huzzaed, and the Indians at them and yelled, it 
being very dark our people were obliged to quit the prey and 
return back. Our men received but little damage, one man 
had his gim shot out of his hand, the stock broke with a bullet, 
and a little piece of flesh carried off between the thumb and 

In this aflair David and Alexander Kclloch were the leading 
men ; the former was the one who had his gun shot away, 
and the latter, whilst living, gave the author the following 
particulars. " Bradbury agreed not to molest the Indians for 
a certain time, but warned them to look out for the sharp 
shooters from the block-house. The night being dark, the 
pursuing party followed each other in close Indian file. On 
coming to the pack, and supposing it a decoy to an ambus- 
cade, the file-leader gave a pinch to his rear-man ; which 
signal was communicated from man to man till the whole 
came to a silent halt. After a moment's pause, an Indian, 
probably left on the watch but betrayed into sleep by the 
occapee obtained at the fort, was heard to snore, and, on the 
discharge of a musket aimed at the sound, gave one prodigious 
leap into the air, fell, and never moved again. In the firing 
that ensued, the parties aimed at the flashes of each others' 
guns. Several muskets, a quantity of beaver, and other stores 
left by the Indians, yielded the victors $15 a share. 

The journal continues : " July 6, I went up St. George's 
river with sixteen men to the upper part of the old settlement 
— made no discovery of any Indians. 25th. For sundry 
days past been continually guarding of the people up and 
down the river from Pleasant Point to the falls of St. G(^orge's 
river, whilst they were getting hay." This protection was 
in the highest degree necessary, as those who had ventured 
out in the spring to plant potatoes had often been attacked 
and compelled to retreat. Two young men of the lower 

* Mass. Arc. vol. 38, p? 280. 


town, Henry and Samuel Hendley, one 17 and the other 22 
years of age, went up the river for staves, were attacked 
near Mr. Cooper's shore (now Dunhar's in Warren,) and 
were supposed to be killed ; as the body of one was after- 
wards found on the marsh, and the other was never heard 
from. At another time three men, venturing out from the 
fort for smelts, were ambushed and slain near the saw-mill. 
Other depredations were committed whenever an opportunity 
presented. Mrs. Thompson, Agnes Lamb, afterwards Mrs. 
Spear, and some others were milking up the lane a little way 
from the fort, when the savages fell upon them and took Mrs. 
Thompson prisoner ; the other escaping to the garrison. So 
great was the fright, that Miss Lamb, though she had some 
distance to flee, and bars to surmount, kept the pail in her 
grasp, without spilling a drop of its contents, or being aware 
of its possession, till safe within the fort. Mrs. Thompson 
was redeemed by her husband for ^40.* 

The young men by the name of Watson, whose father 
after leaving Ireland resided some years in Scarboro' and 
came to this river near the beginning of this war, had pur- 
chased the point which now bears their name, and erected a 
house there, carrying on the coasting business here and at 
Scarboro.' John Watson, who commanded their sloop, sent 
two of his men on shore at Pleasant Point for water, where 
they were seized by the Indians and carried to Canada. The 
Captain, going in his wherry to look for them, was hailed by 
a Frenchman and ordered to come on shore. Not complying, 
he was immediately killed by a musket shot. The two cap- 
tives were William Watson and Larrowbee of Scarboro'; 

the former of whom, together with his half brother James 
Watson, returned and occupied the point before named ; and 
David, another brother, settled at East Thomaston. William 
took a conspicuous part in the incorporation of the town of 
Warren, and generally acted as moderator in the early town 
meetings. He established a ferry at that point, which he and 
his sons kept, down to the time the lower toll-bridge was 
erected in 1818.t 

It was probably on board Watson's vessel that a man ad- 
vanced in years, and a female passenger, Mrs. Gamble, who 
were the only persons left after the encounter on shore, per- 
ceived the Indians, at night fall, approaching in their canoes 

* Tradition. Mrs. Montgomery. A. Kelloch, 1st. 
t Captain H. Libbey. 


to attack the vessel. The old man took his station on deck 
with what muskets there were on board, and, with the aid of 
his companion, who reloaded as fast as they were discharged, 
kept the Indians at bay till they became discouraged and 

The Indians, also, threatened the block-house at Pleasant 
Point, but, not being strong enough to effect any thing, whh- 
drew. When they were supposed to be all gone, a soldier, 
by the name of Coltson, looking over the platform, was shot 
through the head by an Indian concealed under it ; who 
having satisfied his revenge, bounded off, and was soon out 
of sight. At Medumcook, a Mr. Elwell and his family lived 
in a house built strong for the purpose of defence. Being 
beset by the savages, he and his two sons, placing themselves 
at the doors and up stairs, kept them at bay. In the back 
part of the house were two mortice-holes as a substitute for 
a window ; by which the Indians were observed to pass. 
Elwell placed a pistol there, and told his wife to fire it when- 
ever she saw the light darkened. She did so, wounded an 
Indian, who fled calling for assistance, and the party disap- 
peared. At Broad Bay they ambushed the house of one 
Piper, before daylight, and, on his coming out for w^ood, shot 
him dead. Plis wife seized a sick child, put it down cellar, 
shut the trap-door upon it, and then placed herself at the 
door to prevent the Indians from bursting in. They shot her 
through the door, entered and plundered the house of what 
they could carry ofi'; but after their departure, the child was 
found safe and uninjured in the cellar. In the same place, 
several were taken captive, one of whom, a young man by 
the name of Klein, was carried to Canada, and after the 
peace was brought home by his father, who went thither to 
recover him. Mr. Lash, who was hauling wood with a horse 
and car, a little below the head of the tide, not far from 
where the late Dr. Brown's house now stands, was suddenly 
assailed by Indians who attempted to take him prisoner. He 
seized and held two of them, till a third shot him dead. 
Another assault was made, about sunset, lower down the 
river, when Loring Sides was killed, and others with difficulty 
escaped. A while after, Hermon Kuhn and Henry Demuth, 

* Mrs. S. Fuller, who adds tliat Mrs. G. was going to N. H. to 
spend the winter with a relative, in expectation of conlinement ; but 
in consequence of the excitement of that night and the birtli of a 
stillborn infant before morning, relinquished the design and returned 
in safety. 


being at work near the river, were fired upon and killed, the 
latter at the first fire, and the former as he was pushing off 
his float, in order to escape by flight. Their neighbors on 
that side, then moved over to the Dutch Neck for greater 
security. Even at this place, Jacob Sechrist, Mr. Burns and 
others, were fired upon when at work in the woods. Sechrist 
was killed ; the rest ran for their canoe and succeeded in 
getting from the shore, having seen five Indians.* 

To these traditionary facts we add the following journal 
found in the Secretary's office, Boston, without a signature, 
but supposed to be that of Capt. Matthias Remilly, who com- 
manded ihe company of rangers at Broad Bay. " May 31, 
1757. Marched with 25 men from the mill garrison about 
3 miles E. N. E. across the meadows, and then struck down 
south betwixt our meadows and St. George's ponds, and re- 
turned through the woods in sight of the clear. Met 3 times 
with Indian tracks, but it being so dry, could make no dis- 
covery of their number. June 1st. A man and a woman 
on tlie western side of Madamuck Falls were surprised by 
something making a noise along the brush of the woods, 
and the dog going upon it, I went immediately with 12 men 
in search, but could make no discovery. 3d. Marched 
with 18 men down the lower part of the bay to look after 
some cattle for the inhabitants. At return at the lower 
garrison met with George's and Frankforth companies both 
bound to Frankforth, they staid that night at the mill garrison 
and went on their march in the morning. 4th. About 10 
o'clock went with 18 men to the middle garrison and left 4 
men for a guard to a settler who was making fence close 
to the woods. At the E. side of the river the watch was 
surprised by a noise in the woods, hearing the dry sticks 
break ; at 1 o'clock the men received allowance and when 
they was parted, 3 women and a man went to their lots 
above the falls joining one another, the first, being about 70 
rod off the mill garrison, by the dog making a dirrible [ter- 
rible] noise, discovered an Indian behind the fence in gun- 
shot of her. She took to her heels, screaming to the other 
at the next house, which immediately shut her door and 
crept into the cellar, and, as there was in the cellar an 
air hole, she saw the Indians, which being 4 in number, 
running over the brook (which runs along her lot to Mado- 
mack river) and taking a short round to the common pad 
[path] and so down to the shear, where they stood in a 

* Jos. Ludwig, Esq. &c. 


heap, expecting the woman went along the pad, but she 
escaped with another by the help of a man through the 
water. I~heard thereof and run immediately with 15 men 
to the place, found the woman yet in her cellar amout death 
[almost dead.] She told that the Indians returned from 
the shear and came to her house, she thinking that they 
knowed of her being in the house and came to kill her, but 
they took immediately the woods about 5 minutes before 
I was at the house to her relieve. I went immediately 
down to the lower garrison, as many people were out at work 
and, by firing an alarm with the cannons, brought them to 
garrison and returned along the clear. 5th. The woomans 
which escaped the Indians, hath [had] left some necessaries 
at their habitations which they could not do without ; I 
went with 8 men to guard them. When we came to the 
house we espied some cattle 5 lots higher up the Madomack 
river upon the seed,t which we expected the Indians drove 
there to trap some people. I sent for more men and drove 
them out but made no discovery. 

" June 6th. In the morning a settler hath some necessary 
work to do, hath a guard of 8 men, but they soon were 
surprised by a great breaking through the brook coming 
right upon them, they being too weak returned to garrison. 
Two men sent on board the sloops out of the upper garrison, 
and 4 out of the lower. In the afternoon a settler belonging 
to the next lot of [from] the garrison hath some fence to 
make, hath 7 men for a guard ; 3 of the working men went 
to a brook about 40 rods distance to get water, they were 
immediately surprised by something creeping over the brook 
about 60 yards ofT them in the woods, which at first they 
thought to be a dog, but soon espied two Indians, one in a 
new, the other in an old blanket, a creeping towards them, 
then the one Indian bawled the other by the blanket, showing 
him with his finger the tree [three] people. One of our 
men hath no gun with him, the other being loaded, so they 
hastened to the guard and returned home, as they were too 
weak to follow the enemy, as the rest of the men were at 
the lower garrison and guarding ihe sloops. 

" June 7th. It hath rained, so could not march, but had 
guards on board the coasters ; about one o'clock George's 
Company returned and brought an account of 30 canoes 
being landed at the Olds [Owl's] Head, and 2 Indians being 

t Probably grain sown. 


killed and scalped by Capt, Cox. About 3 o'clock arrived 
Capt. Kent with the Province stores which were landed that 

'■'• 8th. Marched with 14 men S, E. and took around to 
the lower garrison where I took the rest of the men and 
stood guard for the people to haul out the wood for Capt. 
Kent. About one o'clock a gun was fired at N. E. the back 
of me about 1-2 mile distance, but, as I could not leave the 
people who a hauling, could not go after it. About 4 o'clock 
the account was brought to me that a wooman were killed 
at the eastern side of the narrows, and, as it was about 8 
mile to walk by land so that I should not have come there 
before night, took a sloop's boat and some canoes and went 
with 20 men there, where we found the corpse of the man 
up at the edge of the woods, and the wooman at the house, 
shot, scalped, stabbed, and mangelt [mangled] in a cruel 
and barbarous manner ; the ax was laying by the man and 
the Indian hatchet was left in the wooman's skull. There 
hath been 5 guns in the house, two of them they took, also 
a cutlass. They hath stripped the man and took the money, 
clothing, and some meal, the chest they broke up and took 
what they liked ; the rest laid about the floor ; they took no 
ammunition tho' there was a good deal in the house. The 
accident happened thus. The man and his wife and son 
went in the morning to their house ; the man went in the 
field, the wife and son (who was sick) were in the house ; 
an Indian came in the house and set his gun to the son's 
breast which missed fire ; the wooman took the Indian and 
throwed him out of doors and shut the door ; the Indian shot 
through a crack and killed the wooman ; the son creapt into 
the cellar, where he laid 3 hours before he got to his neigh- 
bors. We buried the man and wooman and returned home. 
9th. Sent a guard of 14 men to Capt. Kent. All the night 
before the enemy has been about the garrison mocking the 
watch, the dogs making a great noise."* 

In August Thomas Pownal, appointed Governor of Massa- 
chusetts, arrived and entered upon the duties of his office. 
About this time Capt. Bradbury and Lieut. Fletcher resigned 
the command of the fort at St. George's river. John North, 
one of the first Irish settlers upon the river, succeeded as 
Captain, and John McKechenie as Lieutenant. Bradbury and 
Fletcher had been liberal in their censures of James Cargill's 
bloody affair with the Indians ; and the latter, after his dis- 

* Mass. Arc. vol. 38, A. p. 254. 


charge and receipt of c£600 as a premium for his exploit, 
charged them with treasonable practices, in trading with the 
Indians clandestinely in time of war, and giving them intelli- 
gence inconsistent with the duty of officers. In the tedious 
investigation of the charges before the two houses of the 
Legislature, there were many witnesses examined from St. 
George's and other eastern stations ; but the decision excul- 
pated the respondents, and the public confidence in the man- 
agement of the eastern garrisons was greatly strengthened.* 
Capt. Bradbury was a man of agreeable manners and per- 
sonal popularity. With the Indians he was a favorite, and 
no man could have done more in carrying out the views of 
government in securing their friendship. That he did not 
escape censure from the ignorant and irritated, thirsting for 
Indian blood, is not to be wondered at ; war is in itself so 
criminal, and, to be successfully carried on, rouses so many 
of the worst passions of our nature, that it is not always easy 
to allay or direct the storm it has been found expedient to 
raise. All men can feel resentment and enjoy revenge ; few, 
comparatively, can judge of political, or appreciate humane, 
motives. Hence the wisest measures are liable to be misun- 
derstood, and the ablest conduct exposed to censure. After 
his retirement he spent the remainder of his life at Newbury- 
port, where he died, as is believed, about the close of the 
century, in possession of some wealth. He was never mar- 
ried, and his property went to the children of his brothers, of 
whom one or more were setded at Falmouth. Whilst in 
command at St. George's, two of his nieces on a visit there, 
became acquainted with two young men then in the garrison, 
and were married, one to John Boggs and the other to John 
Kirkpatrick, whose posterity are numerous in the town of 
Warren. f 

* Jour. House Rep. 2 Will, His. p. 328. 
t T. Kirkpatrick. 



FKOM 1758 TO 1770 ; coxclusion of thk wae, and progress of 


1758. In 1758 the British, under the immortal Chatham, 
began to put forth all their energy in the war. Several expe- 
ditions were planned ; and, among others, that against Louis- 
burg (which place had been restored to the French at the 
late peace,) was entered into with spirit by the people of 
Maine and Massachusetts. In the mean time the eastern 
garrisons were not neglected ; 85 men were continued in St. 
George's fort, 6 at Burton's block-house, 6 at Henderson's gar- 
rison at Pleasant Point, 10 at Medumcook, and 17 at Broad 
Bay. Those at Henderson's were, Dunbar Henderson, Ser- 
geant, at £1 10s. per month, James Parsons, Lawrence 
Parsons, Alexander Hawthorn, Andrew Bird and Richard 
Furness, centinels, at 24s. each, per month. Those at Bur- 
ton's were Benjamin Burton, Sergeant, ai £1 10s. ; Thomas 
Carney, Christian Power, Joseph Andrews, John Burton, Cor- 
nelius Thornton, and John Green, centinels, at 24s. per 

A communication was received at Boston in August from 
Brig. Gen. Monkton stationed in Nova Scotia, which stated 
that a body of Frenchmen in conjunction with the Indians on 
the rivers St. John, Penobscot, and probably Passamaquoddy, 
were meditating an attempt upon the fort at St. George's, and 
the destruction of all the settlements in that vicinity. Imme- 
diately Gov. Pownal collected such a military force, as was at 
command, and embarked with them on board the King George 
and the sloop Massachusetts. Arriving, he threw these auxil- 
iaries, with some additional warlike stores, into the fort at a 
most fortunate juncture ; for within 36 hours after his depar- 
ture, the fort was actually assailed by a body of 400 French 
and Indians. But so well prepared was the garrison to re- 
ceive them, that they were unable to make the least impres- 
sion. Nor did any representations of their numbers, nor any 
threats, communicated to the fort by a captive woman whom 
they purposely permitted to escape thither, occasion the least 
alarm. Despairing of any thing farther, the besiegers gave 
vent to their rage by killing the neighboring cattle, about 60 

* Mass. Arc. vol. 96. Co. Muster rolls. 


of which they shot or butchered. Though out of command, 
Bradbury was still in the fort at the time of this engage- 

This active and conspicuous service of the Governor was 
not only applauded by the General Court in high terms, but 
Mr. Pitt also assured him, it had I'eceived the particular ap- 
probation of the King himself. The enemy afterwards made 
an attempt upon the fort at Medumcook, without being able to 
carry it ; though they killed, or took captive, eight men. 

1759. The plan of operations, for the memorable year 
1759, was nothing less than a universal attack upon the 
French, in every direction, with a determination to bring 
the contest to a final and speedy decision. Whilst the 
more important expeditions were being carried on against 
Quebec, Niagara, Crown Point and Ticonderoga, the 
interest of the eastern frontier was not disregarded. At the 
earnest recommendation of Gov. Povvnal, an armament 
of 400 men was sent up the Penobscot to take posses- 
sion of that river and its neighborhood. Having examined 
sundry places and taken formal possession of the country, 
the Governor, who accompanied the expedition, selected 
a convenient spot in the present town of Prospect, and 
commenced the erection there of a strong and commo- 
dious fort, to be named Fort Pownal. As soon as the la- 
borers had begun work, the Governor, attended by Gen. 
Samuel Waldo, with a guard of 136 men, ascended the river 
near the head of tide waters, below the bend ; and May 23d, 
went ashore on the westerly side of the river. From this 
place he sent a message to the Tarratine tribe, giving them 
notice of the enterprise undertaken at Fort-Point, and assur- 
ing them, if they should fall upon the English and kill any 
of them, the whole tribe should be hunted and driven from 
the country. But, added he, " though we neither fear your 
resentment nor seek your favor, we phy your distresses ; and 
if you will become the subjects of his majesty, and live near 
the fort, you shall have our protection, and enjoy your plant- 
ing and hunting grounds without molestation." 

Gen. Waldo took great interest in this expedition, expect- 
ing that the Muscongus, or Waldo patent, extended to some 

* Wm. Lermond. 2 Minot, p. 41. Smith's Journal, p. 177, says, 
" Aug. 30. We have been all in alarm by the advices of great firing 
at George's. One hundred and fifty men, mostly volunteers, are 
gone A^ith !Mr. Cox." " 31. Upon their return from Pemaquid, they 
brought news that the French and Indians had attacked George's, 
took and returned a woman, killed 60 cattle,* and moved off'." 


place near the spot then visited by them; and that he and 
his co-proprietors would derive essential advantage from the 
projected fortification. Withdrawing a few paces, he looked 
round, and exclaimed, "here are my bounds," — and instant- 
ly fell dead of an apoplexy. To commemorate the spot the 
Governor buried a leaden plate, bearing an inscription of the 
melancholly event. His body was carried to Fort PownaL* 

Gen. Waldo was a gentleman of great enterprise and 
worth; and the conspicuous part he acted in the first capture 
of Louisburg will be long recollected with intermingled 
pleasure and praise. He was the son of Jonathan Waldo, 
a merchant of Boston, but was himself born in England ; 
possessed great activity and perseverance ; and, according 
to a family tradition, made no less than 15 voyages across 
the Atlanlic. He was at the time of his death 63 years of 
acre. Accordino; to the recollection of those who knew him 
in their youth, he was a tall, stout, portly man, of a dark 
complexion, and commanding appearance. f It is believed 
his military conduct was unexceptionable. With regard to 
that towards the settlers, though he seems to have been cau- 
tious and shrewd in making a bargain, we do not find that 
the Irish settlers, who had been in the country and knew 
what to expect, had any particular complaints to make. But 
the Scotch and Germans, who received his offers in their own 
country, and judged of them according to what they had 
there known of upland, meadow, tide tcaters, &c., were 
wretchedly disappointed, and complained most bitterly of 
his deception and non-performance of conditions. It is said 
that one of the Germans, who had property or friends, went 
to Boston, commenced a suit, and recovered heavy damages ; 
and that nothing but their inability prevented some of the 
rest from doing the same. His sons, Samuel and Francis, 
and the husbands of his two daughters, Isaac Winslow and 
Thomas Fluker, were the testamentary executors of his 
large estate, much of which was in his eastern patent. 

During this and other visits to the eastern country. Gov. 
Pownal often visited St. George's ; where, from his energetic 
conduct towards the savages, and his readily accommodating 
himself to the free and blunt manners of the settlers, he 
became very popular. He used to salute the commander of 

* 2 Will. Ilis. p. 338. Whix:)ple's Acadie, p. 88. Smith's Journal, 
p. 179. 

t Mrs. Montgomery. A. KcUoch, 1st, &c. Williamson says he was 
of a ll(/ht complexion, note to p. 388, vol. 2, 



the block-house, Thomas Kilpatrick, whose name was a terror 
to the Indians, as " Tom-kill-the-devil ;" and, in allusion to 
his own energetic measures against them, was hailed in 
return, " Tom-pound-the-deviL" His pleasant and facetious 
conversation was as agreeable to the people here, as distaste- 
ful to the sons of the puritans in Massachusetts. One of his 
bonmots has been handed down. To some of the settlers 
who were great sticklers for the honor of Ireland, he started 
the question whether in the great temptation on the mount, 
all the kingdoms of the world were really shown. Pow- 
nal maintained the negative ; and on being pressed for his 
reasons, answered that Satan had from time immemorial 
always kept Ireland under his thumb. 

The erection of the fort beforementioned, the taking of 
Quebec, and other important victories which distinguished 
this year, gave as much joy and exultation to the English, as 
dismay, and distress to the Indians. Unassisted by the 
French, they gave very little farther trouble of a serious 
nature to the settlers in this quarter ; although straggling 
parties continued to lurk about for opportunities of private 
revenge, exciting frequent alarms. A force of 160 men, 
however, was employed on the eastern frontier during the 
winter, of which 84 were posted at fort Pownal, and 13 at 
St. George's; Fort Frederick, at Pemaquid, having been 
dismantled the preceding year. The ship King George was 
also kept cruising off the coast.* 

During this w^ar, the settlers found the greatest difficulty 
in preserving their cattle, as they must of course stray in 
search of subsistence. They endeavored to keep them as 
near the fort as possible ; and fewer were killed than might 
have been expected, as the beasts soon caught the contagious 
fear of their masters, and fled precipitately at the sight of 
an Indian. This made it necessary to kill them with shot 
only, which could not be done without raising an alarm. 
Some of the cattle got lost in the woods, and were found on 
the restoration of peace after an absence of three years. t 
Fewer cattle were destroyed at Broad Bay ; as there were 
not many in the settlement. Great hardships were endured 
and some distress occasioned by the want of provisions. 

* 2 Will. His. p. 342. 

t In 1758, John Mclntyre administered upon the estate of his 
father, Wm. Mclntyre, of St. George's. In his account of adminis- 
tration, rendered in 1760, he charged 11 days spent in looking up the 
stock which ran wild in the woods. — YorR Records. 


Those who were able to do soldier's duty, for the most part, 
drew pay as soldiers in the garrison, or in companies em- 
ployed as scouts. Lermond had a Lieutenant's commission 
in Freeman's company as beforementioned, and in 1758 was 
appointed to the same office in the militia under Kilpatrick. 
Being good with a broad axe, he was much employed about 
the fort, and found no difficulty in supplying his family. 
Others found means to get out wood and staves, sometimes 
by working under protection of a guard, and sometimes by 
hauling oaks across the flats on the ice, and making them 
up into staves beneath the walls of the fort. Cord- wood, at 
this time, if we may trust the memory of those who were 
then young, brought about 58 cents at the shore ; tea, 42 
cents a pound ; a day's work, and, except in seasons of 
scarcity, a bushel of corn, 50 cents ; which prices did not 
materially vary for several years after, down to the revolu- 
tionary war. Those who could afford it, used tea or coffee 
at breakfast. Bean or barley broth was a substitute with 
others. Some attention was paid to education ; temporary 
schools being provided, even during the war, Dr, Robinson, 
in the block-house, devoted all his leisure time, and particu- 
larly the Sabbath, to the instruction of the children. After 
this year the inhabitants worked on their farms in company, 
a day for one and a day for another, keeping a watch ; and 
on any intimation of danger, an alarm gun was fired at the 
fort, when all hands returned for safety. Some, who pos- 
sessed valuable furniture, had never taken it from the fort 
since the former war. Samuel Boggs the 1st, fearless him- 
self and anxious to prosecute his l3usiness as a farmer, re- 
mained in his dwelling on his farm, though it was the most 
distant of any on the river. His wife having died the first 
year after going into garrison, his daughter, who kept his 
house, felt uneasy at their exposed situation, and, as some 
supposed, set fire to the house, in order to compel her father 
to remove to the fort. She was the only person at home 
when it was burnt, and succeeded in saving all the property 
in the house except a large trough of soap in the cellar, 
which she was unable to get out.* 

1760. In 1760, the Indians began to make proposals 
for peace ; and so little was there to fear from them, that the 
inhabitants mostly left the garrison, and went on to their 
farms, still leaving their most valuable furniture, and occasion- 

* Mrs. L Fiaier. 


ally returning on any alarm of clanger. On one occasion, 
the wife of Mr. LernrjoDd, the next morning after giving birth 
to a child, was carried in her bed to the river, and thence in 
a canoe to the fort for safety. One Sunday, during divine 
service, an Indian came into the fort with intelligence that 
his countrymen were coming to attack the settlement. He 
departed ; an alarm gun was fired \ and people came flocking 
in on all sides with their cattle and property. The Indians 
came, entered most of the more distant houses, but found 
little plunder. As they occasionally had intercourse with the 
fort, the comimander like his predecessor was suspected of 
trading with them., which was looked upon as a grave offence 
by the people, although a treaty of peace had in fact been 
concluded with the Sagamores at Boston as early as the 13th 
of April. At this time the agriculture of the place was stil! 
confined to the raising of a few potatoes, peas, beans and a 
little English grain. There was do other ixxid but the river,, 
and a foot path from house to house on each &ide of it. 
Carts, and probably ploughs, there were none. Wood and 
staves were cut and made near the river, and slill hauled on 
hand-sleds in winter, or by horses- and cars. At Broad Bay 
one German v/oman, usually known by the name of Great 
Mary^ hauled out, on a hand-sled, two sloop loads of wood 
in one winter. Coasters from the south shore of Massachu- 
setts frequently came hither with provisions and groceries, 
which they exchanged for wood, bark and staves. One of 
these was commanded by a Capt. Roiich, who became wealthy, 
but at last committed suicide for fear of coming to want. 
Another was commanded hy one Capt. Boice, who, having 
amassed a considerable fortune in thfte busines-s, set up a 
paper-mill in the town of Milton, which, being the only one 
in that vicinity still further augmented hisweaUh. One of his 
daughters had married Hugh McLean of this place, who, on 
the death of his father and brother, succeeded to their two 
lots at Andrews's Point. He had, at first, been employed by 
Boice, afterwards was taken into partnership with him, and, 
for many years was the principal coaster betv/een George's 
River and Boston. His is one of the vessels mentioned by 
Capt. Freeman as guarded by him in 1757. 

It was about this time that Mr. Boggs introduced the first 
sheep into the place, which he brought from Pemaquid by 
water. On this occasion the following anecdote is related. 
Sitting on the windlass with his flock on the deck, he became 
drowsy and began to nod. The father of the flock mistaking 
the nod for a menace, drew back, butted him over, and left 


him sprawling. Boggs in his rage, seized the assailant and 
threw him overboard. The rest, according to their custom, 
followed their leader, and in an instant the whole flock were 
floating in the ocean. There being no land near, the vessel 
hove to, and with difficulty he recovered his property. At 
this time his cattle amounted to more than 30 head.* 

In the autumn of this year, 1760, Hatevil Libbey, the 
first of that name, who married a sister of the Watsons, 
came to the upper town, from Scarboro', and settled on the 
western side of the river on the lot now belonging to James 
Libboy, Being a tanner by trade, he soon after commenced 
that business and carried it on during his lifetime ; and his 
son and grandson have continued it down to the present day. 
His name will be mentioned again, as he sustained many 
offices, particularly in the militia, from that of Lieutenant to 
Major, was a respected citizen, and, we believe, carried out 
the precept given at his baptism hate evil. From him all the 
Libbcys of the town are descended. 

In June, 1760, the County of York was divided and two 
new counties established. That of Cumberland extended to 
its present limits on the seaboard and thence to the northern 
limits of the State. All the territory eastward of Cumber- 
land was included in the County of Lincoln, of which the 
shire town was Pownalborough. John North, commander of 
the fort at St. George's, was appointed one of the four Judges 
of the Court of Common Pleas. This gentleman had pre- 
viously held a justice's commission at St. George's, but in 
that capacity it is said no action ever came to trial before 
him, as he made it a rule always to laugh or scold the parties 
into a settlement. There was no cost to pay where he sat 
as Judge. 

" Enter but his door, 

"Baulked were the courts, and contest was no in.ore."t 

About the same time Gov. Pownal, in the height of his 
popularity, solicited his recall, and, in August, Sir Francis 
Bernard arrived as his successor. In the following Decem- 
ber George the Third ascended the throne of England. 

1761-2. The years 1761 and 1762 were distinguished 
for a remarkable and early drought, accompanied, in many 
places, by distressing fires ; but so little did the people of 
this river depend on their agriculture at that time, that no 

* Mrs. Montgomery. A. Kelloch, 1st. A. Lermond. J. and R. 
B. Copeland. J. Boggs. L. Parsons, S^c. 
t Samuel Boggs, 3d, &c. 



memorial has been handed down of a drouglit which, early 
in June of the former year had withered the herbage and was 
not relieved by rain until the 20th of August. At this time 
the country was still full of wild game ; the bears and wolves 
were very destructive to small cattle ; but the moose and 
deer supplied the loss, affording the inhabitants plenty of 
food whenever they could venture to pursue them. Great 
numbers of moose resorted to the Neck, between the present 
towns of Thomaston and St. George, for ground juniper 
which grew there in abundance. In 1762 a deep snow and 
crust obstructed their flight, and no less than seventy of these 
animals were taken. They were never found in such plenty 

After the death of the General, Col. Samuel Waldo, who 
as his eldest son inherited a double share, or two-fifths, of 
ihe Patent, occasionally came hither from Falmouth, to look 
after the estate and fulfil any subsisting contracts with the 
settlers. In the original grant to Beauchamp and Leverett, 
the boundaries were so obscurely and incoherently describ- 
ed as to render it difficult to ascertain the true intent thereof, 
and locate the same so as to avoid controversy. Waldo 
claimed on both sides of the Penobscot ; but as this claim 
was not recognized by the Province, the subject was referred 
to the General Court and on the 23d of Feb. 1762, h was 
agreed to extend the Patent six miles farther north in consid- 
eration of a relinquishment by the proprietors of their claims 
east of the Penobscot. The papers were accordingly made 
out, but, from some cause, were not executed, and nothing 
farther was done till 1785. In 1765 Co!. Waldo transferred 
his two shares to Thomas Fluker, Esq., who about the same 
time we believe, became the sole owner of most of the pro- 
prietary claims on this river. The Middle-Neck in Thomas- 
ton was sold by Francis Waldo in England, and, after several 

mean conveyances at length passed into the hands of 

Vaughan of Hallowell, by whom an arrangement was made 
with the settlers upon it since the separation of the State. t 

In 1762 the plantations on this river were for the first time 
included in the county tax. Of the <£132 Is. assessed upon 
the county, St. George''s upper town, now Warren and part 
of Thomaston, paid £4: 5s. 8d., St. George's lower town, 
now Gushing, St. George and a part of Thomast(in, paid =£4 
10s. Broad Bay, now VValdoboro', c£4 5s. 8d.,and JMedumcook 

* L. Parsons. M. Copelajad, Esq, 
t Journal of the House. 


now Friendship, £2 13s. Sd. But these proportions were 
materially changed the following year, when, whilst the lower 
town remained the same, the upper town was assessed £6, 
Broad Bay =£8, and Medumcook £4, out of =£152 on the 
whole county. See table IV. appended. Capt. Kilpatrick 
and Hugh McLean, tradition says, were the first assessors 
chosen in the upper plantation, who, in executing their trust, 
assigned one pistareen each to the ablest inhabitants till a 
sufficient sum was obtained, and exempted all the rest.* 

Very little recourse was had to law in those days, as the 
greater part of the people lived too much like a band of 
brothers to contend in civil matters ; and the few cases of 
criminal conduct that occurred were discountenanced by their 
frowns, or, perhaps, punished in extreme cases by what has 
since been denominated Lynch law. It is said one woman 
in the upper town for adultery underwent a public whipping, 
from no other authority than the popular will ; and some years 
later a man for abusing his wife and family was ridden upon a 
rail. But disorders of this kind were not frequent, and were 
kept within the bounds of justice by the more sober and aged 
part of the community. The Germans at Broad Bay managed 
very well much in the same manner, except now and then 
when a quarrel and fight occurred. On these occasions 
the worsted party used sometimes to repair to Damariscotta 
for legal redress before a justice of the peace, and it was not 
uncommon for half the settlement to be over there at the trial, 
either as witnesses or spectators. In another respect the 
Germans were more exemplary than their neighbors at St. 
George's. Though destitute of a regular clergyman, they 
had, from the first, constantly met for public worship on the 
Sabbath. In these meetinijs John Ulmer had taken the lead, 
and was indeed paid by Waldo as a clergyman, until, on the 
expedition to Louisburg, the settlement was broken up. 
After their return he continued to labor in the same vocation, 
and, after the death of Leistner, seems to have acted as priest, 
prince, and military commander. Visiting Pemaquid towards 
the close of the war, and hailing the people in the dusk of 
evening to set him across the river, in answer to the inquiry 
who he was, he gave his name with such a string of Dutch 
titles, that they expected to find a large number of persons ; 
and were much disappointed when they found all these honors 

* Rec. Court of Sessions, Wis. Capt. K. Hall, 1st. 


borne by a single individual. Matthias Remilly, beforemen- 
tioned, was, however, the first militia Captain commissioned 
by the Governor.* 

In 1762 John Martin SchaefFer, of the German Lutheran 
church, came from New York to Boston, where he was 
invited by some of the inhabitants of Broad Bay to become 
their minister. He agreed with them on condition of having 
a lot of land as a settlement, and ^"3 old tenor and two days' 
work yearly from each setder. He was a smart preacher 
and great singer, and was thought to be a man of learning ; 
but from the want of proper judges, it is difficult to determine 
what his literary acquirements were. His moral character 
seems to have been less equivocal, being made up of selfish- 
ness and a destitution of all virtuous principles. He had left 
a wife in Germany, seduced the wife of another, a woman of 
great beauty, and brought her and his own daughter to 
America. Not satisfied with his income as a minister, he 
practised as a physician also, and gained much fame as well 
as wealth by letting blood, inspecting urine, and dealing out 
medicine. He was applied to by numbers from the neigh- 
boring towns, and was considered by the common people as 
having no equal. He had made the Germans believe it was 
necessary to be bled every spring, for which he received a 
regular fee of fifty cents for each inhabitant. He is said, 
also, to have charged a stated fee for every funeral, every 
marriage, and every baptism, which he was careful to have 
paid down before performing the rite. These emoluments, 
with such advantages as his property, influence, and superior 
education to those around him, enabled him to take in making 
bargains, soon rendered him opulent ; he engaged in naviga- 
tion ; took the lumber and wood of the illiterate Germans, 
always taking out his own demands from the proceeds, and 
liquidating the accounts in his own way. Many a poor man 
had to work a week for him, to pay for the annual loss of 
blood in himself and family ; and when any considerable 
sickness occurred, a sloop's hold full of wood went to pay the 
doctor's bill. As wealth increased, restraint was thrown off", 
and his vices appeared without a blush. He was very pro- 
fane, grew intemperate, and though a stirring preacher, grad- 
ually lost all influence as a minister ; which gave him little or 
no trouble. His preaching being wholly in German, and his 
people of the Lutheran church, he had little or no intercourse 

* Jos. Ludwig, Esq. Capt. Sproul. 


with the other settlements in religious matters. The Rev. 
Alexander McLean, a man of education both clerical and 
medical, who was ten years later settled at Pemaquid, con- 
sidered him an ignoramus and a quack. He used to excuse 
his improper behavior by saying " when I have my plack 
coat on, den I am a minister, and you must do as I say ; but 
when I have my green coat on, den I am a toctor." We shall 
have occasion to speak of him again in the course of this 

In 1762 the saw-mill at Mill River was re-built by Hugh 
McLean, who had been up to this time one of the inhabitants 
of the upper town. After the peace he erected a house where 
that of S. Andrews now stands, and moved his family down, 
intending to continue his abode here ; but his wife, 
accustomed to wealth and the comforts of the older settle- 
ments in Massachusetts, could not reconcile herself to the pri- 
vations of a new country, the gloom of the surrounding 
forest, and the neighborhood of the still dreaded savages. 
She accordingly returned in the same vessel, without ever 
landing her furniture. Her husband continued to carry on 
business, supplying the inhabitants with groceries in exchange 
for their wood and bark. He also commenced shipbuilding 
about this time, at his, now Andrews's, Point ; but, business 
becoming dull and discouraging, he abandoned it after setting 
up the frame of one vessel, which remained on the stocks 
till it went to decay. His house was occupied first by Samuel 
Gilchrist who removed to the lower town, and secondly by 
Alexander Kelloch who lived there twelve years. The latter 
in 1764 took out license and sold liquor there, being the first 
licensed retailer within the limits of the town of Warren, as 
John Mclntyre, licensed the same year, was the first innholder. 
McLean was an active man of business, and kept a sharp 
lookout for his own interest. At the same time he was ready 
to encourage others provided they showed any capacity for 
the acquisition of property. He strove hard to persuade his 
nephew, John Spear, who had now returned to the settlement 
and occupied the lot of his father Robert Spear, to join him 
in the erection of mills at the lower ripplings ; a measure 
which, had it been adopted, would have essentially varied the 
present features of the town of Warren. But he could not 
induce the cautious nephew to engage in so formidable an 
undertaking. Being always ready to trust, the less prudent 

* Jos. Ludwig. Capt. Sproiil. Mrs. J. Winclienbach, afterwards 


portion of the settlers were generally in debt to him, and little 
was said about profits, and few reckonings made, whilst the 
traffic went on ; but when interrupted by death or otherwise, 
a large bill was usually presented. In this way and by pur- 
chasing the rights of those who had removed from the place, 
many of the farms passed into his possession. When coast- 
ing business was good, he drove it with tVie greatest vigor. 
Keeping a barrel of New England rum on tap, he usually 
found men enough for the sake of a frolic to load and tow his 
vessel down the river in one day, coming on board for 
another drink as often as they broke the tow line, which they 
were not slack in doing.* 

As there was then no other mode of conveyance, and 
many of the settlers had connexions at the westward, his 
vessel was sometimes crowded with passengers. His atten- 
tion and poli^teness made him popular, especially with the 
female portion of his customers ; but the want of accommoda- 
tions rendering sleep out of the question, the time on board 
was generally spent in mirth and jocularity. On one of these 
occasions, a smart, active, young Irishman complained of the 
hardness of the times and the gloomy prospect before him. 
McLean offered to obligate himself to maintain him, if he 
would bind himself to serve him faithfully during his life. 
The ladies seconded the proposal, and the young man assent- 
ed with so much apparent earnestness, that McLean, always 
ready to clench a good bargain, wrote the indentures and 
offered them for signature. The honest Hibernian not know- 
ing how to retreat, pretended to be too sleepy to do it then, 
but said he would think of it. Being asked next morning, 
if he had thought any thing more about the matter, he replied, 
he had thought so much of it that he could'nt sleep, and 
whilst lying awake thinking of one thing after another, he at 
last thought of the advice of his poor old father in Ireland, 
never to put his name to any thing in black and white. " Now 
I mean to stick by the bargain, but I can't disobey my lather ; 
just make the writings all hlack or all ivhite, and Fm ready to 
sign them." On another occasion the passengers got up a 
curiosity to know the Captain's age, and after some delibera- 
tion Mrs. Kelloch ventured to ask him. " Madam," said 
he, " I am just the age of David Kelloch." Not willing to 
acknowledge her ignorance of her husband's age, she dropped 
the subject for the time ; but a woman's curiosity is not easily 

* AV. Lermond. A. Kelloch. I. Speas* J. Montgomery. 


allayed, and she resolved to gratify it in another direction. 
So taking an opportunity when her husband's spirits were a 
little excited, on which occasions he was always remarkably 
pleasant and polite, sli« made the inquiry, in her most winning 
manner, how old he was. " Madam," said he, " I am just 
the age of Captain McLean." Whether any nearer approx- 
imation was ever made to the true age of either, the tradition 
does not state. 

When coasting was suspended by the approach of winter, 
McLean usually made a voyage with lumber to the West 
Indies, and sometimes to Europe. On one occasion he 
freighted his vessel with ground hemlock bark, took it to 
England, and remained long enough to retail it out by the 
bushel. On his arrival, the queston was asked, to whom are 
you consigned ? " To nobody," was the answer. " Who 
are your owners?" ''I am my own owner — vessel and 
cargo." Several of the Boices were occasionally here, asd 
seem to have been concerned with him in the saw-mill, lime- 
burning, and other business. After amassing a handsome 
fortune, he and his father-in-law had some falling out, and, 
owning the land on one side of the paper-mill, he cut a new 
passage for the water across a point of land and erected a 
new mill of his own. This gave rise to a lawsuit, which 
produced a coldness between him and his wife's family. 
After this he used to say the Boices should never have a cent 
of his property ; and, he sometimes added, his son John 
having no children, it was of no use to give much to him, 
and the Spears would fall heir to the whole of it. Indeed he 
was on the point of making a trip hither, not long before his 
death, with a chest, as was said, heavily loaded with some- 
thing. But laming himself by a misstep on going aboard, 
he was compelled to return ; and his property went to enable 
his only son and heir, John McLean, with the addition his 
own industrious and frugal life made to it, to found a profes- 
sorship in Harvard University and the Asylum for the Insane 
at Charlestown, which bears his name.* Those who delight 
to trace the hand of Providence in human affairs may remark 
first, the disposition and capacity of the father for acquir- 
ing property ; secondly, the disagreement between him and 

* John McLean, Esq., of Boston, died in 1823, leaving $25,000 to 
Harvard College, $25,000 to the Massachusetts General Hospital, and 
more than $100,000 to the same Hospital for an Insane Asylum. 
Boston Weekly Messenger. 


his futhcr-in-law, which indisposed him to divide it among 
his wife's relations; thirdly, the extinction of many branches 
of his father's family, and the accident which prevented his 
visiting those that remained ; fourthly, the habits and disposi- 
tion of the son which still continued the accumulation ; and 
fifthly the want of children to inherit the fortune which is 
now employed in meliorating the condition of an unfortunate 
class of people, whose wants, at least in this country, had, up 
to that time, been almost wholly unprovided for. 

Although the old settlers, as before related, had, on the 
cessation of Indian hostilities in 1760, returned to their farms ; 
yet, as the war with France continued, and the fear of savage 
aggression was not wholly removed, most of the Scottish set- 
tlers had remained under pay in the garrison. That garrison 
was in 1762 discontinued, and the cooking utensils and other 
public property sold off at auction, leaving the guns, ammuni- 
tion, and works, under the care of its late commander, Captain 
North. The Scottish emigrants were now at liberty to take 
up their farms, which, thus far, had never been assigned 
them. Their patron was dead ; the country was all before 
them ; they had become acquainted with its local advantages, 
and each was free to select for himself the most eligible 
situation. Dicke, and A. Anderson, took up their lots in the 
former settlement of Stirling. Anderson's is now owned and 
occupied by his grandson Gilbert Anderson ; and Dicke's by 
his son David Dicke, now in the 88th year of his ago, and 
grandson William Dicke. The other emigrant, by the name 
of Anderson, went to Falmouth in Waldo's service and little 
farther is known of him.* Brison settled in the lower town, 
now Gushing, but left no male children. Malcolm settled in 
the same town, but spent a few of his last years and ended his 
days with his son in Warren. He was a pious and worthy 
man, and being a seventh son was often resorted to for the 
cure of scrofula. His oldest son, born in Scotland, lived on 
the old farm, acted as magistrate and land surveyor to an 
advanced age, once represented his town in the legislature of 
Massachusetts, and delighted to do justice to Burns, Ramsey, 
and other authors who wrote in his own vernacular. The 
other son was a respectable shipmaster in Warren. Grawford 
and Kirkpatrick took possession of the two lots on the eastern 
side of the river above the head of the tide. Grawford's lot 
still remains in possession of his posterity, as does that of 

* After some inquiries at Portland and elsewhere, I h;iyc not been 
able to discover any trace of this man's posterity. 


Kirkpatrick also, in part. As an additional encouragement 
to the Scottish emigrants, Col. Samuel Waldo gave them per- 
mission to cut grass on any of the meadows not already as- 
signed to the other settlers, until he should need them for his 
own use ; and, in 1764, when Mr. Crawford informed him at 
the fort that he had cleared a road to a meadow some miles 
to the north-east of his lot, and obtained his approbation for 
cutting the same, Waldo, at his invitation, drank a glass of 
punch to the fortune of "Crawford's Meadow," a name 
which not only the meadow, but the adjacent mountain, pond, 
and stream issuing from it, have ever since borne. Miller 
settled on a vacant lot on the western side of the river, which 
on his death went into the hands of McCallum, who married 
one of his daughters, and was afterwards transferred to Capt. 
Andrew Malcolm, who married another of the daughters, 
and whose family resided there until 1850. Some went 
to other places ; among whom were Grenlaw, Flodgins and 
Auchmuty, who all settled in Boston. Grenlaw engaged in 
merchandise, but afterwards settled on a new farm at Penob- 
scot, where he was living near the close of the last century. 
Hodgins followed his occupation of bookbinder ; and Auch- 
muty, by his trade of slaie making, or otherwise, acquired 
wealth, and, it is said, gave name to Auchmuty's lane, where 
he owned valuable property, which at the commencement 
of the revolutionary war he sacrificed to his loyalty and 
returned to his native land.* Thomas Johnston, who left 
Scotland at the age of 18 years, was one of those who went 
with Waldo to Falmouth, and worked four years in payment 
of his passage over. He enlisted, served at St. George's, 
and in 1759 at Pemaquid, where he remained and settled in 
the present town of Bremen. His hundred acres of land 
were assigned him at Stirling to the southward of Dicke's and 
Anderson's, to whose sons, James Anderson and Wm. Dicke, 
he subsequently transferred it, and in whose families it still 
remains. Johnston was one of the selectmen of Bristol for 
about forty years, was a commissary at St. George's about 

* D. Dicke. — It was always believed by the Scottish settlers here, 
as a well known fact, that one of his sons entered the British army, 
and was the identical Samuel Auchmuty who rose by his merits from 
one mihtary grade to another, till in 1811, as Lievitenant General, he 
acquired the highest distinction, by the capture of Java, inthe East 
Indies, for which service he was made a Knight of the Bath. See 

Gentlemen's Magazine, April No. 1810, and Feb. No. 1812 There 

is no improbability in this story, though I have been unable to verify 
it from any docvimentary evidence. 



six months in the war of the revolution, and died in 1811, 
leaving a numerous posterity.* Bird settled at Maplejuice 
Cove, Gushing, where he was subsequently killed by the 
fall of a tree, leaving a large family, many of whom came 
to Warren. Kye was killed by the Indians at Mill River. 
Brown, whose sons as before related were killed by the 
Indians, went up the river for alewives, and was supposed to 
have been drowned by accident. A skeleton, thought to be 
his, was afterwards found in the river near Montgomery's 
shore, and buried there by his friend and countryman Kirk- 
patrick. The widowed mother, now bereft of all, returned 
to her native Scotland. Carswell's name frequently occurs 
in the muster rolls at St. Georges ; but what became of him 
afterwards, is not ascertained. 

These Scottish emigrants were, as far as is known, all 
pious and exemplary people. Mr. A. Anderson and wife 
were members of the church in Glasgow, and brought with 
them testimonials of their Christian character. Dicke was 
a member of the Presbyterian church first formed here in 
1774 or '75, and also of the Congregational church which 
succeeded it in 1795. Kirkpatrick was a member of the 
former of these churches ; and Miller and Crawford were 
deacons of the same. Miller was a harmless and excellent 
man, but strongly tinctured with the superstition of his coun- 
try. On clear autumnal mornings he could sometimes 
plainly smell the fairies frying their meat on the frosty 
ground. In an account of groceries sold him by Moses 
Copeland, there is not a single charge for any kind of spirit- 
uous liquor — a rare occurrence. His wife, who survived 
him many years, was an amiable and godly woman ; plain in 
her attire, which was always scrupulously clean and neat ; 
regular in her attendance at church, whither she repaired 
barefoot after the fashion of her country, putting on her 
shoes as she arrived, and usually without a bonnet, which, 
when she wore one, she always took oft' during the services. 
In her younger years, during the revivals which took place 
under the preaching of the Rev. Mr. Murray at Boothbay and 
the neighboring towns, Mrs. Miller, with others of her coun- 
trywomen, whenever that clergyman preached at Damaris- 
cotta, used to repair thither on foot through the almost 
pathless woods in order to enjoy the stirring discourses of 
that powerful preacher. Crawford, through life, continued 

* Prof. John Johnston, Middleton, Conn. D. Dicke. 


his humble and gratuitous services, attended funerals, visited 
the sick, and imparted Christian consolation to all who sought 
it. His meekness and goodness of heart rendered him 
universally beloved and always a welcome guest.* 

1763. On the 10th of Feb. 1763, a definitive treaty of 
peace was signed at Paris between England and France, by 
which the latter ceded to the former, Canada and all her 
northern colonies in America. 

On the 20th of March of this year, Capt. Benjamin Bur- 
ton, who ten years before erected the stone blockhouse and 
commanded the garrison there, died in his float on the river. 
He had been up at the fort, but having some dispute with 
Capt. North, refused to stay there, and set off for home in 
a very cold night. The recently formed ice prevented 
his landing ; he was seen next morning opposite McCarter's ; 
and people went to his assistance but found him frozen to 

Up to this time the settlements in this region, with the 
exception of Medumcook, were made up almost exclusively 
of recent European emigrants. But the inviting prospects held 
out by the return of peace, now began to attract people from 
other parts of New England. Even before the close of the 
war, John Spear returned from Woburn and now was settled on 
the lot which his father had occupied, and which is still in the 
possession of his descendants. Thomas Starrett, also, about 
this time returned with his wife from Dedham, and settled on 
his father's farm on the western side of the river. These 
men had become acquainted with agriculture as practised 
in Massachusetts, and soon became the most skilful and 
thriving farmers in the place. Starrett afterwards sold ; 
and about 1772 purchased the McCraken farm on the eastern 
side, where his son and grandson still reside. These were 
soon followed by a number of the natives of Massachusetts 
and the adjoining colonies. Mason Wheaton came from 
Providence or its vicinity, in 1763, and for many years, 
carried on an extensive business near the present toll-bridge 
in Thomaston. He was a popular man, successively held 
the offices of Captain, Major, and Colonel during the war 
of the revolution, and was the first representative of Thom- 

* Church, certificate in possession of G. Anderson. Rev. J. Ilnse. 
T. Kirkpatrick, &c. 

t A. Lermond. Col. B. Burton. R. B. Copeland, Esq. 


aston, in 1781. He became interested in the mills at Mill 
River, where he died leaving an only son and daughter. 

The same year, Moses and Joseph Copeland, two young 
men, brothers, came to this place from Milton, Mass. being 
introduced by Capt. McLean, who furnished them with some 
West India goods for retailing. Joseph lived and sold goods 
awhile on the James lot, near the site of the old gun house 
in the lower part of Warren, and afterwards purchased the 
back part of the upper McLean lot, built a house and lived 
near the residence of the late Capt. Burton. Moses, when 
17 5^ears of age, had entered the army, under Capt. Boice, 
the partner of McLean, was at Ticonderoga in 1758, and 
at the taking of Quebec in 1759. Having the preceding 
year spent a few months in retailing goods at St George's 
fort, he now established himself on the western side of the 
river, near the present line of Cushing, on the lot origin- 
ally drawn and relinquished by Mr. Boggs. In this and the 
following year he built a saw-mill near the tide waters on 
the creek, and a grist-mill a short distance above, which, 
considering the quantity of water, had a good run of custom 
for twenty years. Active, shrewd, and calculating, he 
became a man of business, wealth, and distinction, and had 
great influence in the affairs of the plantation and town for 
nearly half a century. In September, 1763, he received 
the appointment of deputy sheriff, the first officer of the 
kind on the river, and continued in the office for about eleven 
years. McLean and Alex. Kelloch were his bondsmen. In 
1774, he was appointed Crier of the Court, an office which 
he held for three years. In these offices he obtained con- 
siderable knowledge of law, and, in the general ignorance 
which prevailed upon that subject, was frequently consulted 
in cases of difficulty. When unable to decide a difficult 
point, it was easier for him than his client to procure profes- 
sional aid from abroad, and he became the principal lawyer 
of the place. His education was limited, but he possessed 
a good knowledge of human nature and sometimes succeeded 
in a way which one of more liberal attainments would hardly 
have thought of. For instance, on one occasion, a client 
having sold a yoke of oxen and taken a note payable on or 
before the first of October, and finding a few days after that 
the man was worth nothing, consulted Copeland to know if 
there was any way to annul the bargain, and get back the 


oxen. He thought it doubtful, but said he would see what 
he could do. He called on the debtor accordingly, and told 
hinn Mr. N. had left a note against him for collection, and 
if he did n't want it sued, he had better make out the money. 
Upon his replying that he did n't agree to pay till the 1st of 
October ; " I do n't know," said Copeland, " anything about 
the agreement, but here 's the note, and it speaks for itself. 
That says "I promise to pay on or before the 1st of Octo- 
ber," and he wants it before that time." But the debtor 
professing his inability to pay, he consented to arrange the 
matter by taking back the oxen and giving up the note. As 
he and his son Rufus B. Copeland, Esq., who still lives on 
the farm, will frequently be mentioned again, it is sufficient 
to remark here that from these two brothers, Moses and 
Joseph, are descended the Copelands of Warren and Thom- 

Seth Vose, from the same town, married a sister of the 
Copelands, settled in what is now Cushing, and brought 
up a numerous family of children, several of whom 
settled in Warren. His brother, Thomas Vose, came at a 
later period, and went into business with Knox at Thomaston. 
Spencer Vose, nephew of the preceding, established the 
tan-works afterwards owned and extensively carried on, by 
Josiah Keath. 

Samuel Counce, also from Milton, settled on part of M. 
Copeland's lot. He first arrived in the river April 17, 1763, 
built a log house in the autumn of that year, and, sending 
for his wife and goods, entered on his new habitation Nov. 
29th. This stood where that of Andrew Copeland has since 
been built. He was an industrious man, skilful in the use 
of the broad axe, and, though no regular mechanic, was much 
employed in the construction of mills and other buildings. 

Not far from the same time, Ebenezer Sumner, also from 
Milton, who for a second wife married the widowed mother 
of the Copelands, moved on to the farm above that of Cope- 
land and Counce. Being a tanner by trade, he did some- 
thing at that business, and carried on the farm several years. 
He afterwards relinquished it to his son Hopestill, and re- 
turned to Milton. His descendants still occupy the farm. 
Several other people from Milton, as Samuel and John 
Keyes, Ebenezer and Henry Crane, Wm. Bryant and others, 

* J. Copeland, 1st. MS. of M. Copeland, Esq. 


were here for a time with a design of settling, but changed 
their minds and returned. 

Robert Montgomery, who had been in the pubhc service 
at the taking of Quebec by Gen. Wolfe, came from Middle- 
borough, Mass. married one of the daughters of Boice 
Cooper, and settled on the Lushe farm, which his father, a 
man of wealth, had previously purchased for him, and 
which is still occupied in part by his posterity. 

Hitherto the place had been destitute of a regular physi- 
cian. In early times Mrs. Young, afterwards Mrs. Kelloch, 
and at a later period Mrs. Peabody and Mrs. James acted 
as midwives for the upper town, turning out in all kinds of 
weather, and occasionally swimming their horses across the 
river. Moses Robinson, on the western side of the river, 
made some pretensions to skill in medicine, as before men- 
tioned. Dr. Daniel Locke came this year from Acton, Mass. 
with a family of two children, and, manning the widow of 
Hugh Scot, established himself on the farm long owned by 
T. Starrett, Jr., and more recently by Dea. Singer. He was 
skilful in the treatment of sores, letting blood, extracting 
teeth, and in relieving such complaints as readily yielded to 
roots and herbs. It is said also that he laid claim to some 
knowledge in astrology ; but whether his proficiency in this 
science was equal to his skill in surgery, we are unable to 
say. He lived on this farm till his death in 1774. 

But the first regularly educated physician was David Fales, 
who in the present year came from Dedham to the fort, 
where he taught school, and, when necessary, practised in 
his profession. He was also employed by Fluker as his agent 
and land surveyor. He wrote a remarkably fair hand, was 
correct in all his business, but slow in its performance, and 
tardy in coming to the relief of a patient. In 1767, he re- 
ceived a justice's commission, the duties of which he dis- 
charged with more than ordinary legal discrimination to a 
very advanced age. 

1764- About the same time other settlers came hither 
from Bi'idgewater. Among these were Micah and Benjamin 
Packard, who were, at least one of them, carpenters by trade, 
and were employed by Copeland in erecting his mills. They 
settled on the upper lots in the present town of Gushing. 
Another of these was Reuben Hall, a smart, active, young 
man, about 22 years of age, who had been a soldier in the 
late war under Gen. Amherst, had gained considerable infor- 
mation during the service, and having been initiated into the 


mysteries of Freemasonry valued himself somewhat on what 
for its novehy was then considered a distinction. Marrying 
the daughter of Mr. Patterson, he took his farm, and till her 
death lived very happily in the house with her parents. He 
was a mason by trade, did something at the tanning business, 
and sometimes, in connexion with his brother-in-law, David 
Patterson, 2d, followed coasting to Boston. His name will 
occur again. He came in 1764.* 

The same year, John Watts removed hither from the same 
town, where he had been employed in the iron works. Hav- 
ing the preceding year come to the river on a visit to his 
mother, then married to Samuel Gilchrist and living on 
McLean's place, he contracted to carry on the farm of Capt. 
McCordy, who was about removing hence to Fort Pownal, 
where he was employed in the government service and never 
returned. Watts managed his farm on shares for seven 
years, then removed across the river to his own lot in the 
rear of McLean's, where he subsequently built the house now 
occupied by Robert Montgomery. t 

* Rec. Co. of Sessions. Thorn. Reg. II. Hall, 1st., &c. 

t Mrs Watts' s brother, Hector McNeal, though never a resident 
here, was so intimately connected with and deservedly esteemed by 
many, as to require a passing notice. Being an experienced navigator, 
he Avas, towards the close of the war, in command of a sloop employ- 
ed in carrying supplies from Boston, the place of his residence, to 
Quebec. In one of these voyages, encountering thick weather and 
head winds, he put into a place called Havre-le-Temps, N. S. and, 
the watch having fallen asleep, was beset by French and Indians in 
20 canoes who captured the vessel and crew before they were well 
awake. After a time, being sent to France, and whilst in prison there, 
having, for want of other amusement, constructed a map of the coast 
from Boston to Quebec with the courses and distances, he presented 
it, when released at the close of the war, to the French admiral ; who 
was so Avell pleased with the work, that he made him a present of a 
small brig in return. In this vessel, employed mostly abroad, he con- 
tinued till 1775, when taking freight for Quebec he found on his 
arrival the city besieged by the American troops under Arnold and 
Montgomery. He was offered his choice either to take the oath of 
allegiance and remain a British su.bject, or give up his vessel as a 
prize and return to the States. Concluding to stand by his country 
and trust to Providence, he removed his family, (who had rejoined 
him from Boston,) to the American camp, and identified his own with 
the fortune of the revolution. In 1785, he and others petitioned the 
General Coiu't for aid in publishing a set of maps of this country. 
After his death, it is said that a sum of money, which he had loaned 
for the use of the army at Quebec, was through the influence of Gen. 
Knox refunded to his widow by order of Congress. — H. M. Watts. 
Journal of the House, Mass. 


It was probably about the same time, also, that Baruch and 
Nathan Buckland came to the place from Rehoboth. Baruch, 
a blacksmith, worked here a while and settled in Camden ; 
whilst Nathan, a cooper, married a daughter of Mr. Gamble 
and succeeded to her father's farm. 

By a census this year taken for the purpose of ascertaining 
the ability of the colonies to bear taxation, the county of 
Lincoln contained 4,347 inhabitants ; viz. Pownalboro', 889 ; 
Georgetown, 1,329 ; Bowdoinham, 220 ; Woolwich, 415 ; 
Newcastle, 454 ; Topsham, 340 ; Gardinertown, 200 ; Towns- 
hend, Pemaquid or Harrington, and Walpole, by estimation, 
800 ; Broad Bay, St. George's and Medumcook, by estima- 
tion, 200. 

Up to this time cattle remained scarce at Broad Bay. 
Few potatoes were cultivated there, the Germans, like the 
Scotch, having been unacquainted with them in their own 
country. Rye was the only breadstuff raised by them. But 
this year, 1764, Daniel Filhorn commenced the cultivation 
of maize, or Indian corn, which from its more abundant in- 
crease, soon grew into favor and has been extensively culti- 
vated ever since.. This grain was also about the same time 
introduced at St. George's, probably by the recent emigrants 
who had been accustomed to it in the west. Barley had been 
cultivated in the latter settlement, and, being hulled by hand 
in a mortar, was extensively used in the preparation called 
barley broth. The cabbage was cultivated, and saur krout 
manufactured at Broad Bay, it is believed, from the com- 
mencement of the settlement ; but this preparation was not 
introduced at St. George's till about 1777. Flax had been 
cultivated in both these settlements, and, prior to the intro- 
duction of sheep, had constituted the principal article of 
domestic clothing. After the introduction of sheep, linsey 
woolsey, or a mixture of flax and wool, was used. The get- 
ting out of wood and lumber continued to be the principal 
employment of the settlers. In severe winters, when the 
river was closed with ice, several would often go over to the 
seashore and get out a sloop load of wood in some acces- 
sible but uninhabited place, whence it might be sent off and 
the returns received without waiting for spring. When their 
land was stripped of its wood, it was burnt over or broken up 
with a hoe and sowed to grain ; or suffered to lie, and grow 
up to brushwood. Those of the inhabitants that were fore- 


handed, traded for their West India goods in Boston, and 
generally went up with a sloop load of cord-wood once a 
year themselves. Many of them had lived in that vicinity 
during the Indian wars ; had relatives and acquaintances 
there ; and as there was no passing through the country by 
land, and the settlements were scattered and detached, Boston 
formed a central point of connection and seemed more like 
home than any other place. Those less able, were supplied 
by the traders who coasted or did business here. Moses 
Copeland sometimes kept goods for sale, had several men in 
his employ, and seems to have been ready for almost any 
kind of business. His account with McLean exhibits charges 
for work on the saw-mill, rafting lumber, whitewashing at the 
fort, fencing the Alexander lots, framing Mrs. Giffen's house, 
setting out apple trees and doing other jobs- on the farm, be- 
sides serving writs against divers persons. As a specimen of 
prices and currency at this time we give the following : — 6^ 
lbs. butter, £l, 17s. ; 1 pair shoes, £S ; 1 day's work setting 
out apple trees, c^l ; 1 quire of paper, 10s. ; 3 bushels corn 
at 25s., £3, 15s. ; 1 pair of leather breeches, =£2, 5s. ; lOOOft. 
of boards, ^1 ; half day of Counce writing Mrs. Alexander's 
will, 10s. Among the articles sold, besides provisions and 
groceries, were broadcloth, serge, ticklenberg, osnaberg, 
leather, shoes and ready-made clothing. The leather was 
furnished by Sumner and Libbey, the shoes made by Jonathan 
Nutting, and the clothing by Patrick Pebbles. The last of 
these, after the death of his father, had worked at the tailor's 
trade in Boston, married the daughter of his employer, Mr. 
Ray or Rea, and was now settled on the lot taken up by his 

The settlers on the western side of Broad Bay, who had 
thus far peacefully possessed their lands under Waldo, were 
this year perplexed by a claim made by Mr. Thomas Drowne, 
in behalf of the Pemaquid Company, of the lands on that 
side of the bay as far up as Charles Kaler's lot, as being 
without the Waldo patent and within that of Pemaquid. Most 
of them agreed to purchase their lands anew at the rate of 
2s. 8d. per acre ; and at least fifty deeds were executed to per- 
sons who had settled under Waldo. They were, however, 
allowed to retain the lots assigned them by Waldo for public 
uses ; and deeds were given them of 100 acres for a meeting- 
house, 110 for the ministry, and one lot of 25 acres, and 

* Jos. Ludwig. T. Kirkpatrick. A. Kelloch, 1st. M.Copeland's 
ledger. M. Robinson. 


another of 41, for the support of schools. Of the lots prom- 
ised for similar purposes on the other side of the river, no 
deeds were given by Waldo, and we believe they were never 

This year is distinguished for the first militia regimental 
muster ever held at St. George's. It took place on Limestone 
hill, near the State Prison in the present town of Thomaston. 
Col. Cargill of Newcastle commanded ; and it may be inter- 
esting to those who remember the gorgeous uniforms and glit- 
tering ornaments worn by such dignitaries in later times, to 
be informed that the commander appeared on this occasion in 
a drab pea jacket and comarney cap.f 

1765. The year 1765 commenced with the passage of 
the celebrated Stamp Act, the beginning of those attempts to 
raise money without the consent of the people, which gradu- 
ally alienated the colonies from their mother country and 
brought on their final separation. 

In this year, if we may trust the memory of persons who 
were then young, died Capt. John North, then in command of 
St. George's fort, which was not yet entirely dismantled. This 
gentleman seems to have given general satisfaction both as a 
civil and military officer. After his death, but how soon after 
is not known, his son Joseph North and his son-in-law, Lieut. 
McKechnie, a Scotchman by birth, who was a land surveyor 
and also sometimes practised medicine, removed to Fort Hali- 
fax, and afterwards became men of property and influence 
at or near Augusta. | About the same time, probably, James 
and Samuel Howard also removed, having been appointed to 
some military or other office, in the same neighborhood. 

Up to the close of the war, there had not been a framed 
house or barn in the whole settlement of St. George's, except 
the meeting-house and possibly one barn at the fort. But in 
1763 a framed house was erected by Capt. McLean for his 
sister, Mrs. Giffin, who with her son Robert then resided on 
lot No. 2, above Oyster River. It was a small house framed 
by John Keyes, then in the employ of Copeland, who charges 
McLean ^8 for 8 day's work framing it. In 1764 another 
framed house was built by Moses Copeland near his mills. 
In 1765, a third framed house was built by William Boggs, 
and others soon after by John Mclntyre, John Spear, Hugh 
McLean and David Kelloch. In that of Mr. Boggs, dwelt 

* Papers of Jacob Lud-vvig, Esq. in possession of Col. J. Ludwig, 
t Joseph Copeland, 1st. X Samuel Bog^s, 3d. D. Dicke. 


the builder till his death in 1792, his father living with him 
till his death, which occurred in 1783. His son Joseph and 
grandson J. W. Boggs, still occupy this house, near the wil- 
low trees, which were planted by the former in 1807. It has 
been shingled three times ; its oak sills are still sound ; and 
it forms a commodious and comfortable habitation. That of 
Capt. Mclntyre, stood on the farm occupied by the late Calvin 
Crane, near the old apple trees between the present road and 
river. In this house, which consisted of one story and was 
painted red, the builder kept tavern for many years, at the 
same time keeping a ferry at his shore. License for the 
latter was granted in 1763, and the fees allowed were two 
coppers for each person, and two for a horse.* 

1767. In 1767, Alexander Lermond purchased the mill 
lot at Oyster River, repaired, or rebuilt, the old dam, and 
built a grist-mill ; which, being moved by the tide waters, was 
extensively resorted to, especially in dry seasons. Two years 
after, he built a house and moved on to this lot, relinquishing 
his own and the adjoining one, purchased of William Ler- 
mond's heirs, to his sons John and Alexander. This mill and 
dam were afterwards removed lower down the stream, near 
the present bridge, and a saw-mill added. These mills con- 
tinued to run for more than twenty years, and, during the old 
age and after the death of Mr. Lermond, were shared by his 
sons Alexander and William, and son-in-law J. Wyllie. At 
a still later period William Lermond rebuilt the saw-mill 
with a new dam below the bridge. 

The project of raising a revenue in America was this year 
revived by an act of Parliament imposing a duty on paper, 
paints, glass and teas. This act contributed much to open 
the eyes of the colonists and enable them more perfectly to 
understand the policy of the mother country. Parliament 
had, many years before, prohibited the establishment of manu- 
factures here, in order to extend the market for those of 
England ; and now, by laying a duty upon those manu- 
factures, seemed determined to make the colonies pay tribute 
for what they had been compelled to purchase of her. 

Yet notwithstanding this cause of disquietude, the peace- 
able state of the Indians, no longer exposed to French influ- 
ence, invited emigrants to the eastward and gave rise to 
several new settlements. Elisha Snow came from New 
Meadows, and, building a saw-mill on the Wesserweskeag 

* Copeland's Leger. S. Boggs, 3d. Jos. Boggs. Rec. C. of 


stream, laid the foundation of the present South Thomaston. 
He was followed in 1773 by Joseph Coombs, then 21 years 
old, with no other property than his axe, and soon after by 
several other young men from the same place. Coombs 
also built a saw-mill, and, in connexion with Snow, a grist- 
mill. The latter subsequently opened a tavern, which with 
the mills, formed the nucleus around which a village grad- 
ually grew up. Wesserweskeag, corrupted by the English 
into Westkeag, keag, or gig, signified, it is said, in the In- 
dian tongue, land of sights, [prospects, visions, or ghosts,] 
wizard point.^ 

In 1767, also, John Lermond of the upper St. George's, 
with the occasional aid of his two brothers, went over to 
what is now the village of Rockland, built a camp, and got 
out a cargo of oak staves and pine lumber there. Not in- 
tending to settle, he put up no buildings, but the harbor was 
long afterwards known as Lermond's Cove. Its Indian name 
was Catawamteak, signifying '■'' great landing place^'^'' as 
parties coming down the bay in canoes usually landed there 
either to avoid the tedious passage round Owl's Head in 
their course along the shore, or to proceed to St. George's 
for the purpose of trading, fishing, or passing down on their 
way westward. The place was permanently setded about 

1769 by Isaiah Tolman, Jonathan Spear, Crockett, 

David Watson, James Fales, Ichabod and Comfort Barrows, 
John Lindsey, Constant Rankin, Jonathan Smith, and John 
Godding, who erected log huts, and began to clear up their 
farms for agriculture. Lindsey 's was the only house in what 
is now the principal village. It stood on the site of the 
stores built by C. Holmes and J. SpofFord in Lime-rock 
street near Kimball's corner. For the want of mill privileges 
connected with tide waters to attract business, the growth of 
the place was slow. John Ulmer removed thither from 
Waldoboro' in 1795 and commenced the business of lime- 
burning, at which time Lindsey's was still the only house at 
Lermond's Cove. After the incorporation of Thomaston, 
it began to be distinguished by the name of the " shore," or 
" shore village," in contradistinction to the settlement on the 
river. On the establishment of a Post-ofhce about 1820, it 
took the name of East Thomaston, and was incorporated by 
that name on the division of the town in 1848. This name 
in 1850 was changed to that of Rockland. The trade and 
navigation of this place prior to 1812 was inconsiderable, 

* H. Prince, Esq. Mrs. S. Fuller, &c. 


many of its inhabitants purchasing their English goods at 
Warren. Since that period, its business, wealth, and popula- 
tion have rapidly increased, the last of which now amounts 
to 5221. Its lime quarries are an inexhaustible source of 
wealth. It contains four churches, the ' Lime Rock Bank,' 
incorporated April 1, 1836, a Deputy Collector's Office, es- 
tablished in 1848, the office of the ' Lime Rock Gazette,' 
commenced in Jan. 1846 ; and by its recent efforts for the 
suppression of intemperance, the improvement of its public 
schools, the establishment of libraries and other social institu- 
tions, is doing much to improve the taste and elevate the 
character of its population.* 

West of the last mentioned place and at George's, below 
Mill River, a few settlers were established, but we know 
not exactly how early. Among the earliest was Oliver 
Robbins at Mill River, whose daughter Milea, afterwards 
the wife of P. Butler, is said to have been the first child born 
east of that river.t 

In 1767, also, some preliminary steps were taken toward 
the settlement of the present town of Camden. In virtue of 
an agreement previously made in the life-time of Gen. 
Waldo, between him and the other proprietors of the patent 
incorporated as " the 20 associates," a tract of land 5^ miles 
wide, extending from the salt-water N, 33| deg. W. 29 miles 
into the country, containing 100,000 acres, together with 
sundry islands on the coast, was selected by the said associ- 
ates, and, on the 7lh April, 1768, released and confirmed to 
them by the heirs of the said Waldo as their share of the 
patent. This tract, situated between the present towns of 
Rockland, Warren, and Union on the one side, and Lincoln- 
ville, Searsmont and Montville on the other, was divided into 
townships, and one of them, adjacent to the ocean, surveyed 
into lots for settlement. The survey was made by David 
Fales, Esq, in 1768 ; at which time not a tree had been fel- 
led, or building erected in the whole township. Within three 
or four years after, settlements were begun at Megunticook 
by James Richards, at Goose River by Peter Oat, and at 
Clam Cove, perhaps, by William Gregory. Richards was 
soon followed by Eaton, Ogier, Minot and others. Mills were 
erected, and an embryo village formed, which however con- 
tained no framed houses prior to that of Mr. Richards in 
1788. Oat was a German, who had previously resided long 

* M. Robmson. David Crocket, Esq. f Rev. J. L. Sibley. 


enough in Boston to give his children an English education, 
and Gregory came from the neighborhood of Dedham. 

In 1790 the plantation was allowed to expend the sums 
assigned to it in the State taxes Nos. 5 and 6, amounting to 
c£119 7s. 2d., " in support of a teacher of piety, a school or 
schools, and making and repairing roads." It early received 
the name of Camhden, probably from the proprietors, as we 
frequently find it mentioned by that name before its incorpor- 
ation, Feb. 17, 1791. Its Indian name, Megunticook, ap- 
plied also to its noble mountain, signified "^reaZ swells of 
the sea.'''' A turnpike was granted in 1802, and soon after 
made by Simon Barrett, over a part of Megunticook moun- 
tain, which, suspended as it is between heights above and 
precipice and pond below, adds another feature to the bold 
and beautiful scenery of the place.* 

This year a Moravian minister, by the name of Cilly, came 
from Germany to Broad Bay, and, preaching a more spiritual 
and less worldly minded religion, converted many of the set- 
tlers to the Moravian faith, who in 1770 removed to North 
Carolina and joined a similar society there. Three years 
after they were followed by others, who left in consequence 
of the conflicting claims made to their lands ; so that the set- 
tlement lost not less than 300 families, including many of its 
most skilful husbandmen and estimable citizens.t 

1769. The newly imposed duties met with great opposi- 
tion on the part of the colonies, which was carried so far by 
the Legislature of Massachusetts, that Gov. Bernard, August 
1, 1769, embarked for England in disgust, leaving few friends 
of any party, and devolving the executive government upon 
Lieut. Gov. Hutchinson. 

In the midst of these political agitations, the minds of the 
superstitious were still further perplexed by an unusual ap- 
pearance in the heavens. It is thus described by Moses 
Copeland, Esq. " In August, 1769, there was a blazing star 
seen, and the blaze was thought to be about thirty yards and 
lasted about a month." 

It was first observed by Wm. Dicke under circumstances 
which made a strong impression upon his mind. He was 
but 16 or 17 years of age, wholly uneducated, and if he had 

* Contract recorded in Reg. Office, Wis. 2 Will. His. p. 551. H. 
Prince, Esq. 

t So say Holmes' Am. Annals, p. 30G, and 2 Will. His. p. 399 ; 
but it is hardly credible that so many could have been spared at so 
early a period without depopulating the place. 


ever heard of such a thing as a comet, it was only as the her- 
ald of calamity, that " from his horrent hair shakes pestilence 
and war." He was on a hunting excursion, passing alone in 
his float up Seven-tree Pond, surrounded as it was by the un- 
broken, uninhabited forest, which then covered the present 
town of Union. Stopping to spend the night upon the island 
which that pond embosoms, and rain coming on, he drew his 
float on shore, inverted it as a shelter from the storm, and 
slept beneath its covert till the rain was over. When he 
awoke the clouds had dispersed ; the stars glistened in the 
sky ; and the terrible phenomenon with its long fan-like train 
met his astonished gaze. The troubles of the Revolution 
coming on, confirmed him in the belief of its ominous charac- 
ter ; and when the comet of 1811 was observed, he confi- 
dently predicted the war which ensued.* 

The acts of trade, passed many years before, and now rig- 
idly enforced, by interdicting the lumber trade to the French 
W. Indies, gave new embarrassment lo commerce and checked 
the operations of shipbuilding and the fisheries. Seamen 
found diflTiculty in obtaining employment, and the eastern peo- 
ple their usual supplies. Associations were formed against 
the importation of British goods, and all who refused to unite 
in them were deemed enemies to the public welfare. 

1770. In the following year, 1770, the duties were all 
repealed except a tax on tea, which was retained in token of 
the right of Parliament to tax the colonies whenever it was 
deemed expedient. This led to associations, which became 
pretty general, for disusing tea altogether. 

* Copeland's MS. John Dicke, 3d. 



moM 1770 TO 1775 ; doings at st. George's niEvious to and at 


The history of Insects presents, if possible, more capri- 
cious and unaccountable movements than tliat of mankind. 
In some seasons, the larvK of species before unnoted, make 
their appearance in such surprising numbers as to frustrate 
the labors of man, and lay waste entire crops. But the same 
mutability of our climate, which allows these strangers to 
come, causes them after a time — often a very short time, 
wholly to disappear. In 1770, according to the journal of 
Moses Copeland, Esq., " about the 17th of July, there was 
a black worm came, a'most like a canker-worm ; and they 
came in great swarms and eat the grass and grain all before 
them ; but they staid but about ten or fourteen days and were 
removed, or it was thought that in a month's time there would 
not be any green thing left." A similar insect made its ap- 
pearance some time after the revolutionary war ; but the 
precise year is not known. They were particularly destruc- 
tive to flax, moving in a direct line like the ranks of an army, 
and devouring all clean as they went. From this circum- 
stance, they were called the army worm. Some defended 
their fields by plowing a furrow, or digging a trench on the 
side of their approach ; the steep side and crumbling earth 
of which they were unable to surmount. Others collected a 
portion of them on birch bark, and dragging them along the 
ground to the river, committed them to its current, supposing 
from their martial habits that the others would not fail to 
follow their leaders. Whether this mode succeeded as well 
as the other, or what name and rank the insect holds in ento- 
mology, the author is unable to state.* 

In consequence of the removal of the Moravian emigrants 
from Broad Bay, many persons from the south shore of Mas- 
sachusetts came to that place about this time, and purchased 
their vacated farms. Among these were Charles Sampson, 

* According to Mr. D. Dicke, they resembled, not the canker-worm 
proper, bvit the cfitcrpillar whose webs disfigure the apple trees in 
spring. So undeviating -was their line of march that, rather than pass 
round a loghouse which INIr. Anderson was then builchng, they as- 
cended the walls and passed over, without in the least changing their 


who for many years coasted from the place and afterwards 
kept tavern ; and Waterman Thomas, who opened a store 
of West India goods, had an extensive trade to Boston, 
England and the West Indies, and by his popularity exercised 
great influence over the settlement. Previous to this time, 
Wm. Farnsvvorth was the only settler of English extraction 
in that place, except the few already mentioned at Broad 
Cove and below. Mr. Schenk, a German emigrant of a 
later period, who commenced tanning about five years before 
this period, was now gradually extending his business. Per- 
severing in this line, he acquired wealth and influence, and as 
captain of the militia during the revolution, was distinguished 
for his energy and decision. Shipbuilding was commenced 
there by John Ulmer, who this year built a brig of 150 tons, 
called the " Yankee Hero."* 

The same business was also begun this year at St. George's. 
The first vessel there, after the abortive attempt of McLean, 
was built on Packard's rock, below Copeland's creek, in the 
borders of the present town of Gushing, by Messrs. Packard, 
Malcolm, and Patterson. It was designed for a coaster, prob- 
ably a sloop, named the Industry, and commanded by David 
Patterson, 2d, who had previously coasted some time in com- 
pany with Reuben Hall. He was a promising young man, 
had recently built a fine house, for the times, and had at this 
time a young wife and one infant child. The vessel was 
launched late in the fall, and, on her first trip in November, 
was lost in a snow storm, as was supposed, near Cape Ann. 
Every soul on board perished ; and only one trunk, and some 
fragments of the vessel were ever seen. Those on board 
were David Patterson, Captain ; Major Fales and son from 
Massachusetts ; George Briggs, who had traded near the fort, 
John Porterfield, Robert Gamble, John Mastick, David Mal- 
colm of Massachusetts, Alexander Baird, Samuel Watson, 
Mrs. Benjamin Packard with her child, and Abigail Patterson, 
a relative of the Captain. Their fate made many mourners, 
and caused a great sensation in the settlement ; more 
especially as the Captain's brother, then of Massachusetts, 
had the year preceding been cast away at Musquito Harbor 
with seventeen persons on board, all of whom perished. t 

In October of this or the preceding year, there is some 
uncertainty which, another melancholy occurrence happened 

* Jos. Ludwig, Esq. 

t T. Kirkpatrick. Mrs. O'Brien. D. Dicke. D. Patterson. 


in the upper town, which overwhebned two of the Scottish 
famiHes in grief, and spread a sadness over the whole settle- 
ment. Two young men in the StirUng neighborhood, James 
Dicke and John Anderson, went into the woods in the after- 
noon to examine their sable traps, of which they had a range 
near the present line of Waldoboro'. The forenoon had 
been warm ; which they spent in digging potatoes, and left 
home in their summer clothes without any apprehensions of 
a change of weather. But a cloud arose in the north-west ; 
the air was suddenly darkened ; a sheet of snow descended ; 
and a furious wind rolled through the forest, snapping the 
aged trunks and endangering all beneath. Alarmed, they 
resolved to return ; but the thick snow obscured the view, 
changed the appearance of things, and bewildered their 
minds as to direction and distance. Chilled by the change 
of temperature, they hastened their steps, till they came 
upon a well known path leading to Judas' meadow. Pleased 
with the discovery, they now probably felt sure of reaching 
home, and pressed on with the utmost alacrity. But, as is 
usual in such cases, their course had been changed unobserv- 
ed, their ideas of position reversed, and every step was carry- 
ing them farther and farther from home. They discovered 
their error on arriving at Judas' meadow, but the darkness of 
night was added to that of the storm, and they deemed it 
impossible to find their way back. There was a camp in the 
meadow, and some hay in stacks. Here, as was judged from 
appearances, they determined to spend the night, and secured 
themselves as well as they could against the cold. What 
shouts for aid, what desponding cries they uttered, no ear 
was there to hear. The storm continued and the wind blew 
violently through the night. In the morning they took the 
road for home, and having arrived near the present dwelling 
place of Peter Mink, one of them yielded to the piercing cold 
and the preceding night's exhaustion and fell prostrate in the 
snow. The other pressed on for a j-hort distance, and fell 
likewise. There, after a long and anxious search, they were 
found by their friends and neighbors, who, with saddened 
hearts, traced the history of their melancholy fate from their 
tracks and other indications that appeared. In the same 
storm, two women, Mrs. Rhines and Mrs. Bennet, lost their 
way in the woods and perished in a similar manner at what 
is now Rockland.* 

On the 13th November, 1770, Capt. Thomas Kilpatrick, 

* D. Dicke. T. Kirkpatrick. Mrs. O'Brien. 


who had commanded the militia of the upper plantation 
during the late war, and probably retained his commission up 
to this time, died at the age of 77 years. Having lived un- 
married, his estate passed into the hands of his sister Eliza- ' 
beth and her son, John Shibles. To supply the vacancy in 
the militia, the people assembled and nominated Patrick 
Porterfield as a suitable candidate. But through the influence 
of Captain Goldthvvait, who commanded Fort Pownal on the 
Penobscot, and in his journeys to the seat of government had 
become acquainted with John Mclntyre, who kept a tavern 
and ferry as before mentioned, the appointment was given 
to the latter, and he continued to exercise the office of Captain 
down to the commencement of the revolution. William 
James was Lieutenant, and perhaps Reuben Hall Ensign, 
under him. The regiment, at this time extending to the Ken- 
nebec and including the settlements there, was commanded by 
Col. Lithgow of Hallowell ; and Moses Copeland acted as 
adjutant. The militia at this time seems to have fallen in 
many places into a state of neglect. Commissions were little 
esteemed, many of the regiments were without officers, mus- 
ters were neglected, young men were not enrolled at the 
proper age, and the royal Governors seemed rather to encour- 
age than correct this negligence.* 

The disposition to disuse British goods continued to increase 
throughout the country. Domestic economy, art, and manu- 
factures, were encouraged ; gentlemen began to appear in 
garments produced on this side of the ocean, and people 
soon found they could live very comfortably without resort 
to England. Cups, saucers, plates, bowls, and other dishes 
were made of wood ; and the turning and vending of these 
articles became an employment of some importance. This 
neighborhood was supplied with them by a man from Duck- 
trap by the name of Dunbar, whose singularities were the 
cause of some merriment. Subsisting wholly, in his excur- 
sions, upon the hospitality of the people, he had learned to 
accommodate himself to its uncertainty, and by loosening or 
tightening his girdle as occasion required, contrived to appro- 
priate a good share of the abundance offered him and to feel 
little inconvenience from occasional want. His reply, when 
enquired of if he would have more food, was uniformly " I 
guess ril do," the ambiguity of which, left it at the option 
of the host to furnish more or not ; in either alternative he 

* A. Kelloch, 1st. Capt. Sproul. 11. Hall, 1st. 2 Will. His. p. 387. 


always acquiesced, having never but once been known to 
refuse what was offered. At the house of Mr. Porterfield, 
it was determined to put his powers to the full proof. After 
' repeatedly answering, " I guess I'll do," and having swallow- 
ed fifteen cups of coffee, and a whole quarter of lamb, he 
at last exclaimed, " Enough 's enough ; and enough is as 
good as a feast," and jumped up from the table.* 

There being as yet no clothing mills in this part of the 
country, the inhabitants mostly depended upon such garments 
as their own ingenuity could supply. The men in summer 
ordinarily wore what were called petticoat trousers made of 
tow cloth, and in winter, small clothes of deer or sheepskin. 
In these garments they appeared at meeting whenever they 
were able to have one. Some of the Germans wore their 
linsey woolsey trousers through the winter ; and most of 
them, at other seasons, wore them to church without stockings 
or shoes. At St. George's some of the more forehanded had 
a dress suit, which, with the stability which then prevailed 
in the fashions and the few occasions on which it was need- 
ed, answered their purpose for a great number of years. 

The dress of a gentleman was formal and stately, com- 
pared with that of the present day. On the head was placed 
a fine, napless, beaver hat, with a brim two feet broad turned 
up on three sides, so as to hide the low crown in the 
middle which exactly fitted the head ; one side of extra 
width was placed square across behind, while the angle 
formed by the other two, directly over the nose, gave 
the countenance an imposing appearance and formed a 
convenient handle by which on meeting with persons of 
dignity, it was raised with all the gravity of ceremony. 
This first defence of the mind's citadel, when not in use, was 
preserved in a large, triangular, oaken box, under lock and 
key. Under the hat, the head was still farther defended by 
a wig, which varied at different times and with different 
persons from the full bottomed curls on the shoulders, to 
the club or tie wig, which had about a natural share of hair 
tied behind, w^th two or three very formal curls over each 
ear. The coat was made with a stiff, upright collar, reach- 
ing from ear to ear, descended perpendicularly in front, with 
a broad back, and skirts thickly padded over the thighs, and 
ornamented with gold or silver lace. The waistcoat was 
single breasted, without a collar, and the skirts rounded off, 

* N. Libbev. 



descending over the hips. Small clothes were buttoned and 
buckled at the knee. Stockings covered the rest of the leg ; 
and the foot was defended with a shoe, secured at first with 
a moderate sized silver, or other metallic, buckle, which con- "' 
tinued to increase in size and vary in shape till it covered 
a great part of the foot. For a riding dress, were worn 
small clothes of deerskin, and boots with tops sloping upwards 
so that the fore part came higher than the knee, and fastened 
by a girdle which buckled above the knee. Jack-boots were 
afterwards used, with tops turned down of white. The shirt 
was furnished with ruffles at the bosom and wrists. As the 
wristband with its ruffle appeared below the coat sleeve, the 
sleeve buttons were no inconsiderable part of its ornament. 
These were not attached as at present to the wristband, 
which had only button-holes at each extremity, into which 
two buttons connected by one or more links of a chain, were 
inserted. These, for common, every day wear, were com- 
monly made of brass, or other metal, and usually cost from 
six to twelve cents a set. Those who were able, and 
especially females, who used the same ornament above the 
elbow, had a set for dress occasions made of silver or gold 
and set with stones and diamonds. But so little were the 
superfluities of dress used here, that when one young man 
of the Catholic branch of the Boggs family made a visit 
here from Philadelphia, considerable difficulty was expe- 
rienced in finding a woman capable of doing up his ruffles 
in the proper style. 

In would be interesting to trace the various changes in 
this costume down to the dandy dress of the present day. 
But we have neither the room nor the means for detailing 
such frivolities. Suffice it to say that formality gradually 
gave place to convenience ; and though new absurdities 
occasionally arose and continued in vogue for a while, yet 
almost all the permanent changes have been on the side of 
utility and convenience. During our intercourse with the 
French in the revolutionary war, many fashions were adopted 
from them, particularly the close pantaloons, which continued 
with slight variations till the fall of Buonaparte, when the 
loose wide trousers gathered at the hips, were borrowed from 
the Cossacks, who entered France in the service of the Russian 
monarch. The wig continued, from time to time, to shrink 
in its dimensions, till just after the revolution, when it was 
only a skull cap of short hair cut square before and behind. 
These were succeeded by the long queue and club of native 
hair, sometimes eked out and augmented with borrowed 


honors ; till, about the commencement of the nineteenth 
century, the good old custom, recommended by St. Paul, 
of wearing short hair, began, and, notwithstanding the fre- 
quent attempts of foppery to abolish it, seems likely from its 
convenience to maintain its ground. 

Willingly would we describe the dress of our female ances- 
tors, and paint the belles of the olden time ; but so short 
lived are female fashions, and so often are they repeated, that 
we are unable to trace their order and succession, or even to 
catch the prevailing ton of any particular era. Only some 
glaring absurdity, such as the high heeled shoes, the hoop 
petticoat, the waist compressing stays, and the crape cushion, 
are preserved of these evanescent fashions. Silk, brocade, 
fine linen, chintz, and patch were used by such as had the 
means and inclination to obtain them. The recently married 
wife of one of the citizens, a native of Boston, caused some 
sensation by two silk dresses which she occasionally wore at 
meeting. One of these was called a sack, open before and 
showing an underdress of the same material. This display 
of dress must have sadly contrasted with a windowless meet- 
inghouse and seats of rough boards, and gave her a reputation 
for pride, which, brought up as she had been, she was not 
conscious of deserving. Calico, which was then four shillings 
a yard, was but little used ; the various fabrics of the present 
day were unknown ; and such of my fair readers as supply 
all their wants by the fashionable process of shopping, and 
who spin nothing but street-yarn, may be amused to learn 
how, in general, the same wants were supplied by the belles 
of this early period. Flax being committed to the ground by 
the men, their part was nearly or quite accomplished. When 
it was grown to maturity, the women and girls repaired to 
the field, pulled it from the ground, and bound it up in small 
bundles. It was then transported to the barn on poles, or by 
the men with oxen. Here the seed was beat from it by the 
same hands that pulled it, when the bundles were taken to an 
adjacent field, unbound, and spread open in parallel rows. 
Here it remained some weeks, till wind, rain, and dew had 
sufficiently decomposed the stalks, when it was again bound 
up and deposited in the barn. There it remained till the lat- 
ter part of winter, when the men, if out of employment, 
otherwise the women, proceeded with a suitable instrument to 
break up the stalk into fragments, leaving the fibres of the 
cuticle entire. These last were cleansed by an operation 
called swingling, twisted up in small handfuls, and removed 
to the house ; there the material underwent the operation of 


hackling and combing to free the hairl, or long and strong 
fibres, from the tow which was short and weaker. The for- 
mer was then put on the distaff and spun on the foot wheel. 
A part of this was used without farther preparation, as warp 
to be filled with a woof prepared from the tow which was 
carded and spun on the great wheel. This was called tow 
cloth, and worn for shirts and trousers by the men and boys. 
Another portion designed for female wear, was spun with a 
finer thread, variously colored, and woven in checks or stripes. 
Another portion, designed for sheeting and table linen, under- 
went a farther process called bucking. This was done by 
placing it at the bottom of a cask filled with ashes, through 
which water was made to pass, and the lie returned again 
and again, till the alkaline action upon the yarn was sufficient. 
It was then laid upon the snow, or grass, and kept moist till 
sufficiently whitened by the sun. After this it was woven, 
and the cloth spread again to complete its whiteness. Some- 
times linen warp was filled with wool, and, in later times, 
with cotton ; both which articles were carded and spun by 
hand. To aid these processes, what were called spinning- 
hees or icool-brea kings were resorted to, when all the girls in 
the neighborhood would collect and card or spin till night, 
sometimes being joined by the young men and finishing the 
day's work with a dance. 

Such being the tedious process, it is not strange that the 
fair Germans, brought up to out-door work, should sometimes 
prefer purchasing their apparel in Boston with the proceeds 
of hoeing and reaping. Elizabeth Kaler, afterwards the wife 
of Joseph Ludwig, worked eight days this year at hoeing 
potatoes for John Ulmer at eight pence a day ; a man's 
wages at the same time being two shillings. Gowns, as 
female dresses were then called, being usually open before, 
were, in the absence of bonnets, readily inverted over the 
head as a defence against sun or rain. So convenient was 
this custom, that it had not entirely disappeared among our 
German neighbors at the commencement of the present cen- 
tury ; at which period, umbrellas though introduced were 
but little used.* 

Though witchcraft was generally believed by the first set- 
tlers, and perhaps more intensely by the emigrants from the 
west, who came imbued with the Salem delusions, yet little 
actual mischief seems to have resulted from it in this region. 
If among the Germans there were few professed witches, 

* Mrs, J, Fuller. Jos, Ludwig, Esq. 


they had those who pretended to cure diseases by charms and 
incantations ; and this power continued down to the very era 
of mesmerism. At St. George's, now and then a cow or an 
ox was elf shot; and occasionally some individual of singular 
appearance was dreaded by many, as possessing the evil eye, 
which, as far back at least as the days of Virgil, has had the 
power of bewitching cattle.* Against its effects, however, 
they felt perfectly secure, if by presents they could procure 
from him the expression of " God bless you." Some of the 
Scotch, on their first setting down in the woods, are said to 
have prayed earnestly for protection against the witches and 
warlocks, and the things that cry boo in the meadows. But, 
after becoming acquainted with loons, frogs, and other vocal 
tenants of the woods and marshes, they began to hear with 
delight the sounds they dreaded before. The fairies and 
elves continued their sports at times, till after the revolution- 
ary war. But the whole tribe of invisible beings seem to 
have accompanied the settlers from Europe rather from per- 
sonal attachment, than from any expectation of making a per- 
manent settlement in the new world. As the first emigrants 
died off, the creatures of their imagination gradually aban- 
doned the new generations that sprung up, and, except 
perhaps now and then a freak in some obscure quarter, no 
longer trouble the community. 

But though these creatures of fear and fancy were more 
or less early repudiated by the understanding, it was not so 
easy to displace them from the imagination, or efface the 
impressions they had made on the mind. In the scarcity of 
books which prevailed at that day, added to the privations 
always incident to a new settlement, few means were 
found of gratifying, by reading, that love of marvellous 
adventure and moving incident so pleasing alike to the 
learned and ignorant. This want was supplied, as in the 
middle ages, and the ages more remote that preceded the 
invention of letters, by ballads, songs, and stories, which 
cheered the long evenings and stormy days of winter. These 
were made up of real encounters with bears and savages on 
the one hand, and those of giants, witches, and demons in 
enchanted castles on the other. Being related by those who 
in earlier life had shuddered over them as realities, they were 
listened to with thrilling interest by other children in their 
turn, whose minds were thus early imbued with a secret 

* « Nescio quis teneros oculus mihi fasciiiat agnos." — Ec. III. 


horror, which on every unexpected appearance, every un- 
usual sound, was ever after ready to startle and affright them. 
Thus a secret, lurking belief, disavowed indeed by the under- 
standing, but retaining a strong hold on the imagination, has 
been handed down, and upon some minds still exercises a 
powerful influence. Unlucky days, haunted houses, and evil 
omens, are not wholly unheard of at the present day. 

In the want of books and other means of education which 
prevailed, it is rather surprising that so few children grew up 
without learning to read and write. But privileges are gen- 
erally prized in proportion to their scarcity. A few books 
sometimes occupy more time, and impart more thorough 
instruction, than a multitude, carelessly read and indifterently 
pondered. The Bible and hymn book, the primer and al- 
manack, were in almost every house, and a Sunday school in 
every family. Other schools, when any there were, were 
resorted to with a zeal for learning in proportion to their 
infrequency; and many persons, with only a few months 
schooling, became in after-life extensive readers, and wrote 
and spelled with accuracy. Fales was a competent instructor 
for those in his neighborhood, and others of more slender 
acquirements were occasionally employed in other places. 
Some invalid unable to labor, some widow or single woman 
not otherwise employed, were all that the settlers had the 
means to compensate. Among these was Bartholomew 
Killeran of the lower town, who was altogether helpless from 
a paralytic affection of his lower limbs. He taught school in 
various places, and amongst others at the house of Moses 
Copeland for the children of that neighborhood. He was 
highly esteemed for his amiable disposition, and not the less 
so, that, in place of the birch and ferule, he was obliged to 
make use of loaf sugar to stimulate and encourage his pupils. 



One of his children, the Hon. Edward Killeran of Gush 
was long known as a successful, polite, and accommodating 
master of a packet coasting between this river and Boston, 
and afterwards as a member of the Legislatures of Massa- 
chusetts and Maine. The acquirements of the son argue 
well for the ability of the father as an instructor. A Mr. 
Mott was also employed for a while farther up the river. 
He afterwards settled, we believe, at Medumcook, and was 
favorably remembered here.* 

Nor were the settlers better able to provide for religious, than 

* R. B. Copeland. T. Ku'kpatrick, &c. 


for literary, instruction. A transient visit was occasionally 
made by some traveling clergyman or missionary, who 
preached and baptized for a short time, and was sometimes 
induced, by voluntary contributions, to remain for a longer 
period. Among those to whom the place was thus indebted 
in the interval between the close of the last Indian and the 
beginning of the revolutionary war, may be mentioned the 

names of John Dennis, Drown of Portsmouth, Levi 

Hart and Joel Benedict of Connecticut, Wadham, John 

Strickland, Scales, Ezekiel Emerson of Georgetown, 

Alexander McLean of Bristol,* and a Mr. Porter, who in 
1774 seems to have spent several months in the place. To 
many of these clergymen, considerable sums, nominally, 
were paid ; but as the tenor is not stated in the account of 
Mr. Copeland, who acted as treasurer, their true value cannot 
be given with certainty. Their visits, though few and far 
between, were, on that account, all the more dearly prized ; 
and long journeys were made by aged men and feeble 
women with infants in their arms, accompanied by bare- 
headed and barefooted children, to hear the words of mercy 
and peace proclaimed in the name of their Redeemer. 
Happy, perhaps, might it now be, if the good produced were 
in the same proportion to the privileges enjoyed. t 

In the autumn of this year, a saw-mill was erected on 
Back River by Mr. Pebbles, in connexion with his father-in- 
law, Mr. Ray, or Rea, of Boston. The latter had acquired 
considerable property in the tailor's business, and was in- 
duced to invest a portion of it in this undertaking. The 
place, how^ever, was ill-chosen, with no convenient brow for 
landing lumber ; the dam was long and expensive ; and the 
mill stood a great distance from the shore. It did some busi- 
ness the first season ; but the frosts of winter lifted the dam ; 
and the whole work after a few years was abandoned. 

The growing hostility between the royal Governor and the 
representatives of the people, between power and principle, 
custom-house restrictions and freedom of trade, continued to 
increase, and the people more and more to take part in it. 
The only custom-house in the eastern province was estab- 
lished at Falmouth, of which Francis Waldo, second son of 
the General, was collector. Other members of this family 

* Mr. McLean, a native of the Isle of Sky, came in 1773 to Pema- 
quid fort, was settled and continued tlie minister of Bristol till his 
death in 1805. 

t M. Copeland's Leger and MS. 



had been promoted to official stations by the royal governors ; 
and this circumstance naturally, if not necessarily, led them 
to take sides with the King. 

1772. In the apportionment of the County tax, and 
probably also the State tax, if any were called for, the two 
plantations on St. George's river were, from this year, in- 
cluded together as one, and the sum of c£21, 10s. Id. asses- 
sed upon them. In consequence of this, the inhabitants of 
both assembled together for the choice of assessors ; and 
the meetings were held alternately in the upper and lower 
town. At a meeting held in the upper town, McCobb of 
the lower was chosen moderator. Upon this, Capt. Mclntyre 
exclaimed, " what! McCobb, McCobb forever?" That gen- 
tleman remarked he was not anxious for the office, and was 
ready to relinquish it. "To whom .?" said Mclntyre. "To 
you^ if agreeable." " Ah well," said he, taking the chair, 
" now things go on regular." We are not to infer from this 
that Capt. Mclntyre was over greedy of office, but only frank 
and fearless in manner, disdaining all concealment or hy- 
pocrisy. In one of these years, the collection was under- 
taken by Reuben Hall on the western side of the river, and 
by Joseph Copeland on the eastern. The latter, after col- 
lecting a part, suffered the remainder to linger along till 
Susanna Annis who lived in his family, for want of paste- 
board, made use of the tax-bill to stiffen her bonnet ; and the 
collector was at last obliged to sell a yoke of steers to raise 
the money. The depreciation of the paper currency, in the 
mean time, heVped him so much that his loss was not great.* 

In this and the preceding year, much distress was occasion- 
ed by a malignant fever which prevailed on this river, and 
carried off many of the inhabitants. Its victims in the 
upper town were Mrs. Porterfield, James Lermond, John 
Miller, 2d, Margaret Miller, and perhaps others. 

1773. The plantation of Broad Bay, was in 1773 incor- 
porated into a town by the name of Waldohorough, Its 
boundaries were described by courses, distances, and monu- 
ments, so inconsistent with each other that it was impossible 
to follow them, which gives some countenance to the 
story that the surveying party took with them too much liquor 
for the nature of their work. This incorrect survey was 
fafterwards the cause of some dispute between Waldo- 
borough and Warren, which was arranged by mutual consent, 

* Rec. C. of Sessions .A. Kelloch, 1st, &c. 


and the line surveyed and marked by James Malcolm, Esq. 
This line was again called in question by the authorities of 
Waldoborough, and established by order of the Supreme 
Court in 1836. As this act of incorporation in some meas- 
ure disconnected the settlement from that of St. George's, 
we shall pursue its history no farther than that of the latter 
place requires ; hoping that some one competent to the task 
will give its story in a manner worthy its prosperity and the 
character and enterprise of its inhabitants ; not forgetting to 
do justice to its German fathers, among whom were particu- 
larly distinguished Jacob and Joseph Ludwig, who in spite of 
every disadvantage found means to acquire enough of the 
English language to enable the former to record the early 
transactions of the town intelligibly, and both of them to 
represent it efficiently in the Legislature of Massachusetts.* 

The stock of tea having accumulated in England in conse- 
quence of its disuse in America, many cargoes were, this year, 
shipped to the latter, in the expectation that, when once landed 
and the duties paid, it would find its way into the country and 
meet with purchasers. Three cargoes arriving in Boston, every 
means was used to induce the consignees not to receive it ; 
and when these failed, and the town meeting, held on the 
subject, prolonged its deliberations to a late hour in the night 
without coming to any determination, seventeen men, dis- 
guised like Indians, boarded the ships on the evening of the 
16th December, and threw 342 chests into the water. One of 
this party was Benjamin Burton, the second of that name, of 
the lower St. George's, then about twenty-three years of age. 
Being accidentally in Boston on board a coaster, and hearing 

* Jacob, or, as baptized, John Jacob Ludwig, was about 18 years 
old at the time of his arrival in America. In the latter part of the 
French and Indian war he seems to have resided in Boston where he 
enlisted into the army and did service at Ticonderoga, Lake George 
and Crown Point, and was promoted to the rank of Orderly Sergeant. 
When the town was incorporated in 1773 he Avas chosen the first 
Town Clerk and one of the first Selectmen, w^luch offices he continued 
to fill Avith few intermissions for 40 years. lie frequently represented 
the town in the Legislatiu'e and sustained other town offices. In 
1776 he was appointed Captain of a company sent to Machias for the 
protection of that place. In 1788 and at several subsequent periods 
he was elected a Notary Public, and in 1789 appointed a Justice of 
the Peace, which latter oftice he held till near the close of his life. 
His knowledge of both English and German eminently qiialified him 
to act as a magistrate among a mixed population nearly ignorant, as 
they for a time w^ere, of each other's language. He retained his facul- 
ties up to the time of his death, Jan. 1, lS2(i, at the age of 91 years 
and 5 months. — Col. J. I^udwig, &c. 


what was going on, he joined the party at a moment's notice, 
and was stationed in the hold to fasten the slings upon the 
tea-chests ; thus giving an early intimation of the part he was 
to take in the approaching contest.* 

1774. Disgusted with this, and similar acts of opposition, 
and despairing of the title of nobility, to which he aspired as 
the reward of his subserviency to the ministry. Gov. Hutchin- 
son, in June, 1774, left his native colony for England, and 
never- more returned. Gen. Thomas Gage, who had many 
years been commander-in-chief of the troops in this country, 
was appointed Governor, and, in connexion with the forces 
already stationed at Boston, assumed the attitude of a military 
despot rather than that of a civil magistrate. Opposition 
to his administration continued to increase until the 17th 
of June, when learning that the House of Representatives had 
by a vote nearly unanimous, determined to choose five dele- 
gates to meet in Congress at Philadelphia, he sent the Secre- 
tary to dissolve the assembly. Apprehensive of this, the 
House ordered the door to be locked ; and, as they proceeded 
in the choice, the proclamation for dissolving the General 
Court was read by the Secretary on the stairs ; and Gov. 
Gage and the Legislature never met afterwards. 

But the gloom which hung over the political horizon did 
not prevent the stream of private sorrow from flowing in its 
accustomed channel. In July of this year, its current was 
swelled by a number of deaths in the upper plantation, occur- 
ring about the same time, and some of them under the most 
painful circumstances. Four corpses lay awaiting sepulture 
at the same time. Of these, Mrs. Sumner an elderly lady, 
and one other person not now remembered, died a natural 
death. William James fell from a wheeling plank and was 
drowned in the river. Anna Young, belonging to the lower 
town, but employed in the family of Mr. Boggs, while en- 
gaged in washing at the shore, was requested to set two 
women across the river ; and on her return fell from the float, 
and perished before any assistance could arrive. It is re- 
markable, that, in a dream of the preceding night which she 
related in the morning, the whole occurrence was foreshadow- 
ed to her mind with all its attending circumstances, even to 
the particular individuals by whom the corpse was found. 

1775. On the 4th September, delegates from eleven 
colones met in a second general Congress at Philadelphia, 

* Col. B. Burton. Thom. Reg., July 4, 1831. 


published a declaration of rights, and adopted such other 
measures of determined opposition to British pretensions as 
showed plainly that a crisis was approaching, and arms alone 
could decide the controversy. Preparations were accordingly 
made on both sides, the British to enforce their authority, 
the Americans to defend their rights ; all remained in anx- 
ious suspense until the 19th of April, 1775, when the first 
scene of the great drama was opened at Lexington. 

The eastern people had not been behind their western 
neighbors in their opposition to British encroachments, nor 
free from the evils which resulted. Care had been taken to 
fill with decided whigs the offices of selectmen and planta- 
tion committees. The closing of the port of Boston, inter- 
rupting supplies, had caused a scarcity of provisions, though 
the preceding season was line.* Capt. Mowett, commander 
of a British sloop of war, after giving the people of Falmouth 
a specimen of arbitrary power, proceeded to Penobscot and 
dismantled Fort Pownal, interrupting the peaceable trade 
which had there been carried on with the Indians. Fears of 
Indian hostilities were consequently excited, and these were 
increased by rumors of an invading army from Canada. 

How these rumors, and the conduct of the commander of 
Fort Pownal, affected the people at St. George's, may be 
gathered from the following letter. " To the Selectmen of St. 
George's. Ft. Pownal, May 8, 1775. Gent'n. On the 
27th of last month about 20 arm'd men arrived here from St. 
George's, who came in the name and as a Committee from 
the people of St. George's and others who they said had 
assembled there to the amount of 250 men, and this party in 
their name demanded of me the reasons of my delivering 
the Cannon, &c., belonging to this Fort to the King's forces. 
I told them I tho't their request reasonable and that I would 
give them all the satisfaction they desired in this matter and 
immediately left them. I went into the Fort and got the Gov- 
ernor's letter to me and it was read to them. I then inform'd 
them that this was the King's fort and built at his expence : 

*- The winter of 1774-o was remarkable for its naildness. In the 
Journal of the Eev. Thomas Smith of Falmouth, are the following 
entries :'* Jan. 23, 1775, very moderate weather ; 27th, a summer 
day ; 28th, wonderful weather. Feb. 7th, there has been no snow 
and little rain since the 29th of Dec. ; we saw two robins ; 11th, warm 
day; 18th, cold ; 20th, snow, incomparable sledding ; 21st, a summer 
day ; 23d, a great snow storm. March 7th, the frost seems out of the 
ground in the streets ; 28th, it has been a wonder of a winter ; so 
moderate and unfreezing." 


that the Governor was commander-in-chief of it, that I 
could not refuse obeying his orders, that I was ready to make 
oath that I had no intimation of this matter until Mr. Graves 
who commanded this expedition, shevv'd me the Governor's 
order within ten minutes after his vessels came to an anchor 
here ; and that in case it had been in my power to have re- 
sisted this order 1 should not have tho't it expedient to have 
done it, as the inevitable consequence of such resistance 
would have been the Total Ruin of this River ; being that a 
small naval force at the mouth of it could entirely stop the 
provision vessels and coasters and must soon have broke up 
the River. Upon my representing these facts and reasoning 
in this manner, Capt. Gragg and his party appeared to be 
satisfied. He then told me that they had intelligence that the 
Canadians and Indians were coming down upon us ; that the 
arm'd vessels that went from hence had kill'd the people's 
cattle at Townsend, and they expected to meet with the same 
fate at St. George's ; and that among all the people that were 
assembled there, they hadn't ten charges of ammunition and 
were very scant of arms ; and that one part of their orders 
was to desire and demand of me a part of ours. I informed 
them the true condition of the Fort and the scarcity of am- 
munition upon this river ; still they persisted in their request. 
1 sometime after told the Serjent he must see what there was 
and let them have what could be spar'd upon such an emer- 
gency ; and he accordingly delivered them 7 muskets, 10 
lbs. Powder, and 24Ibs. Ball, for which Messrs. Sam'l Gragg, 
Rob. Mclntyer, and Benj. Burton gave a receipt as a Com- 
mittee from St. George's. Now, Gent'n, as it appears that 
this alarm was premature and that as these people came as 
they declared with authority from your town, 1 hope you'l in- 
terfere in it and see that the arms and ammunition are re- 
turned to the fort and especially too, as it now is declared 
and known to be true that this river is barer of arms and 
ammunition than you are at St. George's. I shall inclose a 
copy of the Governor's letter to me for your satisfaction. I 
beg the favor of you to communicate this letter together with 
I the votes pass'd upon this river, (which will be delivered you 
by a committee sent on purpose) to your town that they may 
have opportunity to act in it as they judge expedient. 

I am, &c., tho. Goldthvvait."* 
The leader of the party alluded to in the above letter, 

* Original letter in possession of Mr. Alex. Brown of Thoniaston. 


Samuel Gregg, son of one of the first settlers in the upper 
town, was an active, merry-hearted, froUc-loving, master of a 
coaster, who, a few years before this period, had cast away 
one of McLean's vessels, and, from neglect in entering a 
protest, experienced some difficulty, and, as he thought, much 
injustice in settling with him. Being now out of regular em- 
ployment, he warmly engaged in the cause of the revolution, 
and raised a company of minute men, which, however, ex- 
cept on this and some other similar occasions was not called 
into actual service. On the 19th of Sept. following, a few 
of his men were for a time employed, probably in enforcing 
the regulations respecting coasters, and were billeted as fol- 
lows ; in the lower town at George Young's, 2 men, at Hanse 
Robinson's, 5 men ; in the upper town at William Watson's, 
2 men, and at Samuel Creighton's, 2 men. 

To the settlers at St. George's, the prospect of political 
affairs presented a different appearance according to the 
different positions from which it was viewed. Most of the 
old settlers, who had identified themselves with the colonies, 
had participated in the sacrifices made, and glorious deeds 
achieved in the preceding wars, and knew somethmg of their 
prowess and ability to defend themselves, were ready to enter 
upon the contest with all the zeal of persons defending their 
firesides and homes. But some of those who came from 
Scodand at a later period and had formed few acquaintances 
beyond the narrow settlement on the river, still regarded their 
mother country with the most filial affection, and shrank from 
any attempt to sever the comiexion between them and the 
land which they still called their home. There were their 
fathers, mothers, brethren and sisters. There was all they 
had been accustomed to admire as great, to cherish as dear, 
to reverence as sacred. The contest seemed to them not 
only unnatural, but desperate. In the history of their own 
country, they had seen how irresistible was the power of 
England ; as Protestants they had gloried in the triumph of 
the present dynasty over the Catholic pretender ; how could 
they now consent to weaken that dynasty by a domestic feud, 
or believe that a few scattered settlements in the wilderness 
could successfully resist the power which had long prevailed 
over the land of their birth, and recently bid defiance to the 
world ? They generally discouraged the attempt, and pre- 
dicted its failure. Few of them went any farther than this. 
Kirkpatrick was a zealous friend to the revolution in every 
stage of its progress ; several of the young men of the An- 
derson, Malcolm, and Dicke families, were among the recruits 


enlisted for the defence of Machias in 1776; and, could 
impatient patriotism have been willing to wait, the lagging 
rear, perhaps, might have been brought up to the front rank 
of public opinion. 

Not at all discouraged by the aspect of the times, the 
Lermonds this year, 1775, commenced shipbuilding, the 
third attempt of the kind in the place, and launched the ' Dol- 
phin,' at Oyster River, a coaster which ran successfully four 
years, and was then cast away. As the political troubles 
of the country increased, the courts of law were interrupted 
and the emoluments of office became uncertain. In conse- 
quence perhaps of this, Moses Copeland, having the preced- 
ing year resigned the office of deputy sheriff, this year 
devoted himself to farming.* 

The attention of the Provincial Congress, which had now 
taken the place of the charter government, was called to the 
distress prevailing in these eastern settlements, by petitions 
from Fox Islands, Machias, Waldoboro', and other places, 
which represented that there prevailed a great scarcity of 
provisions, as well as arms and ammunition, in consequence 
of which the inhabitants were exposed to depredations from 
the enemy ; and some, according to report, had actually 
perished for want of bread. To relieve these distresses, 
the Congress recommended the committee of safety of 
Newburyport to exchange two or three hundred bushels of 
corn for fuel and lumber at moderate prices ; and a part of 
one of the regiments which had been enlisted in Maine was 
put under the command of Col. Freeman of Falmouth, to be 
stationed " on the seaboard, in the counties of Cumberland 
and Lincoln, as he and Gen. Preble of the same place, and 
Major Mason Wheaton of St. George's river, should appoint. "t 

There were some other circumstances, about this time, 
that had an encouraging influence upon the eastern people. 
Besides the news of the glorious affair at Bunker Hill on the 
17th of June, the fall of plentiful showers changed the 
withering aspect of nature, and opened a prospect of good 
crops. The long desired arrival of corn and flour, too, 
administered abundantly to the necessities of the people ; 
and intercourse between place and place was encouraged. 
Yet the inhabited Islands, and the smaller settlements, were 
frequently severe sufferers from the plunder and abuse of 
the enemy. Many recruits from the western counties, 

* A. Lermond. M. Copcland's MS. t 2 Will. His. p. 428. 


and some from the more eastern settlements, had enlisted and 
joined the army at Cambridge, among whom was William 
Robinson, David Kelloch, and David Brown, of the upper St. 
George's, with many others from the lower.* 

The General Court, which, in July, was again organized 
according to the provisions of the charter, enacted that all 
appointments and commissions, which were made prior to the 
present session, should on the 19th of Sept. be null and of no 
effect. In consequence of this measure, new officers both 
civil and military were appointed. Those of the county of 
Lincoln were Wm. Lithgow of Georgetown, Aaron Hinkley 
of Brunswick, Thomas Rice of Wiscasset, and James Mc- 
Cobb of Georgetown, Judges ; Jonathan Bowman of Pownal- 
borough. Judge of Probate ; and Charles Gushing of the 
same place, Sheriff. Mr. Fales of St. George's, who, as 
Fluker's agent, was supposed to have a leaning towards the 
side espoused by his employer, was reported to have exer- 
cised the duties of his office as a justice of the peace, after 
his commission had been thus annulled by the General Court. 
A paper designed as a test to try men's principles, probably 
a declaration of allegiance to the Provincial Government, or 
something of that kind, had been sent to Capt. Mclntyre ; but 
he declined to make any use of it. Not so Alexander Kel- 
loch. He took the paper, and, with Capt. Gregg, collected a 
party, and, assaulting the house of Justice Fales, offered him 
the alternative of signing the paper or riding a rail. He 
chose neither, and remained inflexible. His wife attempted 
to appease the mob by means of a pailful of flip ; and the 
sons of the justice offering to be sureties for their father's 
conduct, they dispersed without farther action. 

Hitherto, as before remarked, this place had been destitute 
of any stated preaching since the death of the Rev. Mr. 
Rutherford. But now, 1775, the Rev. John Urquhart, who 
the preceding year came to this country from Scotland, was 
employed to preach alternately in the upper and lower towns. 

As these places were unincorporated, a contract was made 
with the citizens of each in their individual capacity. The 
conditions agreed upon were, that Mr. Urquhart should have 
a settlement of ,£100, and an annual salary of £80, to be 
paid one half by the upper, and the other by the lower town. 
On behalf of the upper town, the contract was signed by 
Boice Cooper, David Kelloch, Robert Montgomery, Alex. 
Kelloch, John Mclntyre, William Boggs, Samuel Creighton, 

* Williamson. M. Robinson. 


Hopestill Sumner, David Creigbton, Wm. Robinson, Jobn 
Spear, Jobn Miller, James Anderson, Jobn Kirkpatrick, Sam- 
uel Boggs, Joseph Copeland, John Watts, John Crawford, Jr., 
Archibald Anderson, Archibald Anderson, Jr., Thomas Star- 
rett, Jobn Lermond, Alex. Lermond, Daniel Rokes, Stephen 
Peabody, Patrick Pebbles, Reuben Hall, Samuel Counce, 
Ezra Sumner, Alex. Lermond, Jr. and Samuel Gregg ; and 
they were to pay in proportion to their several abilities.* 

The coming of Mr. Urquhart was peculiarly agreeable to 
the Scottish settlers ; who had been so disappointed in their ex- 
pectations, and so dissatisfied with the country, that any thing 
connected with their native land was doubly dear to them. 
Even the thistle, when by accident some stray seed had taken 
root among them, troublesome as it was known to be, was 
hailed with joy, because it had grown in Scotland. It was 
not therefore to be wondered at, that the same dialect, tone, 
and manner, to which they had listened in childhood, should 
awaken the most thrilling emotions and in some measure 
atone for the want of more substantial qualities. 

The Irish and later emigrants, if not equally enthusiastic 
for the candidate, were rejoiced at the prospect of constant 
preaching ; and, as his politics corresponded with their own, 
it was resolved to employ him. Some wished to postpone 
his ordination and hire him a while first ; but he was urgent to 
be settled, and offered as one reason, that his wife, whom he 
left in Scotland, would then know whither to direct her letters. 
At what time, and under what auspices, he was ordained, is 
now difficult to be ascertained ; as no record of it is to be 
found. According to tradition, the sermon was preached by 
Rev. Mr. Emerson of Georgetown, who again repeated the 
same discourse at the ordination of Rev. Mr. Riddel at Bris- 
tol in 1796. After the incorporation of Warren, the town, 
by voting him a year's salary of =£40, informally adopted Mr. 
Urquhart as its minister, though no contract to that effect was 
ever entered into. At the same time it was voted '^ not to 
pay him the settlement money ;" perhaps because it had been 
partly paid by the individual contractors. He appears to 
have gathered a church in each of the two towns, of which 
Crawford and Miller were the deacons in the upper, and Mc- 
Kellar and Joseph Robinson in the lower. His meetings were 
well attended, people coming on foot through the woods or 
from up and down the river in boats, the only pleasure car- 
riages of the time. The singing was performed a line at a 

* Covirt Records, Lincohi Co. Greenleaf 'a Eccl. Sketches. 


time, as read by Moses Copeland, the tune set by Capt. Mc- 
Intyre, and sung, not by a separate choir, but by the congre- 
gation promiscuously. Boice Cooper used to act as tithing- 
man to keep the boys and dogs in order ; in doing which he 
frequently made more noise than he suppressed.* 

Mr. Urquhart visited the people, catechised the children, 
and maintained a rigid church discipline. In the last of these 
duties, he was sometimes, perhaps in accordance with the 
times, extremely indelicate and rude. Great reverence was 
paid him in his parochial visits ; but his person was ungainly, 
his manners awkward, and his conversation not very agree- 
able, especially to the young. But these were small matters 
in a minister ; and as long as his character remained unques- 
tioned, the national prejudices of the Scotch, the politics of 
the Irish, and the love of order in the western emigrants, con- 
spired to palliate his defects, and to sustain him in his popu- 
larity. After the battle of Bunker Hill, a kind of politico 
religious meeting was held, at which, from the text, " behold 
how great a matter a little fire kindleth," he preached a warm, 
patriotic discourse, as acceptable to one part of his hearers as 
distasteful to others. At length so obtrusive did his politics 
become, that some of his hearers in the lower town began to 
absent themselves from church. Observing this, he called 
upon Malcolm and McCarter, and inquired why they " dinna 
come to meeting ?" " Oh," said they, " we dinna like yer 
doctrine." " And pray, what fault do you find with my doc- 
trine ?" " Oh, ye're all for war and bloodshed, war and 
bloodshed." " Ah well," said he, come to my meeting, and 
I'll preach such doctrine as will suit ye." This apparent 
readiness to sacrifice principle to popularity, had no tendency 
to raise him in their estimation ; but, sustained by the majority, 
his influence for the present remained unimpaired. t 

How mattei's were managed on this river in the absence 
of legal authority, during the interval between that of the 
Royal government and the resumption of that of the Pro- 
vince in its own name, may be judged of by the following 
extracts. " At a town meeting of the Inhabitants of a place 
called St. George's, held at the dwellinghouse of Mr. Micah 
Packard on Tuesday, June the 6th, 1775. Chose Mr. Mason 
Wheaton, moderator, and Mt. John Shibles, clerk. Chose 
also as a committee of correspondence. Mason Wheaton, 
Haunce Robinson, George Young, William Watson, Samuel 

* ToAVTi Records. Rev. J. Huse. T. Iftrkpatrick. D. Dicke, &c. 
t N. Libbey. D. Dicke. T. Kii-kpatrick, &c. 


Creigbton, Moses Robinson, Thomas Starrett, Jonathan Nut- 
ting and Elisba Snow." 

" June 10. The committee met and chose Capt. Jonathan 
Nutting chairman. Ordered, that the money collected as a 
county tax, be laid out in powder, lead, and other warlike 
stores. Ordered, that the powder be divided on Wednesday, 
14th June, at the house of Capt. J. Nutting, and that Mr. 
Mason Wheaton be appointed to write to the Provincial Con- 
gress, and for Mr. Tho. Starrett to receive the drum and colors. 
Ordered also, that Mr. Dunbar Henderson receive 3lbs. of 
powder, Mr. Geo. McCobb l^lbs, and Mr. Benjamin Burton 
l^lbs. of powder for alarming the inhabitants in Case there 
should be need. 

" June 13th, the committee met at the house of Capt. J. 
Nutting. Ord'd, that Capt. Atwood sail for the port of Salem 
and to make report to the committee according to his agree- 
ment with them., and that this committee oblige themselves to 
repay what money they shall receive of John Shibles, (who 
was the collector of the county tax) when it shall be demand- 
ed of him by the county, and that Capt. Haunce Robinson, 
Capt. J. Nutting and Mr. Moses Robinson, receive lUbs. 
powder, each, Mr. Geo. Young, lO^lbs., Capt. Thomas Star- 
rett, 141bs., Mr. Samuel Creigbton, 141bs., Mr. Wm. * * * 71bs., 
Mr. Elisha Snow, 71bs., Capt. M. Wheaton * * * powder, for 
the defence of the inhabitants. Ord'd, that any person want- 
ing to hire marsh or meadow belonging to the heirs of the 
late Brig. Waldo, apply to Capt. M. VVheaton for the same 
and for him to return the hire to the committee. Ord'd, that 
any vessel coming into the harbor supposed to be of the 
Tory party, that one or more of the committee take a suffi- 
cient party and go on board such vessel and enquire into the 
affair, and that any person that shall disobey his officer's 
orders, or shall make parties against the committee or their 
orders, shall be deemed as Torys, and that no mobs or par- 
ties joyn to go on board any vessel or vessels within our 
boundaries, or do any unlawful action, whhout leave of the 

" June 22, 1775. Copy of a Letter Sent by this Com'tee 
to Capt. Jona. Nutting at Campden. Sir, we are Informed 
that your vessel is a going to Halifax, which creates a great 
uneasiness and as the greatest Part of the Com'tee are met 
we thought proper to acquaint you of it and Desire you to 
Come and do something about it, before the vessel goes, for 
fear your Interest should suffer Damage and your Name be 


returned to * * Congress. Per order, J. Shibles, clerk." To 
this, one of the parties concerned, wrote back, " we assure you 
that we have not broke over one of the Congress Resolves in 
any thing. Sir, the Committee are to meet for Campden next 
Monday and if they have any objection I am willing to com- 
ply with it," &c. 

" From the Com'tee of St. George's to the Com'tee of 
Salem. Gent'n. Capt. At wood loaded with Cord wood from 
this place. Bound for Boston as we suspect, we thought proper 
to stop, and brought said Capt. under obligation to put into 
the Port of Salem and get directions from you, and pray you 
to send us a letter back by the said Capt. Atwood of your 
proceedings, &c. St. George's, June 3, 1775." 

" At a meeting Heald at the House of Micah Packard, 
Munday ye 10 of July, 1775. * that Mr. Elisha Snow, chear- 
man. Voated that Mason Wheaton be accountable for what 
Reents is Due for Mr. Flukers and the heirs of the leat Brig. 
Waldo's Farm which he now enjoys. Voated that Capt. 
Mclntyer is not adspcted as a Tory. Voated that Mr 
Orquarts leater be recorded and sent to the Con grass. 
Voated that Capt. Saml. Graags going to Penobscot With a 
number of men and Bringing away Some arms and Ammu- 
nition from Fort Pownal, for which they gave their Receipt 
for the Seame to Col. Goldthwait, for which the Committee of 
St. Georges Condescend to. J. Shibles, clerk." 

" St. Georges, July 3, 1775. For Expences To conduct 
the prisoner taken at Machias which dined at the house of 
Mr. M. Packard. Old Tenor ^4 10s. 

" At a meeting Heald at the House of Mr M. Packard on 
Mounday July ye 17, 1775. Chose Wm. Watson Chearman 
— voted that No answer be returned to Mr Winslows Leator 
from Long Island, dated July 16, '75, to the Com'tee of St. 
Georges, — that Capt. M. Wheaton, Mr. Saml. Creighton, and 
Mr Moses Robinson go as a Com'tee and * * Com'tee of 
Campden to go and inquire * affears of Long Island and 
make report, &c. 

" July 18, Voated by the whole Meajority that Capt Den- 
nis Fogearty be a Committee-man in the place of Capt. J. 
Nutting Now absent. 

" To Capt. Wm. Pendleton. July 17, 1775. Sir, &c. 
We cannot think proper for you to Contrack any Traid which 
we sopose is for the Kings Troops, which you No by the 
Congress orders is Contrey to our oblegation, which we are 
determined to adhear to. Per orders of the Com'tee. J. Shi- 
bles, Clerk. 


" At a meeting Heald at the House of Mr M. Packard on 
Mon. Aug. 28, 1775, chose M, Wheaton chearman. voted 
that Adam Teal, belonging to Georges Islands, by order of 
the Com'tee shall receive Ten Stripes Weal Lead on at a 
post prepared for the same, for a crime which said Teal is 
found Guilty of, * * stealing of a piece of Tow Cloth from 
Arch'd Gamble on the 25th day of July, 1775. Which Pun- 
shement was executed on said offender the said day and at 
said place. 

" At a Meeting Heald at the House of Capt. Wheaton on 
Tuesday Sept. 19, chose Mr E. Snow, Chearman. 2d. per- 
mitted Capt. Sam. Hathorn in sloop Sally to sail to Ipswich. 
3d. permitted Capt. Wheaton's schooner to sail to Portsmouth. 
4th. permitted Capt. James Watson to sail to Ipswich. 5th. 
and 6th. that Capt. Wm. Hutchings' sloop and Capt. Philip's 
schooner remain in custody till farther orders. 7th. that Capt. 
Gragg bring Linneken to Justeas on Friday next. 9th. that 
Lieut. Benj. Burton take Capt. Philips' schooner to go a fish- 
ing and for said Burton to return the fourth part of his earn- 
ings to the Com'tee or to said owner, 10th. that Capt. Gragg 
send the party of men that was to be stationed at Wessowes- 
geeg to Tennas Harbor to Duble the guard there. J. Shibles, 

By a later entry, it seems that the schooner committed to 
Burton was lost ; and the same committee, in 1777, paid the 
owners ,£37 10s. lawful money, as indemnity. The multifa- 
rious duties performed by this anomalous committee, though 
sufficiently incongruous, were not more so than is usual in 
the time of a revolution, when the people, having taken into 
their own hands, must of necessity exercise, all the powers 
of government. 

* This record, (slightly injured, where blanks occur, by mice,) was 
preserved among the papers of Wm. Watson by his daughter, Mary, 
till her decease, and is now in the possession of Mr. A. Brown. From 
the difference in orthography and penmanship, it is probable that the 
former part of this record was revised and copied, and the remainder, 
from July, made up extemj^ore. 




1776. One of the first measures adopted in 1776, was 
the reorganization of the mihtia. That of each county in 
Maine, was placed under the command of a Brigadier Gen- 
eral. Charles Gushing of Pownalborough was appointed to 
that office for the county of Lincoln. The regiment which 
included St. George's, extended to Newcastle. It had been 
recently under the command of Col. Cargill, but how long 
he retained his office is uncertain.* The regimental officers 
in commission during this war, were, as near as can be ascer- 
tained, Col. Farnsworth of Waldoborough, Major, afterwards 
Colonel, Mason Wheaton of Thomaston, and Major Hanse 
Robinson of St. George's, now Gushing. The two last had 
previously commanded companies. The first company offi- 
cers in the upper town under the new government, sponta- 
neously elected by the people in 1775, were, Thomas Star- 
rett, Captain ; Hatevil Libbey, Lieutenant ; and Alexander 
Kelloch, Ensign ; the last of whom was the first in the place 
to display the stars and stripes of the national flag. Besides 
the officers, the company then consisted of thirty-four pri- 
vates. Under the auspices of Capt. Starrett, who possessed 
as much moderation as firmness, the military affairs of the 
place, were, during the war, conducted to the general satis- 
faction. Massachusetts was, this year, called upon by Con- 
gress for a levy of 5,000 men ; yet so exposed were the 
eastern settlements, that none were taken from the County of 
Lincoln, and but thirty-nine from Cumberland. The wages 
paid at this time to a private soldier, were £3 per month ; but. 
in consequence of recent emissions of paper money, this 
was probably worth less than its nominal value. t 

The Declaration of Independence, which passed on the 
4th of July of this year, was printed and sent to all the min- 
isters of the Gospel in the State, to be publicly read by them 
on the first Lord's day after its reception, and to be recorded 
by the town clerks in their respective town books. His part 
of the service, we may readily imagine, was performed with 

* We find him in 1779 at the head of a party employed in demol- 
ishing and leveling Fort Pownal. — Wil. His. 

t 2 WiU. His. p. 41.5, 446. A. Kelloch, Isfr. R. HaU, 1st. 


alacrity by Mr. Urquhart, and it must have been an occasion 
of great interest and deep ennotion to his audience. 

After this decisive measure, the friends of freedom took 
a bolder position ; their opponents were denounced as 
traitors and foes to their country, all lukewarm persons were 
suspected, and the property of notorious tories was consider- 
ed as lawful plunder. The whig and tory principles also 
ran high among the eastern Indians ; but the whigs among 
them being much the most numerous, the tories remained at 
home as neutrals, whilst the whigs, as agreed upon by a 
treaty made this year at VVatertown, formed themselves into 
bands and joined the American army. 

The country was now involved in a serious and expensive 
conflict, with no prospect of an immediate termination. 
Business was interrupted ; and the government found it diffi- 
cult to provide means for paying and subsisting its troops. 
Besides the ordinary recourse to taxation, requisitions were, 
from time to time, made upon the counties and towns for 
various articles of clothing according to their several abilities. 
Of 5,000 blankets which the State called for in the autumn, 
the quota to York county was 212 ; to Cumberland, 123 ; 
to Lincoln, 89. 

Two hundred men, for the defence of the coast between 
Camden and Mach las, were raised this year; one company 
of which, under Capt. Jacob Ludwig of Waldoboro', was 
recruited in this vicinity. Of this company, the present town 
of Warren furnished the following officers and men, viz : 
Joseph Copeland, Lieut. ; Samuel Counce, Sergeant ; and 
James Anderson, William Dicke, Andrew Malcolm, Francis 
Young, and Joseph Peabody, privates. On the third of 
November, they marched to Megunticook, embarked for 
Machias, did duty there through the winter, and were absent 
about six months.* 

The difficulty in raising the minister's salary and assess- 
ing taxes, together with the desire of participating with other 
towns in the measures of the revolution, induced the inhab- 
itants of the upper town on St. George's to petition to be in- 
corporated. Their petition was granted ; and on the 7th of 
November, 1776, the said plantation was incorporated into a 
town, and, in honor of Dr. Joseph Warren, who had the 
preceding year fallen so gloriously on Bunker Hill, was 

* S. Peabody. Col. J. Ludwig. D. Dicke. Cornice's Jour. 


named Warren. It included its present limits, together 
with all that part of the present town of Thomaston lying above 
Mill River. Messrs. Porterfield, Shibles, and others, being 
dissatisfied with the minister of Warren, or otherwise indis- 
posed to be connected with it, immediately joined with the 
inhabitants of the adjacent territory in petitioning for the 
incorporation of another town, which was granted the 20th of 
March following, and a gore of about 6,000 acres of land 
between Oyster and Mill Rivers, taken from Warren and 
annexed to the new town.* This was named Thomas- 
ton, in honor of Major Gen. John Thomas, of the Massa- 
chusetts line, who died the preceding year at Chamblee. 
As the Watsons preferred to continue their connexion whh 
the town of Warren, the point occupied by them, was, for 
the present, retained within the limits of that town. Thom- 
aston, then containing South Thomaston and Rockland, grad- 
ually increased in wc^alth and population till the census of 
1790, when its inhabitants amounted to 801. Its growth 
was much more rapid, after Gen. Knox made it the place of 
his residence in 1794 ; but the history of this town is worthy 
of a separate volume, and will not be pursued here farther 
than its connexion with that of Warren may render 

As there were no representatives from this part of the 
country in the General Court, it was necessary, in order to 
obtain acts of incorporation, to dispatch special agents for the 
purpose to Boston. The petition from Warren was commit- 
ted to Capt. Gregg. His account of services in getting the 
incorporation act passed, was subsequently presented to the 
town, and seems to have given some dissatisfaction, as on two 
different occasions a committee was appointed to examine it ; 
and, as late as 1784, the town voted to pay him " £3 out of 
the town money." 

The petition from Thomaston seems to have been entrusted 
to Benjamin Burton ; or if not, there must have been a peti- 
tion for another town on the river, about the same time. For 
we find, in his memorandum book, an account of expenses in 
getting the town of St. George's incorporated ; from which it 
appears that he set off on horseback on the 26th of Novem- 
ber, and crossed Winnesimmet ferry into Boston on the first of 
December, thus rnaking a journey in six days which is now 

* ISIr. Shibles, however, did not live to see the measure completed, 
his death, occurring Feb. 7, 1777. 
t Acts of mcorporation, &c. 


performed in about twelve hours. At that time, there were 
eight ferries between this river and Boston, the first being at 
Waterman's in VValdoborough, and the last at Winnesimmet 
in Chelsea. The whole expenses of himself and horse till 
his arrival in Boston, were £1 7s. 5d. = 84,56. This was 
certainly a moderate sum, and shows the high value of money 
compared with other articles at that time. From six pence 
to one shilling was paid for a meal of victuals, and from four 
pence to eight pence for crossing a ferry, being about one 
third of what is charged at present. Allowing for the differ- 
ence in the value of money, the expense in getting from here 
to Boston, at that day, was not less than $13 or $14, besides a 
week's labor of a man and horse amounting to at least as 
much more, making the whole little short of $30.* 

The prompt and versatile Burton seems to have under- 
taken this journey almost at the moment of closing his sum- 
mer's work in the present town of Union, where he had been 
employed as architect in erecting the first dwellinghouse of 
any importance in that place. This business he had taken 
up of his own accord, commencing the use of tools when 
quite a boy, in the construction of a violin — an instrument 
that so completely fascinated his youthful mind, that he im- 
mediately set about, and succeeded in making one. From 
this, he proceeded to greater undertakings ; eventually be- 
came a skilful house, mill, and ship carpenter; and was, the 
present year, together with Benjamin Packard, employed by 
Dr. John Taylor in building a mill, house, and other structures. 
The first attempt to settle the town of Union, was made in 
the autumn of 1772, by James Malcolm, Archibald Ander- 
son, (2d,) James Anderson, and John Crawford. They were 
young men belonging to St. George's, mostly natives of Scot- 
land brought over in their infancy, who, in their hunting 
excursions, had become acquainted with the advantageous 
localities about Seven-tree Pond. With the consent of Mr. 
Fluker, who agreed to sell them the land for $2 an acre, they 
selected their favorite lots, and determined to commence a 
settlement. Malcolm and A. Anderson chose the place 
about Vaughan's mills ; while Crawford and J. Anderson took 
up the neck between the upper part of Seven-tree Pond and 
the main river. They spent the greater part of that and the 
following winter, in clearing the land and getting out staves 
and lumber. On the 13th of May, 1774, they got their lots 

* Town Records. Burton's Ledger, &c. 


surveyed, preparatory to farther improvements. No crops 
were raised by them, the method of raising grain upon burnt 
ground being ill understood here, till subsequently taught and 
practised by D r. Ta ylor. In July following, their plans were 
disconcerted by the arrival of the gentleman last mentioned, 
who had purchased the whole township, and came with John 
and Phinehas Butler, two young men of Lunenburg, the place 
of his residence, to commence a settlement. They disem- 
barked at Miller's landing, and, having purchased a ferry-boat 
of Capt. Mclntyre to transport their stores and baggage, pro- 
cured teams and hauled it across from Boggs's landing to the 
river above Starrett's bridge, where they again embarked and 
proceeded to the place of destination. Some altercation 
took place between Taylor and the young men whom he 
found encamped there, and who were unwilling to relinquish 
their possessions. Taylor offered to allow them to retain 
their clearings, but refused to give up the water privileges ; 
and they, disappointed in their principal aim, and finding 
themselves without remedy, abandoned the whole. The 
place had been named by them, and was long after called, 
Stirlingtown. Taylor went back that fall, and the next 
spring, in consequence perhaps of this purchase, was chosen 
a member of the Council for the eastern, or Sagadahoc pro- 
vince. The Butlers remaining, continued their labors this 
and the following summer, hiring out during the winter in 
Thomaston. Taylor returned in the autumn of 1775, and 
entering into an agreement with Mr. Packard, induced him to 
remove to his new township. Packard erected a house on 
the western side of the pond, and with the two Butlers spent 
the following winter in getting out timber for the buildings 
to be erected in the spr'ng. The next summer he and Bur- 
ton were employed in constructing a grist-mill and dwelling- 
house for Taylor, as before mentioned. Thus commenced 
the settlement around this beautiful sheet of water, which 
took its name from the seven trees that waved over the island 
in its bosom. This island was at that time, and for many 
years afterwards, tenanted by a pair of wild geese, who rear- 
ed their annual broods around the ancient Indian tomb, that 
for want of sufficient depth of soil, was raised with stones 
and earth several feet above the surface. These stones were 
sacrilegiously removed to form the hearth and jambs of Tay- 
lor's chimney ; the geese were driven from their old domain 
by the vandal hand of sport ; fields of waving grain suc- 
ceeded to the forests removed by the axe and flames ; the 
settlement increased, slowly at first, but more rapidly after 



the war, till in 1786 it was incorporated by its present name 
of Union. It then contained 17 families, and about 150 in- 
habitants. Coming from an agricultural region, and being 
remote from salt-water privileges, the inhabitants of this 
town devoted themselves almost exclusively to the cultivation 
of the soil, and became thrifty farmers. They gave early 
attention to fruit trees, most of them having extensive orch- 
ards ; a matter rather neglected, or thought incompatible with 
the c!imate, in the plantations below. But the history of this 
town is in the able hands of one of her own sons, and must 
not be farther encroached on here.* 

1777. On the 10th of March, 1777, by virtue of a 
warrant from Waterman Thomas, Esq. of VValdoboro', the 
town of Warren held its first annual meeting at the meeting- 
house, and made choice of William Watson for Moderator. 
At this meeting, the following town officers were chosen, 
viz. W^illiam Boggs, town clerk ; William Watson, Hatevil 
Libbey, and Thomas Starrett, selectmen and assessors ; 
Reuben Hall and Joseph Cope) and, constables ; Patrick Peb- 
bles, Wm Boggs, and Stephen Peabody, committee of safety ; 
Alexander Lermond, town treasurer; Capt. Mclntyre, Samuel 
Creighton, Alexander Lermond, Jr. and Robert Montgomery, 
surveyors of highways ; Boice Cooper and John Spear, fence 
viewers ; and William Robinson, hogreeve. At a subsequent 
meeting on the 19th of April, they made choice of Hatevil 
Libbey as a delegate to attend a county convention, and 
voted to pay him ten shillings a day. Thus began the 
records of the town, which are preserved unbroken, down to 
the present time. Some of the earlier portions, however, have 
the legal defect of not being signed by the clerks who made 
them ; as, till 1784, they were kept o^ loose sheets, and at 
that time copied into the town book by the clerk then in 
office. Mr. Boggs was town clerk two years. The office 
was then filled one year by Alexander Lermond ; and he 
was succeeded by his son, Alexander, 2d, who held the office 
from 1780 to 1817, a period of thirty-seven years. The 
last, who copied the loose sheets as before mentioned, wrote 
a fair and legible hand, and his records compare most favor- 
ably with those of many neighboring towns of the same 

A committee of safety, so efficient in the earlier stages of 
the revolution, was at this time deemed a necessary organ in 

* Col. B. Burton. D. Dicke. Rev. J. L. Sibley, Assistant Li- 
brarian of Harvard ColleKe. 


every town. Its primary object M^as to correspond with other 
towns, and to concert measures for the public defence. Mr. 
Peabody, who this year was chosen one of its members, 
came originally from Middleton, Mass., in 1767, and com- 
menced working at his trade as a blacksmith near Owl's 
Head. Settling on a lot of land without any title, as was 
customary in those times, he had raised or purchased a yoke 
of oxen, and began to form hopes of overcoming the disad- 
vantages of poverty, and providing for a numerous and rising 
family in part by farming. But Mr. Fales, agent of the 
Waldo heirs, and Mr. Wheaton, commenced actions against 
him, the one for trespass, the other for debt; and when at 
the beginning of winter he was returning from Lermond's 
mills with some meal and potatoes which he had obtained for 
his winter stores, he was met near Mill River by the sheriff, 
who attached his oxen and left him to transport his provisions 
as he might. His potatoes were frozen and lost, the oxen 
kept at charges till spring, when they were sold to pay for 
their keeping and the cost of court. Discouraged and dis- 
heartened, he soon after moved to the neighborhood of Oyster 
River, where he resumed his occupation ; and after a few 
years and the loss of his wife, who died about 1774, went on 
to the Scot farm. Having married the widow of Mr. Scot, 
whose second husband, Dr. Locke, was now dead, he resumed 
his trade there, and carried on the farm till the present year, 
1777, when he removed to the place since owned by his son 
Stephen Peabody, 2d. At the latter place, a saw-mill had 
been erected in 1774 by Col. vStarrett, John Lermond, and 
Abraham Locke, son of the doctor. The last of these having 
a claim upon the Scot farm, an arrangement was made by 
which he sold that ihrm to Sampson, of VValdoboro', and 
Peabody took the saw-mill and possessory claim to a valuable 
tract of the surrounding land. Constructing, in the course of 
two days, a slight habitation, with no other frame than posts of 
spruce poles connected by plank instead of plates and beams, 
he moved his family and lived in it many years. The best 
of the lumber to the eastward of the mill having been cut 
away, the remainder was felled, burnt, and the logs hauled 
up in two large piles near the house for firewood, and the 
ground sown with rye, which, producing a bountiful crop, 
relieved their present want, and gave encouragement for the 
future. Some years afterwards, he was followed hither by 
two brothers, Samuel, who settled in Union, and Daniel, who 
succeeded Capt. John Wyllie on the present Haskel farm. 


From these three, are descended all the Peabodys of this and 
the neighboring towns. 

Soon after the building of this mill, John Lermond, who 
seems to have had quite a fancy for these structures, took 
possession of the burnt land, removed his family thither in 
1775, and built a saw-mill on the main branch of Oyster 
River at the great falls, a mile or so below Packard's present 
mill. He was attracted there by the advantages afforded by 
the meadows for raising cattle, and entered upon farming 
and lumbering with his usual laborious zeal.* 

The Haskel farm was at this time occupied by Thomas 
Calderwood, who came from Long Island. It was afterwards 
successively owned by a Mr. Houston, who returned to Dam- 
ariscotta, and by Capt. John Wyllie. The last named, also 
of Darnariscotta, had recently married in this town, and in 
this year, 1777, or the preceding, was, together with the 
vessel in which he was coasting to Boston, taken by the British 
and carried to Long Island. After being detained there 
nearly a year, he was assisted by the steward in whose service 
he was, to escape to New York, where, after living some 
weeks in a Dutch family, he found an opportunity to return 
home. A few years after, he went on to the Haskel farm and 
afterwards removed to the GifTen lot, where he spent the rest 
of his life, having built the house still standing and owned by 
his son-in-law, Capt. R. Robinson. Two years after the 
period we are treating of, he commanded a sloop in 
the expedition against Biguyduce, for a long time was an 
energetic master of a coasting vessel, sustained many town 
offices, and once represented the town in the Legislature. 

The Scot farm being now in the hands of Mr. Sampson, 
was tenanted by Philip Sechrist, a German from Waldoboro', 
who introduced saur kraut to the town, and, after residing 
there several years, settled the farm now occupied by T. 

To complete the State quota of troops, the General Court 
provided, this year, clothing for the recruits, and offered addi- 
tional bounty ; the ministers of the Gospel read the legislative 
address to their respective congregations ; and it was made 
highly penal either to discourage enlistments into the Conti- 
nental army or navy, to depreciate the bills of credit, or to 
weaken the supports given by the people to the National Inde- 
pendence. In short, if there were good reason even to sus- 
pect any one inimical to the United States, he might be arrest- 

* S. Peabody, 2d. John Starrett. H. M. Watts. 


ed on a justice's warrant, and banished to the enemy, unless 
he would take the oath of allegiance ; and his return incurred 
a forfeiture of his life. Under this authority, the oath of alle- 
giance was tendered to several of the Scottish settlers of 
Warren, most of whom readily subscribed to it, and two, who 
refused, being arrested by Reuben Hall with a file of men, 
were discharged on giving their word of honor to undertake 
nothing against either party.* 

The exposed situation of the eastern coast, offering many 
temptations to the unscrupulous or disaffected, to engage in 
illicit traffic, and exposing others to the depredations of hostile 
vessels, the militia were frequently called out ; and a force, 
enlisted for the purpose, was regularly employed for guard- 
ing and protecting the coast. In the latter service, a company 
was again raised by Jacob Ludwig, Capt. ; William Farnsworth 
and Jacob Winchenbach, Lieutenants ; Jonathan Nevers, 
Ensign ; Caleb Howard and Godfrey Bornheimer, Sergeants ; 
Peter Hilt and Andrew Knowlton, Corporals ; with 18 pi'ivates, 
who went down to Machias in the spring, and with some diffi- 
culty returned by water at Christmas. A similar company 
was raised for a shorter service on the Penobscot, commanded 
by Nathaniel Fales, Captain, Thomas Robbins, 1st Lieutenant, 
Samuel Boggs and John Black, 2d Lieutenants, and consisting 
of 67 privates and 8 non-commissioned officers, mostly belong- 
ing to Thomaston, St. George''s, and the shores and islands of 
Penobscot Bay. Besides Lieutenant Boggs, several pri- 
vates, in one or the other of these companies, were from 

Yet the coast was, this season, so infested by British ships 
of war, as to interrupt the supply of provisions, which on this 
river rose to an extravagant price. Moses Copeland, in a 
manuscript sketch, says he gave five dollars for two bushels 
of grain. Mr. Counce's family were without bread or pota- 
toes for nearly forty days, subsisting mostly on fish ; and for 
one bushel of corn, which he obtained in the lower town, he 
agreed to give four days' work in haying time. John Ler- 
mond, had this year a large field of rye at the Burnt Land, 
which ripened earlier than usual. This he threshed out upon 
a flat, smooth, ledge of rock, for want of a better threshing 
floor, and sold it all by the peck, and half-bushel, to relieve 
the famishing population. J 

* 2 Wm. Hist. p. 457. T. Kirkpatrick. 

t Pay Rolls in Sec. office, Boston. 

X Copelaud's MS, R. B. Copeland, Esq.* 


Other places were alike, or even more, destitute. Noah 
Miller, who at the commencement of the revolution resided 
as a land surveyor at Coveket, N. S., and, on account of his 
whig principles and refusal to lake the oath of allegiance to 
the royal government, was obliged to leave that province with 
his family, which he effected with difficulty, and, with Mr. 
Knights and some others, had settled at a place called Canaan 
in the present town of Lincolnville, found himself cut off from 
all resources except those the woods and waters afforded. 
Having long subsisted upon flesh and fish alone, and having 
previously sold many of her best articles of clothing, his wife 
reluctantly consented to part with her silver shoe-buckles, the 
precious gift of a distant friend ; and with these, which cost 
#5i in Philadelphia, the husband made his way on foot to 
Owl's Head, and was glad there to obtain for them three pecks 
of Indian corn, which, after being ground, he carried home 
on his back.* 

Miller was not the only one of the Nova Scotia refugees 
who stopped in this vicinity. Besides Atwood Fales and 
I). Jenks, who settled in Thomaston, John Paskiel, also of 
Coveket, was, for his attachment to the cause of freedom, and 
refusal to take the oath, confined in prison on Prince Edward's 
Island ; from which, with the aid of three companions, he 
made his escape, and, seizing the first canoe he came across, 
made his way from point to point round the whole peninsula, 
subsisting on such food as he could venture to beg at the 
scattered houses on the coast ; and so proceeded westward 
till he arrived at Ash Point in Thomaston. There, he hired 
out with a Mr. Heard for a few years, then went into the ser- 
vice as boatman under Gen. Wadsworth, and afterwards set- 
tled in Warren, on the farm still owned by his son, John 
M. Paskiel. 

But the surrender of Burgoyne, which happened on the 
17th of Oct. 1777, suddenly broke through the gloom which 
hung over the land, and diffused in its place the light of joy 
and encouragement. 

1778. At the annual meeting in 1778, which was this 
year held on the eastern side of the river at the house of 
Thomas Starrett, most of the former officers were re-elected. 
Hopestill Sumner was chosen constable ; John Watts, Samuel 
Counce, and Nathan Buckland, committee of safety ; Robert 

* J. Miller, Esq. 


Montgomery, fence viewer, in the room of Boice Cooper, 
who, together with Moses Copeland and John Dicke, were 
chosen surveyors of highways; and Daniel Rokes, hog-reave. 
E-okes came from MiUon about 1764, being then thirty-five 
years old, and, after hiring out a year or two with Oliver Rob- 
bins of Mill River, and then with Dr. Locke, married the daugh- 
ter of the latter. He then resided near Oyster River, a part of 
the time near where George Lermond now lives, and a part 
of the time on the GifTen lot, cultivating the land on shares, 
and working out for other people. He, this year, took John 
Lermond's relinquished farm, No. 4, and carried it on for 
the seven succeeding years. 

But in addition to the officers of the ))receding year, a 
number of others were now added, which throw some light 
upon the advancement the settlement had made. Wm. 
Watson was chosen sealer of leather; David Kclloch, culler 
of staves; Hatevil Libbey, surveyor of boards and shingles; 
and Wm. Boggs, Jaseph Copeland, and John Crawford, a 
committee to regulate the fishery. From this it would seem 
that some progress had been made in tanning ; but as staves 
and not hoops are mentioned, it is probable that the manufac- 
ture of casks was as yet small. The fishery had been a 
subject of importance from the first settlement of the river, 
as, in addition to shad and alewives, there was then a fine run 
of salmon. These were caught in seines in various places in 
the river, particularly at McLean's Point ; but the alewives 
were taken in dip-nets at the upper falls. Boats came up 
from all parts of the river to the head of the tide, to which 
place the fish were brought down by hand. There was no 
fishing ground at the lower falls until after the erection of 
the mill-dam. The fishery was, at this time, regulated by the 
general law upon that subject, and continued to be so till 

It was also voted, this year, " that the polls work one day on 
the roads and the estates in proportion," — a mode of raising 
a highway tax, which, with few exceptions, continued down 
to a very recent period. It was also voted " to raise =£30 for 
a town stock." It is not known on whose motion this some- 
what ambiguous phraseology was adopted, but this too, has 
been continued down, we believe, to the present time, whh 
the exception of the school-tax, which, since 1795, has been 
determined by a separate vote. 

This sum of c£30, or $100, sounds small for one year's 
expenses of a town ; but it will appear still smaller when the 
depreciation of the currency is taken iuto the account. This 


is stated by Williamson to be, at tbis time, as $30 of paper for 
one of specie. According to a scale of depreciation used in 
tbe Treasurer's Office, it was in September of this year as 
four to one. It was, probably, different in different places, 
according to the amount of foreign trade carried on, in the 
prosecution of which, specie was absolutely necessary. In 
places like this, where there was little but barter trade, and 
scarcely any call for specie, it was easy for patriotism, by off- 
setting the price of one thing against another, to keep up the 
nominal value of the bills much longer than in more commer- 
cial towns. This different and rapidly declining value, ren- 
dered a tax, payable in specific articles of clothing and provis- 
ions, the only sure means of obtaining the requisite supplies for 
the public exigencies. '1 his was accordingly resorted to, and, to 
raise the amount required of it, the town voted in April, " that 
there be given $6 for a shirt, $6 for a pair of stockings, and 
87 for a pair of shoes." But articles of clothing were not 
the only burdens, the town was called upon to bear. A quota 
of men for the army was also required, and, at a meeting in 
July, the town voted that such men be hired by the town, and 
the money for that purpose be assessed on the inhabitants, 
Capt. Starrett,and Lieutenants Libbey and Kelloch, were made 
a committee for hiring them. The number at this time re- 
quired of the town, was only two, out of the 2000 raised by 
the State.* 

The compensation of the selectmen was, by a vote of the 
town, fixed at $2 a day. This sum, according to the true 
depreciation,. would have been worth less than seven cents in 
specie ; yet, as it went to offset their portion of the town tax, 
estimated in the same ratio, it answered their purpose as well 
as if it had been set at 815, and the tax raised in proportion. 

At a meeting in May, the town " voted against the form of 
Government." This vote, so baldly recorded, refers to a 
State constitution, which had been reported by a committee 
the preceding year, and was now submitted to the people and 
rejected. Whether the question was to be decided by 
majorities of towns acting in their corporate capacity, or 
whether there was not information enough in the meeting to 
see the necessity of returning the yeas and nays, is uncertain. 
It would not be at all strange if the latter were the case ; as 
a neighboring town, some time after this, once voted " that 
John Hancock be Governor." 

In September, a law was passed by which the estates of 

* Mass. Records, &c. 


three hundred and ten persons by name, late inhabitants of 
the State, \vere all confiscated. Among these were Francis 
Waldo of Falmouth and Thomas Fluker of Boston, heirs of 
Gen. Waldo, and principal proprietors of the Waldo patent. 
As these persons had retired to the enemy, they were called 
' absentees ;' and the several Judges of Probate were author- 
ized to appoint agents to administer upon their estates, as if 
the late possessors were in fact dead. By this act and their 
previous absence, the proprietors were unable to give valid 
titles to lands within the patent, now regarded by the people 
here as forfeited, and on the same footing as other public, 
lands. This was an additional inducement to the practice of 
squatting, as it was called, or settling on lands without a title ; 
which extensively prevailed for many years. Fluker seems 
to have lived not many years after this, as, in 1784, he is styled 
" an absentee, lately deceased." Francis Waldo, also, died 
in June of the year last mentioned. His brother. Col. Samuel 
Waldo, had died in Falmouth, as early as 1770, leaving, 
among several children, one son of the same name. 

The three counties of York, Cumberland, and Lincoln, 
being this year erected by Congress into a maritime district, 
called " the District of Maine," that name was, for the first 
time, extended over the territory here. 

The interest of public afTairs, and the stirring events of the 
times, did not divert the attention of the people of Warren 
from what was passing among themselves. The character of 
their minister, who had now built a house and was living on 
the lot given to the first settled minister, began more and more 
to develope itself. At first, he was earnest to get settled, that 
his wife might know where to find him ; then, he was eager to 
have the town incorporated, that his salary, before depending 
on a voluntary subscription, might be raised by tax, and con- 
sthute a legal claim on the people. His zeal in the cause of 
American independence, appeared warmer than was perfectly 
natural in one so recently from the mother country. And 
when all these desires were gratified, his affection for his wife 
seemed suddenly to have abated. He remarked to some of the 
ladies that he was sorry he had married in Scotland — thought 
he could suit himself better here, and made use of other 
sinister expressions. At a wedding at Deacon Crawford's — an 
occasion which, in those days, brought every body together 
— he told one of the young ladies " not to be in a hurry about 
getting married, that he expected soon to receive a letter 
with a black seal, that a meenister's leddy was thought a 
great deal of in Scotland," — no equivocal intimations. 


To this girl's mother, he afterwards repeated this expectation 
of a letter with the news of his wife's death. On her inquir- 
ing the reason, " Oh,'^ said he,_" I have had bad dreams ; I 
dreem't the soles of my shoes came off." " But," said she, 
*■' you have other relatives ; j^our di-eam may refer to some of 
them." '^ Hah !" said he, ^' I am sure it's my wife, I dreem't 
one of my teeth fell out." Receiving no encouragement 
in this quarter, he began to turn his attention to another. A 
daughter of Capt. Mclntyre was then courted by Isaac Wyllie 
of the lower town, a smart young man, afterwards commander 
pf a coaster. Urquhart, by injurious insinuations against 
him, so worked upon the minds of her parents as to break up 
the match. The next step was, to exhibit the letter with the 
black seal. This was shown to a few persons ; the parson 
appeared in deep mourning, and offered up public prayers on 
the occasion. 

But the afflicted man was not slow in seeking consolation. 
A courtship was observed to be going on. Suspicion flashed 
upon the minds of men. Moses Copeland and others requested 
to see the letter. It was lost — he had dropped it, together 
with a record of baptisms, whilst crossing the river. How 
had it been received ? It was brought by two strangers who 
lodged at Mclntyre's, and crossed the ferry. Inquiry was 
made at Waldoborough and Thomaston ; no such persons 
could be heard of; and, in those days, the arrival of a stranger 
was as little likely to be forgotten as that of a steamer is 
now. Suspicion was confirmed. People took sides for and 
against the minister, with as much warmth as they had done 
for and against the king. Mrs. James, the midwife, whose 
influence was in proportion to her dignity, was as strong an 
advocate for Urquhart as for Washington — would as soon 
doubt the patriotism of the one as the purity of the other. 

It was proposed to refer the matter to the Presbytery, 
whether at the request of his friends or foes we know not. 
It is said that Mr. Dicke attended at one of its sessions, and 
brought down a citation for Mr. Urquhart to appear, and make 
his defence at the next term. Whether he was sent by the 
church, or by individuals, cannot now be ascertained. At the 
subsequent term, Col. Starrett attended on the same business ; 
but, in the absence of the records of the Presbytery, it is im- 
possible to give a clear and definite account of the nature and 
date of these transactions. 

The town, in May, 1778, voted, " that there shall no man 
be sent to the Presbytery this session ;" also, " that the town 
will not pay Mr. Urquhart any more salary." 


This latter vote seems to have given the minister some 
alarm, and caused him to look about, and examine the ground 
on which he stood. He had a strong love of property, and 
could ill brook any diminution of his income. Neither his 
settlement, nor his first year and a half's salarj^, for which he 
had no claim upon the town, had been paid, except in part 
by individual contributions ; the first year's salary voted by 
the town, was in the same predicament ; and the depreciation 
of paper money was, every day, reducing the value of the 
nominal sums thus due to him. He had made no contract 
with the town, and had no other claim against it than that of 
services rendered. In this state of things, besides complaining 
to the Presbytery, he petitioned the Court of Sessions, imme- 
diately after the vote above mentioned, and both the town and 
the individual contractors were cited to appear at the Septem- 
ber term of said court, and make answer to said Urquhart. 
Reuben Hall was chosen agent in behalf of the town, and the 
contractors employed Roland Gushing of Pownalboro' as 
their attorney. At the September term, the Court decided, 
that one-half the settlement money, c£50, and one and a half 
year's salary, reckoning from the 7th of May, 1775, to the 
incorporation of the town, the 7th of November, 1776, £60, 
together with £2d 14s. 8d. damages for delay of payment, 
should be paid by the individuals who signed the original con- 
tract ; and it appointed David Fales, Mason Wheaton, and 
John McKellar, to assess the same upon their polls and estates, 
and commit the same to Hopestill Sumner, collector of War- 
ren, with warrants to collect and pay in the same to the said 
U., who, on his part, was to allow and deduct all such sums as 
any of them had previously paid. The Court also decided, 
that, although the town had made no contract with Mr. U., yet, 
as he had discharged the duties of a minister of the Gospel 
for said town, he was equitably entitled to a compensation ; 
and it directed the selectmen of Warren to assess the sum of 
£86 8s. 4d. upon the inhabitants thereof, to be paid over to 
the said U., as his salary in full from the incorporation of the 
town to the time of making the decision, he deducting all for- 
mer payments as in the other case. 

This decision of the civil power was sufficiently favorable 
to Mr. Urquhart with regard to the past, but threw no light 
upon the future. If no contract subsisted between him and 
the town, the latter might, at any time, dispense with his servi- 
ces on giving him notice. Here the town rested, and nothing 
further was done during this and the following year. Mr. U., 
whose marriage with Miss Mclntyre had already taken place, 


had many warm friends, who, believing him innocent, were 
unwilling to part with him ; and his countryman. Rev. Mr. 
McLean, reposing confidence in his statements, advised his 
continuance. He remained, therefore, preaching to such as 
chose to hear him, subsisting on voluntary contributions and 
the sums awarded him by Court, for the collection of which 
warrants were issued in April of the following year, 1779.* 

It was during this year, that the Rev. Thurston Whiting, 
who subsequently removed to this town, made a visit to Mr. 
Urquhart's, and formed his first acquaintance with the town 
in which he ended his days. This gentleman was, two years 
before, settled as Congregational minister over the town of New- 
castle. Having married a descendant of Mr. Campbell who 
had occupied the mill lots at the head of the tide, he now came 
to examine the property, and claim the right of possession. As 
there was yet no bridge across the river, he forded the same 
at Mr. Boggs's shore, and called upon Deacon Crawford. 
Whiting was then a young man of a prepossessing appear- 
ance, agreeable manners, a cultivated mind, and of the Orth- 
odox faith. And, as the weaker points of his character, 
which peculiarly exposed him to temptation, were not then 
known, he was regarded as a man of great promise. He 
found the two lots on the western side of the river occupied 
and claimed by Alexander Bird, who, finding these lots un- 
occupied, had, some years before, taken possession of them. 
Either at this time or a few years after, an arrangement was 
made, by which it was agreed that the two lots should be 
shared between them. Whiting taking the northern, since 
owned by Hovey, Page and others, and Bird retaining the 
southern. f 

1779. The facilities afforded by the eastern harbors to 
American - privateers, and the annoyance these occasioned 
to British vessels passing to and from Halifax, together with 
the desire of obtaining a safS harbor and a more copious 
supply of masts and timber for their navy, induced the enemy 
to take possession of Biguyduce, now Casline ; which was 
effected June 12th, 1779. A scheme to dislodge them, was 
immediately set on foot by Massachusetts in concurrence with 
Congress. A large force was ordered for that purpose, of 
which 600 were to be drafted from Gen. Cushing's brigade 
in Lincoln County. The drafts from this and the neighbor- 

* Town Rec. Court Rec. Lincoln Co. N. Libbey. T. Kirkpatrick, 
t Rev. T. Whiting. 


ing places between Waldoboro' and Penobscot Bay, formed 
a company in Col. McCobb's regiment, as follows : — Philip 
M. Ulmer, Captain ; John Mathews and Alexander Kelloch, 
Lieuts. ; Joshua Howard, Wm. Robinson, Joseph Coombs, and 
Abraham Jones, Sergeants; Elisha Bradford, Francis Young, 
Ebenezer Jameson, and Matthew Watson, Corporals ; Jona- 
than Crocket, John Miller, Charles Jameson, John Black- 
ington, Ephraim Snow, Richard Keating, Ichabod Barrows, 
Jacob Keen, Joseph Ingraham, James Heard, Stephen Pea- 
body, Jr., Ephraim Stimson, John Libbey, James Eusticc, 
Robert Hawes, Andrew Robinson, Jonathan Nutting, Jacob 
Robinson, John Brison, Dennis Connary, John Wissle, Corn. 
Morton, Paul Jameson, Geo. Conden, Luke Jones, Jacob 
Acorn, Baltus Stilke, John Hunt, John Acorn, Wm. Palfrey, 
John Cornmouth, Samuel Crane, Jos. Jameson, Levi Loring, 
John Ulmer, Chris'r Newbit, John Varner, Francis Vinal, 
Martin Hoch, Paul Mink, Jos. Simmons, Martin Heisler, 
Peter Winchenbach, Valentine Mink, Jacob Ghentner, John 
Tuck, Silvester Prince, John Carver,* John Gordon, Wm. 
Gregory, Peter Off, [Orf, or Oat,] Andrew Wells, Nathan 
Knights, Leonard Medcalf, Daniel Gardner, Samuel Marshal, 
Michael Achorn, Chas. Kaler, Henry Oberlock, Martin Brod- 
man, Chris'r Walk, John Benner, Geo. Hoch, Isaac Sargus, 
Geo. Hoffsis, Chas. Demorse, Thomas Adams, Thomas Mor- 
ton, and Charles Conner. Of these, the town of Warren 
furnished Lieut. Kelloch, Sergeant Robinson, Corporal Young ; 
and Samuel Crane, John Libbey, Joseph Jameson, Stephen 
Pcabody, Jr., and perhaps John Miller, privates.! In addition 
to these, most of the citizens able to bear arms, volunteered 
their services, and joined the flotilla before any attack was 
made. On the eastern side of the river, scarcely a man was 
left at home. 

The troops were all mustered and reviewed at Townshend, 
or Boothbay, and, under the command of Generals Lovell 
and Wadsworth, sailed thence in twenty-four transports, 
accompanied by nineteen armed vessels, at the head of 
which was the frigate Warren of 32 guns, all commanded 
by Commodore Saltonstall. On the 25th of July, they arrived 
at their place of destination, but, on account of the surf, lay 
inactive two days. On the third day, a party of soldiers 
and marines, after having been kept in the boats all night. 

* Marked "killed Jiily 27tli." 

t Pay-roll in Sec. Office, Boston, lettered *» Sea Coast Defence, 294 

-349, Penobscot service, 350 — 533. 


crowded in a standing position, without room to sit or other- 
wise rest themselves, moved to the shore in a still, foggy 
morning. The position of the enetny's fleet, rendered it 
necessary to land on the western side, in front of a precipice 
two hundred feet high. On the brow of this, was posted a 
line of troops, who opened a brisk fire as our boats ap- 
proached. A volunteer who was present, represents the 
balls as falling in the water like hailstones. The cliff where 
they landed being inaccessible, they divided into three bands, 
one deploying on each hand, whilst the centre kept up a 
brisk fire to draw the enemy's attention. Orders had been 
given, to form on the shore and march up the cliff in order ; 
but the precipice was so steep that it was difficult to ascend, 
even by grasping the bushes. Ulmer ordered his men to 
discharge their pieces, twice, up the bank, then get up the 
best way they could, and form in order above. This was 
done successfully ; the others succeeded with more difficulty ; 
and the enemy were soon driven from the place, leaving 
thirty killed, wounded, and taken. Our loss in this brilliant 
affair, which lasted about twenty minutes, was one hundred 

But here, after this splendid beginning, the wrongheaded 
counsels and wilful disposition of the Commodore began to 
thwart every attempt at united and vigorous action. Delay 
ensued, until the appearance of a British fleet of superior 
force, left the Americans no alternative but to retreat in the 
best manner they could, or surrender at discretion. They 
sailed up the river, and were pursued by the enemy, some of 
the vessels being taken, and some burnt or blown up by the 
Americans themselves. The troops mostly landed on the 
western side, and, after a painful march and suffering much 
from hunger, found their way back to the settlements. Most 
of them passed to the northward of this place, and came 
out on the Kennebec. Several of them were so struck with 
the timber and soil in the present town of Montville, that they 
afterwards returned and settled there. One company passed 
through this town ; but, exhausted with hunger and fatigue, 
they were obliged to encamp on its borders ; and spent the 
night in Crawford's meadow. Goaded by hunger, they, next 
morning, found their way to the settlement, and, dividing 
between Deacon Crawford's and Wm. Boggs's, obtained a 
breakfast in those hospitable houses. Of those taken prison- 
ers in this expedition, one, John Libbey, was from Warren. 
He was captured in an outpost which the Americans took 
possession of, on the night of Aug. 7th, in the obscurity of 


which he got intermuigled with a party of the enemy who 
came out of the fort, and was detained several weeks. One 
volunteer, Samuel Boggs, was killed. He was found in the 
woods where he had died of a wound, but how, or by whom 
inflicted, was never known. From the appearance of the 
ground, he was supposed to have died a lingering death in 
extreme agony.* 

The enemy having thus gained a foothold in our immedi- 
ate vicinity, the militia of the regiment, now commanded by 
Col. M. Wheaton, were frequently called out on sudden 
emergencies, and more permanent detachments stationed at 
particular places. Capt. J. Ludwig, with Lieut. Jacob Win- 
chenbach. Sergeant G. Bornheimer, and 17 privates, did duty 
at Broad Bay from Sept. 21st to Nov. 1st. Lieut, Kelloch 
was continued in service through the following winter, and 
stationed with a company of drafted militia at Clam Cove. 
The intercourse between him and his family in Warren, for 
clothing and other purposes, was carried on by way of the 
Burnt-land and Madambettox, then the usual route. Lieut. 
Burton, with another party, was stationed at Camden harbor, 
and nine men, under Capt. Eleazer Crabtree and Sergeant 
David Jenks, were raised for the defence of Fox Islands, and 
served from Sept. 5th to Dec. 5th.t 

This defeat, the enemy upon our coasts, the embargo 
which prevented intercourse between our seaports and other 
places, and the uncommon drought, were circumstances 
which increased the dearth of provisions and the general 
distress. In consequence of the drought, extensive fires 
raged in the woods. One of these swept over the neck of 
land between the river and North Pond, from where Edmund 
Starrett, Esq. now lives, up to Starrett's bridge. Rocky 
meadow, and an adjoining tract were burnt the same season. | 

The currency continuing to sink, was now as forty to one ; 
the price at Falmonth, in June, of a bushel of corn being 
#35; of wheat meal, $75 ; molasses, $16 per gallon ; and, in 
August, $19 for a pound of tea.§ 

Warren, this year, received some addition to its population 
by the arrival of Capt. Samuel Payson and sons from Sharon, 
Mass. followed soon after by his whole family. He, with his 

r— -— " ■ 

* WiU. His. S. Crane. D. Dicke. J. Boggs. H. M. Watts, &c. 
t A. Kelloch, 2d. W. Lermond. Pay-rolls in Sec. Office. 
X What is called the Burnt-land was burnt over before the town 
was settled. — T. Kirkpatrick, &c. 
§ Smith's Joiu'nal, p. Ill — 112. 


eldest son, had served some years in the army, with pay 
scarcely sufficient to maintain his large family ; and now re- 
solved to direct his steps eastward, where land, at least, was 
abundant. Proceeding to Boston, he found a vessel, Capt. J. 
Wyllie master, bound to St. George's, and applied for a pas- 
sage. He was told no vessel would sail till the embargo was 
removed. Availing himself of the proffered hospitality, he 
staid on board one night, and, in some of the neighboring 
places, found labor for himself and sons sufficient to pay 
their expenses till the embargo was removed. Arriving in 
this town, he took, on shares, the farm of William Robinson, 
(now again in the army,) and carried it on for three years.* 

It was, also, in the early part of this year, we believe, that 
the town lost another of its earliest settlers. Mr. Archibald 
Gamble, in hauling hay across the river on the ice, broke 
through, and was drowned, near what has since been called 
Gamble's rock.t 

At the annual meeting of the town, this year, the former 
officers were in general re-elected ; except that Alexander 
Lermond was chosen clerk, and Patrick Pebbles, William 
Boggs, and Alexander Lermond, Jr., assessors, distinct from the 
selectmen ; Capt. John Mclntyre, constable ; John Crawford, 
Jr., David Creighton,and John Spear, committee of safety ; 
Alexander Kelloch, John Watts, and Samuel Boggs, fish com- 
mittee ; and John Nelson, Samuel Counce, and David Kelloch, 
road surveyors. 

This Mr. Nelson, a native of Scotland, came to this place 
as a pedler, carrying his goods in panniers, with two horses. 
He also kept goods for sale at Lermond's mills for a time, 
had now purchased the farm at present occupied by Francis 
Spear and others, and was living in the house he built the 
preceding year, which was afterwards long occupied by Rev. 
Thurston Whiting, on the spot where the widow S. Mclntyre's 
now stands. Nelson's deed from S. Howard, and that of 
the adjoining lot to John Crawford, Jr. were dated July 19, 

In May, it was voted " that the four rod road between the 
land of J. Mclntyre and P. Pebbles be laid open." This re- 
lates to one of those roads which Mr. Waldo agreed to give, 
one at least for every five lots, and for which a space four 
rods wide was left in the original survey. This vote is the 
first evidence the records afford of any thing like laying out 

* J. Payson. t Mrs. S. Fuller. Mrs. P. Williams. 


a road in the town. At the same meeting, it was " voted that 
no alewives be caught at the falls for sale ;'' whicli vote 
seems to prove tliat these fish were now in great demand, and 
that more |)eo|)U3 came for them than could find room for 
fishing. The intention of the vote was, to prevent tiie first 
comers from monopolizing the stands, and making a profit by 
the sale of fish, to which all were equally entitled. 

On the 28th of May, the town made choice of Moses Cope- 
land as their Representative in the General Court, it being 
the first time the town was represented. This gentleman had, 
the preceding year, opened a shop of goods, and was now do- 
ing a small business near his mill in the lower part of the 
town. At tlie same time, J. Mclntyre, T. Starrett, and VVm. 
Lermond, were chosen a connnittee " to instruct tlie represen- 
tative and draw up a petition." They voted, also, " that the 
town does not choose to do any thing about the form of govern- 
ment at this tim(3." The former of these votes was in con- 
formity with the fashion of the time, tlie instructions of Bos- 
ton and other towns to their representatives being among the 
ablest documents of the revolution. What instructions were 
given by this committee, or what the petition alluded to, we 
have no means of knowing. The last of these votes referred 
to the State constitution, the formation of which was then 
in agitation. Delegates met to take this subject into consider- 
ation, in September, at Cambridge, and, after referring the 
subject to a large committee, adjourned to October 28th, and 
subsequently to the 5th of .January following. 

1780- After a protracted session, a Constitution, com- 
j)lel(HJ, accepted, and printed, was distributed for adoption 
among all the towns and plantations throughout the State. A 
majority of two-thirds of the voters present, was required for 
its ratification, which being subsequently obtained, the Con- 
stitution went into oj)eration on the last Wednesday of Octo- 
ber, and continued unaltered until after the separation of 
Maine from Massachusetts. On the question of its adoption, 
the town of Warren, in accordance with the vote of the pre- 
ceding year, seems not to have acted at all. At the first 
election, Sept. 4th, John Hancock was chosen Governor, and 
Thomas Rice of Pownalboro', Senator for the county of Lin- 
coln. It does not appear from the records that Warren took 
any j)art in this election. 

The winter of 1779-80 was remarkable for its severity. 
On Christmas day, there was a violent snow storm of about 
two feet in depth, and on New Year's day, another still deep- 
er ; in both of which the wind was fiorth-westerly. These 


were the principal snows ; but the fences were all covered 
during the winter, and there was no traveling except upon 
snow-shoes. For forty-eight days, the sun had no power to 
melt the snow even on the roofs of houses. Mr. Copeland, 
who attended the winter session of the Legislature, set out 
on his return home in February, and came as far as North 
Yarmouth on snow-shoes. Lieut. Benjamin Burton, then 
stationed at Camden with a body of troops, went in the same 
month with a flag of truce to obtain the release of Eliakim 
Libbey, a young man of this town, who had been taken, the 
fall before, in a schooner that was cut out of the Westkeag 
river, loaded with lumber for the W. Indies. He passed 
directly from Camden harbor to Biguyduce, across the mouth 
of Penobscot Bay on the ice ; and succeeding in his mission, 
returned with Libbey in the same manner.* 


PROM 1780 to 1782; closing events of the revolution, eccle- 
siastical DIFEICULTIES, &C. 

The disastrous attempt against Biguyduce, had the effect 
to encourage the adherents of the British, and give rise to 
considerable illicit traffic. Those who had been plundered 
or otherwise molested as tories, now sought satisfaction by 
retaliation ; and some, who had nothing to complain of, were 
tempted by the prospect of gain to furnish provisions to the 
enemy. The inhabitants of this town, in general, had neither 
the means nor inclination to engage much in either. Com- 
plaints and accusations were, indeed, made on both sides. 
Many reports, to the disadvantage of particular persons, were 
put in circulation, resting, generally, upon no very conclusive 
evidence. Waldo Dicke and John Nelson were the only ones 
who actually joined the British. The latter had lost his em- 
ployment as pedler in consequence of the interruption of 
trade ; and the former was led by inclination, resentment, and 
the prospect of success, to take sides with the enemy. Many 
from other places had done the same ; and their knowledge 

* Copcland's MS. D. Dicke. " 



of the country, harbors, and inlets, enabled them, with facility, 
to commit depredations on sea and land. To put a stop to 
this state of things, a detachment of 600 militia was ordered 
out for eight months' service ; 200 of which were stationed, 
under George Ulmer, at Camden. To that place, the friends 
of freedom on the Penobscot, deeming their situation there 
no longer safe, now repaired as an asylum from the enemy. 
A number, also, particularly Treat, Pierce, West, the two 
Cochranes, and perhaps some others, of Frankfort, brought 
their families to friends and relatives in Warren, and remain- 
ed for some time at the houses of Col. Starrett, Alexander 
Lermond, Mrs. James, and perhaps elsewhere. Some hostile 
attempts were made upon Camden ; in one of which, the saw- 
mill on Megunticook stream was burned ; but the grist-mill, 
which was also set on fire, was saved by a party under 
Leonard Metcalf, who bravely repelled the enemy, and ex- 
tinguished the flames. On this, or some similar expedition, 
undertaken in retaliation for the taking of a vessel from Cas- 
tine harbor, the Scottish commander. Col. Campbell, had 
orders to burn the place ; but finding nothing but scattered 
log-huts, and being likely to meet resistance, he excused the 
omission of this part of his orders to his father, the General, 
by saying he " would'nt risk the life of a man for all the soo 
hoosesf in Camden." A kind of tavern, in a log-house, was 
kept at Clam Cove by Wm. Gregory, a jolly, light-minded 
man, much fonder of a merry story than a political discussion, 
and more eager to amass a fortune than maintain the rights 
of either country. He was reckoned a tory, and his house 
frequented by illicit traders ; though he was often plundered 
by both parties. On one occasion, about this time, a knocking 
was heard at night at his door. He, answering, was request- 
ed to open his door to a friend ; when, as he did so, in rushed 
a file of men, all, except the commander, speaking a foreign 
tongue, probably the Scotch highland. They inquired if two 
deserters, whom they described, were in his house ; and, being 
satisfied that they were not, compelled Gregory to go with 
them, as a guide, to the ferry at Thomaston. On their arrival, 
the boats were all on the other side ; but, after a Ihtle talk 
not understood, one stripped off his clothes in an instant, 
notwithstanding the coldness of the season, and, plunging in, 
soon returned with a boat. Leaving him to dress and warm 
himself as he could, the rest went over to Watson's house, 

* Anglice, piff-stie^. 


found the deserters, returned to Clam Cove, and embarked 
before the dawn. 

The coast was infested with privateers, both British and 
American. A sloop belonging to Capt. Henderson, M. Cope- 
land, and others, was this year taken by the enemy ; but, 
being afterwards retaken, was restored to the owners on 
payment of $80 salvage. After the capture of this sloop, 
and the loss of the Dolphin, cast away the preceding year, 
but a single vessel, belonging to Col, Wheaton, remained in 
this river. This also was cut out in the night time, by a 
party said to be headed by Waldo Dicke, and conducted 
without molestation to Biguyduce. 

Among the many who were drawn to this quarter from 
other places for the sake of carrying on intercourse with the 
British, was one Capt. John Long, who frequently passed to 
and fro, plotting schemes of mischief. Being found at War- 
ren, on one occasion, the people undertook to arrest him. 
Seeing himself surrounded, with no chance of escape, he 
brandished his knife, and threatened the life of any one who 
should approach. This caused a little hesitation ; but the 
circle gradually contracted around him, till he was seized 
by John Spear, from whose grasp, once fixed, there was no 
disengagement, and was disarmed, pinioned, and taken to 
Waldoboro' on horseback. A party there, undertook to 
conduct him on to the County jail ; but, somehow or other, he 
found means to effect his escape this time ; though in 1781 
he was again apprehended in Camden, and sent all the way to 
Boston under the care of Philip Robbins of Stirlington. 

The command of the whole eastern department, between 
Piscataqua and St. Croix, was given to General Peleg Wads- 
worth. He was empowered to raise a company of volun- 
teers in Lincoln County, whenever he siiould think the public 
safety required it ; and to execute martial law, ten miles in 
width upon the coast eastward of the Kennebec and upon 
the islands, conformably to the standing rules and regulations 
of the American army. He arrived at Falmouth, April 6th, 
and took immediate measures for raising the troops required 
for that and the more eastern posts. With a portion of these, 
he came to St. George's the following week, and fixed his 
head-quarters at Thomaston. To draw a line of demarka- 
tion between friends and foes, he issued a proclamation 
strictly prohibiting all intercourse with the enemy. 

Soon after this, a number of British partizans took a 
young man from one of the Islands by the name of Stephen 
Pendleton, who went as a pilot, and conducted them to the 


dwelling of Mr. Soule, a wealthy man and staunch friend of 
liberty, in Waldoboro'. They entered his house, seized and 
bound him, and told Pendleton he might have his choice 
either to help plunder the house, or guard Soule. He, accord- 
ing to his own account, not liking the idea of plunder, chose 
the latter. They proceeded to ransack the house, and were 
about to break open the desk ; when Soule, unwilling to 
lose his treasure, made such exertions to free himself, in 
defiance of Pendleton's threats to shoot him, that he was on 
the point of succeeding. Pendleton, trembling for the safety ' 
of himself and whole party, fired, and shot him dead, se- 
verely wounding his wife, also, at the same time. This 
raised an alarm, and the marauders were glad to escape to 
the woods, conceal themselves as they could by day, and 
travel by night, subsisting on the bark of trees, till, by a 
circuitous route back of the mountains, they reached Penob- 
scot, and returned to Biguyduce. Pendleton was afraid to 
return, and after the war lived in Nova Scotia, making one 
or two clandestine visits to his family on the Island.* 

Immediately after this high-handed outrage. Gen. Wads- 
worth issued a proclamation denouncing death upon any one 
convicted of aiding or secreting the enemy. Subsequent to 
this proclamation, a man by the name of Jeremiah Braun, 
residing back of Damariscotta, was taken up, charged with 
piloting a party of the British through the back country for 
the purpose of pillaging. He was tried on the 23d or 24th 
of August by a court-martial at Wadsworth's head-quarters, 
condemned, and sentenced to be hung. Being rather a sim- 
ple sort of a man, and, as many thought, unconscious of any 
offence in what he did ; the sentence was generally consid- 
ered as a feint to frighten him, and prevent a repetition of the 
crime. Many went to the General, and among them Mrs. 
James and other women, to intercede for his pardon. But 
the crisis demanded decision ; an example was thought ne- 
cessary ; and Wadsworth remained inflexible. On the day 
after the sentence, a gallows was erected on Limestone hill, 
and the miserable man conducted to it in a cart, fainting at 
the sight, and rendered insensible from fear. In this situation, 
Mr. Coombs, who was standing near, was asked to lend his 
handkerchief to tie over the prisoner's eyes. Supposing it a 
farce, he complied ; and the prisoner, to appearance already 
dead, was swung off, to the astonishment of the spectators. 
The General was greatly moved, and was observed walking 

— — _, - --■ 

* II, Prince, Esq., &c, 


his room in apparent agitation the most of the following day. 
Many friends of the revolution regretted that such an exam- 
ple of severity, however necessary, should fall on such a 

Another offender, by the name of Nathaniel Palmer, was 
also condemned, but made his escape from Wheaton's barn, 
the place of his confinement. Several courts-martial were 
held the same season, and were composed of such officers, 
whether in the militia or the public service, as were nearest 
at hand. In a book kept by Lieut. Burton, then on duty 
under Wadsworth, we find the following entry. "June 1, 
1780. Capt. Thomas Starrett, 5 days on Court-martial ; 
Lieut. Kelloch, Lieut. Nutt, Lieut. Bucklin, 5 days each, 
Lieut. Killse, 3 days." Subsequently, without date, " Capt. 
Starrett, Lieuts. Libbey, Killse, Kelloch, and Nutt, one day 

This town voted, in March, that the sum of =£500 be raised 
for the purpose of hiring soldiers. In a resolve of the Gen- 
eral Court passed May 4th of this year, for each town to pro- 
cure one-tenth as many shirts, pairs of shoes, and stockings, as 
there were male inhabitants in said town above sixteen years 
old, and half as many blankets as shirts ; Warren had asses- 
sed nine shirts, as many pairs of shoes and stockings, and 
four blankets. By another resolve passed September 25th, to 
supply the army with beef, Warren's assessment was 1,780 
lbs. out of 66,0901bs. on the county. Upon this, the town 
voted " that there be a sum of money raised to purchase 
l,7801bs. of beef at $5 per pound." By another resolve of 
December 4th, Warren was to provide 3,4221bs. of beef, out 
of 129,1521bs. for the county. f In town meeting, it was 
voted " to accept the report of the committee respecting the 
frost-fishery ;" and another was chosen to take care of the 
glass in the old meeting-house ; which had probably remained 
unused ever since the lead sashes were pillaged by the 

An attempt was, this year, made to reconcile the people with 
their minister. On the 19th of November, it was voted " to 
choose a committee to endeavor to settle the subsisting differ- 
ences with Mr. Urquhart." On the 30th of the same month, 
they voted " that the paper offered by Mr. Urquhart is satis- 
factory for the present ;" that the town hire him the ensuing 

* Tradition. P. Butler's Jour, per Rev. J. L. Sibley, 
t Mass. Records. 



year, and give him c£30, old currency, payable in corn at 4s. 
per bushel, barley at 2s. 8d., beef at 2^d. per lb., butter at 
8d., and work at 2s. 8d. a day in summer and 2s. in winter, 
or in paper currency at $90 for one in silver. They also 
voted to pay him $100, equal to silver money, per year, for 
the time past. 

The town, this year, voted to build a bridge over Oyster 
River ; the frame to be provided by the inhabitants on the 
eastern side of the main river, and the covering by those on the 
western side. This was the first attempt at bridging in the 
town ; and was performed some rods below the present Oyster 
River bridge, being wholly in Warren. Before this time, 
there was no other passage across that stream, but that through 
Lermond's saw and grist-mills, which were on opposite sides 
of the river, and connected by a footway of plank. Across 
this, old Mr. Lermond used to pass to accommodate his cus- 
tomers by night or day, in snow, ice, or rain, though it would 
make some people giddy to walk it in the dny-time. The 
distant customers at this mill, it is said, were generally furnish- 
ed with a meal of victuals, and the boys and girls (for girls 
went to mill in those days) treated on hasty-pudding and 

In December, the troops which had been called out in the 
spring, having returned home, Gen. Wadsworth was left with 
a small guard only ; soldiers from the neighboring militia 
beinci; occasionally called for, to act as sentinels. 

1781. On the 18th of Feb. 1781, Gen. Campbell at 
Biguyduce, having received intelligence of Wadsworth's situ- 
ation, sent Lieut. Stockton, with a party of twenty-five men, 
in a schooner used as a privateer, to attempt his capture. 
They arrived at dead of night, and anchored in Westkeag 
river, whence, with Waldo Dicke for their guide, they pro- 
ceeded on by land to the General's head-quarters. These 
were in the house of Col. Wheaton, on the eastern side of the 
road leading from the Prison corner to the lower toll-bridge 
in Thomaston ; Wheaton having removed, for a time, to his 
lands in Stirlington. This house then consisted of one story 
only, though a second story was afterwards added. It is still 
standing, nearly opposite the dwell inghouse of the late Capt. 
Wm. Robinson, and frequently designated as the " Seavy 
house." Here the General had his family, consisting of his 
wife, her two children, and her friend. Miss Fenno, with a 
guard of six soldiers. The General occupied the west front 

■ « ' ■ 

* O. Boggs. T. Kirkpatrick, &c. 


room. John Montgomery, who acted as the General's waiter, 
was, that night, absent at his father's in Warren. William 
Boggs, Philip Sechrist, and Nathaniel Copeland, all from the 
last named town, were among the soldiers drafted from the 
militia to act as guards for the night. The first of these was 
standing sentinel at the door when the party arrived. Hear- 
ing a crackling of the crusted snow, he hailed " who comes 
there ?" but they rushed, on before the words were out of his 
mouth, disarmed him, and assaulted the house in various 
quarters. As the door of the kitchen, then used as a guard- 
room, was opened, a part of the assailants discharged their 
pieces, and entered. At the same moment, others fired into 
the sleeping apartment of the General and his wife, and blew 
in a part of the window ; and a third party forced their way 
to Miss Fenno's room. Thus possession was taken of the 
whole house, except the general's room, which was strongly 
barred. Finding no person with Miss Fenno except Mrs. 
Wadsworth, who had fied thither to dress herself, a British 
officer ordered the firing there to cease. Armed with a brace 
of pistols, a fusee, and a blunderbuss, the General fought the 
assailants away entirely from his windows, and the kitchen 
door. Twice he ineffectually snapped his blunderbuss at 
others whom he heard in the front entry ; when they retreat- 
ed. He next seized his fusee, and fired upon those who 
were breaking through one of his windows ; and they also 
withdrew. The attack was then renewed through the entry, 
and was bravely resisted with his bayonet. But the appear- 
ance of his under linen betraying him to the soldiers in the 
kitchen, they instantly fired at him, and one of their bullets 
went through his left arm. Forced to surrender, they helped 
him to dress with all expedition, except his coat, which cotild 
not be drawn over his fractured arm. His wife and Miss 
Fenno, in spite of the condition the house was in, doors and 
windows demolished, one room on fire, and the floors covered 
with blood, hastily tied a handkerchief on bis arm, and threw 
a blanket over his shoulders ; when he was precipitately hur- 
ried away. Two wounded British soldiers were placed on 
the General's horse, taken from the barn ; and he himself, 
and a wounded soldier of his, marched on foot, assisted by 
their captors. Having gone about a mile, one of the soldiers, 
faint and apparently dying, was left at a small house, and the 
General mounted in his stead. The party arrived at West- 
keag, snatched a hasty breakfast at Mr. Snow's, and, hurrying 
to their vessel, embarked before day, and returned triumphant 
to Biguyduce. One of the general's body-guard, Hickey by 


name, was left badly wounded in the thigh, who, as soon as 
his condition would admit, was taken to Waldoboro', and put 
under the care of Dr. Scjiaeffer. The children were in the 
bed-room, and the General's son, five years old, slept undis- 
turbed through the whole transaction. Having now no in- 
ducement to remain here, Mrs. Wadsworth and her family 
returned to their friends at Falmouth.* 

Wadsworth, on arriving at Biguyduce, was complimented 
by the British commander for his gallant defence, received 
surgical aid for his wound, and was confined in a grated 
room of the officers' barracks within the fortress. In April, 
Major Benjamin Burton, who had served under him the 
preceding summer, was taken prisoner on his passage from 
Boston to St. George's, and confined in the same room. Having 
been refused their parole, and learning that they were about 
to be sent to England, the two began to task their ingenuity 
to find the means of escape. Besides the ditch, the walls of 
the fort were 20 feet high, with frazing at the top and 
chevaux-de-frize at the bottom. Within and upon the walls, 
and near the exterior doors of the building, there were sen- 
tinels posted ; and also two in the entry about the prisoners' 
door. The upper part of this door was a window-sash — 
opened by the guards at pleasure, not unfrequently in times 
of profound darkness and silence. Outside the ditch, another 
set of guards patroled through the night ; the gate was shut 
at sunset ; and a picket-guard was placed on or near the 
isthmus north-westward, to prevent any escape from the 
fort to the main land. Yet, in spite of all these obstacles, 
they adopted a plan, and set about its execution. Procuring 
a gimlet, as if to assist in the making of toys for their amuse- 
ment, they commenced boring holes through one of the pine 
boards which covered their room, filling the holes with bread 
as fast as they were made. Wadsworth, not being tall enough 
for this operation, assigned it to his companion, whilst he 
kept his eye upon the door and the sentinels. From observa- 
tion he soon became so acquainted with their pace and the 
time of their return, as to appear disengaged with his com- 
panion as usual, though the work made great progress in the 
intervals. At last the two rows of perforations across the 
board were completed, the interstices cut with a pen-knife, 
except a single one for support at each corner ; and nothing 

* Dwight's Travels. J. Montgomery. S. Crane. M. Robinson. 
J. Rokes, and 2 Will. Ilis. p. 489, where WJieaton's house is errone- 
ously placed at Westkeag. 


but a favorable opportunity was wanting to put their scheme 
in execution. 

At length, on the night of the 18th of June, in the midst of 
a tempest, when the flashes of lightning ceased and the rain 
was pouring in torrents, they retired to bed about 11 o'clock, 
and, when the guard was looking through the door, extin- 
guished their light. In an hour afterwards, they had removed 
the piece overhead and ascended through the aperture, the 
tall Burton assisting his shorter and invalid companion to 
mount ; when, they crept over the officers' rooms, descended 
into the entry, and, imitating the appearance of officers in- 
toxicated, passed the guards at the door unquestioned. Here 
they separated as by agreement, felt their way along under 
the eaves of the building, gained the parapet, let themselves 
down by means of blankets fastened to the pickets with 
skewers which they had prepared beforehand, and, from the 
lower corner, dropped without harm into the ditch below. 
Creeping softly out between the sentry boxes, they descended 
the declivity, and in the midst of the rain and darkness, 
groped their way among rocks, stumps, and brush, towards 
the shore of the back cove, where they had agreed to wait 
for each other, at an old guard-house. Wadsworth waited 
here half an hour, when, concluding his friend was lost, he 
forded the cove, one mile in extent with water in some 
places three feet deep, pursued his way over windfalls 
to a road cut by his order the year before, and at sun- 
rise found himself on the east bank of the Penobscot, the 
rain abating and the weather clearing up. Resting here, 
seven or eight miles from the fort, he was overtaken by 
Burton to the unspeakable joy of both ; each having believed 
the other lost. Finding a boat, they crossed over the bay 
to the western shore, pursued, but evidently not discovered, 
by a barge of the enemy ; steered south-westerly, by a pocket 
compass, through the woods to the upper branches of the 
St. George's, subsisting on some pieces of bread and meat 
which they had dried and secreted in their confinement, eked 
out, as it is said, by frogs taken on the way ; and on the 
third day, June 21st, arrived in the neighborhood of Mt, 
Pleasant, in this town. Wadsworth was so exhausted with 
fatigue and hunger, that Burton was forced to leave him 
sonae niiles behind, and, procuring assistance and refreshment, 


returned to his aid ; after which, they arrived safe at the 
house of their old friend and acquaintance, Boice Cooper.* 

Cooper, zealous and officious, accompanied them to the 
ferry, and, thoughtless of the danger if any lurking parties 
of the enemy had been in wait to intercept them, hailed 
Capt. Mclntyre across the river, and announced the General's 
return in a voice that might be heard for miles. After 
recruiting, some days, at Capt. Mclntyre's, and having no 
longer any force at his disposal here, the General proceeded 
to Falmouth by land, accompanied by a guard of soldiers 
drafted from the militia. One of these, John Montgomery, 
then seventeen years old, is still living, and remembers that 
on taking leave of Mrs. Wadsworth she presented him a 
$50 bill, with which he was able to purchase one glass of 
rum and one felt hat.t 

The mutual depredations committed in Maine and Nova 
Scotia, and the acts of retaliation and revenge which they 
gave rise to, had now arrived at their greatest height. It was 
some relief to this border warfare, that the Indians, influenced 
by the French, their old friends, now in close alliance with 
us, remained friendly and faithful to our interests. Still 
great distress prevailed ; and the public burdens were heavy. 
Besides the pecuniary taxes upon every town and plantation in 
the State, there continued to be repeated calls upon each one of 
them for recruits, and for particular articles, such as blankets, 
shirts, pairs of stockings and shoes, and pounds of beef; 
and in every county there were constantly muster-masters, 
and collectors of the different articles. In a resolve of the 
preceding December, Warren's quota of men for the Conti- 
nental Army was three, and that of the whole county, 126. 
Accordingly, at the annual meeting in March, the town voted 
" that there be ^£800 lawful money, paper currency, raised 
for the purpose of hiring soldiers." By resolves passed June 
22d, Warren was to raise l,4091bs. of beef, and to procure 
six shirts, six pair of stockings, and six pair of shoes.| 

* Col. B. Buxton. J. Montgomery. Dwight's Travels. Rev. J. 
L. Sibley, &c. 

t Mr. Montgomery's last application for a pension, to which he is 
thought to be jvistly entitled, was rejected in 1847, on the ground that 
by the pay-rolls, he seems to have received but £4 wages, a simi suffi- 
cient to cover but two months' service. Perhaps, from the capttire of 
the General, the dispersion of the few men retained, and the little 
value of the paper money, the latter portion of his ser-sdces was never 
presented for allowance, and the testunony of persons not in the 
service was deemed insufficient proof at the War Office. 

X Mass. Records. 


The depreciation of paper money was now so great, and 
inflicted such injustice upon the soldiers, who were obliged to 
receive their wages in it, or not at all, that a new emission 
was this year issued, and made a legal tender. Being also 
receivable for taxes, this, for a time, maintained its credit near- 
ly at par. It might be in reference to this new emission, that 
the town voted the assessors 4s. a day for their services this 

The fluctuating state of the currency seems to have pro- 
duced some difficulty in the collection of taxes, as it was not 
till two others had declined serving, that Boice Cooper con- 
sented to serve as constable with a commission of one shilling 
on the pound, just twice that of the preceding year. In the 
two following years, a commission of 17d. was given. 

The settlers in Dr. Taylor's township, or Stirlington, 
seem, perhaps in consequence of their having been included 
with Warren in the State tax, to have been, in 1779, assessed 
there in all the other taxes of the town. This gave rise to a 
controversy, particularly with Philip Robbins, who resisted 
the payment till his property was seized and sold at auction. 
In November, 1780, the town appointed a committee to en- 
deavor to settle with him respecting his taxes, and empowered 
them to sign arbitration bonds. They, probably, effected noth- 
ing, as in December of that year, the Stirlington settlers, 11 
in number, petitioned the Legislature for redress, complaining 
of the disadvantages they labored under in their remote situa- 
tion, and alleging that the town of Warren had refused to 
lay them out a road between the two settlements. Warren 
was not represented in the General Court that year, and 
seems to have made no remonstrance. On the 11th May, 
1781, the General Court passed a resolve that said Warren 
" be directed to pay to the inhabitants of Sterlington, such 
taxes as they have taxed and received of said town ; and 
the said town of Warren is further directed not to tax the 
inhabitants of Sterlington until the further order of the General 
Court, any law to the contrary notwithstanding." In confor- 
mity with this resolve, the town, June 26, 1781, chose a com- 
mittee to settle with said plantation, with power to give an 
order on the treasurer to pay Mr. Robbins his tax.* 

A schooner, of which Mr, Copeland owned one-half, was, 
sometime during this season, taken by a British vessel, and 
condemned. t 

On the 13th of December, a national Thanksgiving was 

* Rev. Resolves, 1781, vol. 28, p. 64. t Copeland's MS, 


observed for the signal victory obtained at Yorktown by the 
combined forces of France and America, and the surrender 
of the entire British army under Lord Cornwallis. This 
may justly be regarded as the closing act of the great drama 
of the Revolution ; although hostilities continued for more 
than a year after. 

No mention is made in the records, this year, of any min- 
ister's salary, nor of any action upon ecclesiastical matters 
whatever. But it would seem from the votes of the subse- 
quent year, that the paper, which, the preceding year, the 
town voted to be satisfactory for the present, did not prove to 
be so long. This paper, purporting to be a confirmation of 
the story Mr. Urquhart had told of his wife's death, turned 
out to be, at least in the opinion of his parishioners, not genu- 
ine ; and was thought to be a forgery. 

1782. On the 15th Aug. 1782, the town voted that £\b 
of the salary voted Mr. Urquhart, lie in the treasury till 
further orders. It also chose a committee to confer with 
him ; and appointed M. Copeland, with a compensation of 
820, " to go to the Presbytery," we presume with charges 
against him. 

Of this Presbytery, called, from its most usual place of 
meeting, the Salem Presbytery, Mr. Urquhart was an active 
member ; and it may be owing to his address and manage- 
ment, that the particular charges against him, if any were 
made, do not appear on its record. If Mr. Copeland attend- 
ed, we are ignorant of the complaint made, and the action 
had upon it. Perhaps a citation was issued, and, not improb- 
ably, private advice given to both parties to compromise their 
difficulties, and agree upon the terms of separation. In the 
mean time, the public odium against the minister had increas- 
ed ; the people refused to attend meeting ; and his influence 
here was irretrievably lost. His audience dwindled away till, 
at last, it consisted only of his own family, his wife's mother, 
D. Kirkpatrick, a hired boy, and his unchanging adherent, 
Mrs. James. In this state of things, a separation appeared 
equally desirable to both parties ; and the only difficulty was 
to agree upon the terms. Mr. Urquhart claimed, and, as it 
is said, had sued for 8500 ; and the town offered to give him 
.£25. In March, 1783, T. Starrett, M. Copeland, VVm. Ler- 
mond, Wm. Watson, and R. Hall, were appointed a committee 
to try to settle all matters of dispute with Mr. U., with power 
to choose arbitrators and sign bonds in behalf of the town. 
The arbitrators agreed upon, were Thomas Rice, Samuel 
Nichols, and McCobb, Esquire's, who met soon after 


at Waldoboro', and, after a full hearing, in which M. Cope- 
land, Esq. appeared for the town, decided, July 4th, that the 
town should pay Mr. Urquhart £25, The town voted, July 
24th, to pay this sum, and to raise ^30 for that purpose and 
the payment of the referees. 

Whether the complaint of the town remained before the 
Presbytery, or Mr. Urquhart had applied for his dismission, 
is not known ; but, in August, he issued a somewhat angry 
citation to the town to appear before the Presbytery at Salem 
on the second Tuesday of Sept. following, to answer to the 
charges which he meant there to substantiate, as follows : 
" 1st, Your suing me to Court and atteaching my interest 
contrary to the laws of justice or humanity. 2d, Your rob- 
bing me of my interest by voting away my hay, which re- 
duced me to the greatest hardships. 3d, Your breach of 
Covenant, injustice, oppression and barbarity, of which you 
have been guilty towards me. 4th, Your sending to the 
Presbytery with charges against me in a clandestine way and 
manner, without giving me a copy of the same. 5th, The 
base treatment which I have received from the people in 
every respect, by endeavoring to murder my character at all 
times, upon suspicion, contrary to the directions of Christ." 
What the suing and attaching property refers to, the author 
has not been able to ascertain ; but the voting away his hay, 
seems to refer to a vote passed in March of the same year, 
allowing S. Peabody, for the sum of £2 14s. to cut the 
meeting-house marsh, which heretofore had probably been a 
perquisite of the minister. 

The town, having now settled, as the people supposed, all 
matters of dispute with the minister, and ordered him to desist 
from preaching, thinking he could have no farther claim, 
seems to have taken no notice of this citation, and was 
not represented at the session of the Presbytery. This neg- 
lect to substantiate charges, or to reply to those of Mr. Urqu- 
hart, was probably construed into an abandonment of the 
one or an admission of the other. Mr. Urquhart was regularly 
dismissed from his charge, and the town laid under censure 
for its conduct towards him. This was considered by many 
as rash and injurious. The Kev. Mr. McLean of Bristol, 
who, as the near associate and fellow-countryman of Mr. 
Urquhart, was disposed to put the most charitable construction 
upon his conduct, and had incurred some odium on that 
account, seems to have taken alarm at this decision ; and 
wrote to the moderator of the Presbytery on the one hand, 
and to the elders of the church and people in Warren 


on the other, recommending a re-examination of the whole 
matter, and advising the town to vindicate its conduct towards 
Mr. Urquhart, and endeavor that any unchristian carriage 
of his might be duly exposed. The Rev. Mr. Whitaker of 
Salem, moderator of the Presbytery, also wrote to the town, 
Jan. 26, 1784, inviting them, on account of some supposed 
errors in the late decision, to attend the rehearing at the 
next session with all their complaints and witnesses. 

In the mean time, a letter was received from Mr. Urquhart's 
first wife, dated at Wapping, London, August, 1783, com- 
plaining much of his conduct in not writing to her. This 
letter, coming unsealed, was read and shown to many before 
it reached him, confirming former suspicions, and removing 
the doubts of the most skeptical. On the 10th of May, 
1784, the town chose a committee to write to the Presbytery 
a letter with charges against Mr. U. and, likewise, to write to 
the Rev. Alexander McLean. What was the purport of these 
letters, or what farther action was had, does not appear. Mr. 
U. still continued an active member of this Presbytery, which 
henceforward held all its meetings in Maine ; and he, this 
year, took a conspicuous part in two ordinations. In 1785, he 
preached for a season at Topsham,and on the 7th of Septem- 
ber was installed at Union River, now Ellsworth, where he 
continued five years. But new difficulties awaited him. 
The return of peace having opened the way, his deserted 
wife had crossed the water to Philadelphia, and, after support- 
ing herself and daughter in extreme indigence there, for a 
time, by spinning cotton, was charitably provided for by Dr. 
Witherspoon, President of the college at Princeton, N. J. A 
correspondence was opened, of which the following letters 
form a part. 

" Mrs. Jane Urquhart. 

'' Smithfield, Aug. 31, 1785. My Dear, I received a let- 
ter from you Jan. 1784, to which I returned two answers 
directed to Wapping, No. 14, as you desired, and in them 
gave you a particular account of my misfortune and the 
trouble and sorrow I have underwent on your account. And 
that was the only one which I received from you since I left 
Scotland, as the Searcher of all hearts knows. None but God 
knows the sea of trouble I have gone through these few 
years, all owing to your means, inasmuch as I never heard from 
you notwithstanding the many letters I sent you & the press- 
ing invitations to come over to this country. He to whom I 
must give an account at the great day, is witness that I never 


meant to deceive you, and whatever you or others may think 
respecting my conduct, I have the testimony of a good con- 
science, which is the best support — If I had not heard of 
your death I never could have been married to another. But 
the Lord saw fit to contend both with you and me and that it 
may be for the everlasting good of our immortal souls by 
leading us to sincere and unfeigned repentance. The first 
accounts that ever I had of you was from one Capt. Fraser 
who saw you at Gravesend, upon your return from England 
after receiving your legacy, which was more dreadful to me 
than death considering my unhappy situation. The 29th of 
this month was the first certain account I have had of your 
arrival in America. Matters have been conducted strangely, 
for instead of writing to me, letters have been sent to others 
and I never acquainted with it till now. After Eraser's ac- 
count, I was turned out of employment and suffered the 
greatest hardships in life and never expect to be settled 
again. If you knew my situation and condition you could 
not but be grieved for me as well as for yourself. I have a 
poor weakly woman with four small children to provide for, 
which is more than I can do, and sure I am you could not 
desire me to leave them to the mercies of the wide world. 
If it was in my power to help you, how gladly would I do it. 
Pray believe, for I do not dissemble, for I can say with the 
Apostle, befofe God I lie not. You have your =£200 Sterling 
of a legacy that I will never lay any claim to — if you want 
any power from me it is at your service. As for the child I 
would be glad to do the best by it I could if I knew how to 
get it. But Providence frowns upon me, O that God would 
show me why he is contending with me and lead me to the 
fountain of the Redeemer's blood, which cleanseth from all 
sin. If it were the will of the Most High I would prefer 
death to life ; but not my will but his be done. Before this 
late account sent by Dr. Witherspoon, I had a little employ- 
ment ; but now I am obliged to go I know not where — may 
the Lord direct my way. It will be my constant prayer to 
Almighty God that he may take care of you and the dear 
child, and if your trouble will lead you to God it will be happy 
for you. O take care that it may not drive you to bad courses 
or make you forget the God who made you and gave his son 
to be a ransom for your soul. I hope you'll try to do the 
best you can ; I think it would be a genteel way of living to 
teach young children, which you are capable of doing. And 
whenever it is in my power to help you I shall be ready to 
do it. I should be glad to give you directions to write, but as 


I am about to leave this country I cannot. When I shall be 
fixed I will write you again and if ever I have it in my 
power I will contrive to send you relief, so I conclude, wishing 
you all the blessings of the upper and nether springs and re- 
commending you to the care of a kind Providence who is 
able to take care of you. 

" Yours, affectionately till death, John Urquhart. 

" N. B. 1 have been obliged to travel 30 miles to see this 
letter put into the post-office least it should fail. J. U." 

This letter was inclosed in one to Dr. Witherspoon, of the 
same date, and of much the same tenor, which was mailed at 
Falmouth on the 5th Sept. and reached him on the 15th. 
Whether there was then any place hereabouts, called Smith- 
field, or whether this was assumed for the purpose of 
misleading, we are unable to say. Both letters were sent with 
the following from Dr. Witherspoon, to Rev. Isaac Story 
of Marblehead. It is given with the blank spaces just as they 
occur in the original, together with a few others enclosed in 
brackets, which seem to have been filled up, as all were 
probably intended to be, at a time when it could be done with 
due attention to accuracy of language : — 

" Dr. Sir : — On Monday the 20th, I received your favour 
of the 4th of this month. I also received the 29th of Jan. 
last, yours of the 6th of that month inclosing two from Mr. 
McLean with information respecting Mr. Urqueheart. I per- 
ceive I was much to blame for not immediately answering 
that letter, but [having received] what I now send you from 
Mr. Urqueheart and not knowing where he was, I [unfortunate- 
ly] delayed writing and expected to hear by some other 
means where he You all please to know 

therefore, that I was all along of opinion with you and other 
friends, that the interest of religion required his being fully 
convicted and would have sent his wife on, but having been 
at a considerable expense on her passage and support, and 
not knowing that she could have any certainty of provision, 
I embraced an opportunity a very good place 

for her, as housekeeper to a gentleman in St. Johns in New 
Brunswick, whose lady is from New York, they paid her 
passage there and I have had several letters from her since. 
I thought also that perhaps he would take his course that way, 
and she might meet with him. 

However, in consequence of your letter just received, I 
write herewith this a coppy of his letter to his wife, to whom 
1 forwarded the original, and the original letter in his own 
hand which he wrote to me, and of which I have kept a coppy 


that you may communicate both where you think proper and 
as it appears to me very generous and in the people 

to let her have [some assistance] I will write to her to repair 
wherever you direct, in your next to me 

as to the legacy, which he mentions, I always understood that 
she went to London in expectation of a legacy or some 
money due to her but did not get it, and having asked her 
daughter just now if she could remember any thing about it 
she said who should have paid it 

was gone to Jamaica, so she got nothing and the girl 

was but young when she left London ; this appears very proba- 
ble for it is certain she was in extreme poverty when she 
came to me, being subsisted by spinning some cotton in very 
mean lodging, together with what Dr. Mayo begged for her 
before I went there, and myself after. She had indeed some 
beding and cloths & I got some clothes for the child when 
she bound to me till she should be of age. 

" Though there is much religion I fear there is also much 
disingenuity in his letters by observing which you will be 
able to judge of his declarations to those who have spoken to 

" A letter to Mrs. Urqueheart, if you forward any, from 
your parts, may be directed to the care of Ward Chipman, 
Esq., St. Johns, N. Brunswick. 

" I shall be glad to hear from you immediately on receiving 
this, as I shall not write to Mrs. Urqueheart till then. 

" I am, dear Sir, your most obed't humble servant, 

" Rev. Mr. Story." " John Witherspoon." 

This letter was not dated, but was, with the other two, sent 
to the people of Warren, December 22, 1786, by Mr. Story, 
who had interested himself in behalf of Mrs. U. and wished, 
if any thing was due from the town, to secure it for her benefit. 
But as Mr. Urquhart was now settled at Union river, and, it 
is presumed, had received all that was due him from Warren, 
nothing resulted from this correspondence. After waiting 
some time in suspense, and seeing no prospect of redress, the 
impatient spirit of his wife could brook no longer delay. 
Pride and anger spurred her on to seek, in person, that satis- 
faction which her friends had failed to obtain. Passing from 
St. Johns to Marblehead, after consulting with Mr. Story, she 
took passage with Capt. Killeran, who brought her to this 
river. Here she was kindly received by the inhabitants, who 
sympathized with her unfortunate situation, though they 
found little to admire in the temper with which she bore it. 
She could, indeed, when off from the subject of her grief, 


make herself agreeable, even to young people and children ; 
but no sooner did the fatal theme recur, than the rising tide of 
passion would carry her away to the very borders of insanity. 
At her request, M. Copeland, J. Watts, J. McKellar, and R. 
Young, took a boat, went down with her to Union river, and 
introduced her to her husband. He was thunderstruck, 
abashed, confounded. Her salutation was that of anger, 
taunting, rage, fury. " Dinna ye cry, Johnny, it's yer ain 
loving wife ye've been mourning for sae lang ;" and pass- 
ing from irony to rage, she bestowed upon the new wife, | 
every opprobrious and scornful epithet ; and, assuming her l 
authority in the house and her place at table, ordered her 
about like a menial servant. To the excuse that they sup- 
posed her dead, she answered " you hoped I was, at the very 
time you were pasting my letters into your bairn's bonnets." 
But no language can do justice to this interview. The sec- 
ond wife, quailing before the imperious temper of her rival, 
sought the protection of her townsmen, who, pitying her dis- 
tress, brought her back to her father's. 

How the loving couple passed the second honey-moon, is 
more easily imagined than described. They did not remain 
together long. Receiving no proffer of that assistance which , 
his letters had promised, whenever it should be in his power, j 
she again threw herself upon the hospitality of her friends ; 1 
and the second wife, drawn by maternal affection, returned to 1 
the care of her children. After spending more than a year 
with the people of this river, and holding consultations with 
friends, the discarded wife resolved to resort to the law for 
that redress which nothing else was likely to obtain. Ac- 
cordingly, she engaged Reuben Tolman, who, with John Ma- 
thews, then his apprentice, embarked with her in a boat, and, 
taking R. Young for a pilot, sailed to Castine. There Tol- 
man was appointed deputy sheriff for Hancock County, and 
taking out a legal process of some kind, we are not informed 
what, proceeded on to the place of Mr. U's residence. Ar- 
riving in the evening, they found him at home, his wife and 
children in bed. Tolman made known his business, and Mrs. 
U. inquired for brandy to treat her men with. Informed that 
there was none in the house, she declared she knew better ; 
and ransacking the closets and finding a case botde partly 
filled with vinegar, she poured out a tumbler full, and, hav- 
ing tasted it, threw it violently over the bed, mother, and child. 
Raving like a mad woman, she proceeded to the chest of 
drawers, threw out the caps and other linen upon the floor, 
and trampled them under foot, pouring out a torrent of abuse 


and invnctive, and bestowing the most scornful epithets that 
language can furnish. The unfortunate clergyman, being 
told he must repair to a magistrate living at some distance, 
requested leave to change his clothes, and, going into another 
room, made his escape at a back window. When his flight 
became known, nothing could exceed the fury to which the 
disappointed wife was wrought up ; her frame shook, her 
eyes, in the language of an eye-witness, became scarlet, and 
her whole appearance truly terrific. However, a guide was 
obtained, and the fugitive arrested at a haymaker's camp in a 
meadow at a considerable distance up the river. Being 
carried before the magistrate, he reluctantly entered' into an 
arrangement, by which, if our information is correct, he 
relinquished his farm to his first wife, gave an order on 
Capt. Mclntyre to allow Tolman his trouble and expenses 
out of what was due from him, for Mr. U's farm, which he 
had purchased in Warren ; and with his second wife and 
children removed to New Brunswick, and finally ended his 
days at Mirimichi. Prior to his leaving Union River, charges 
were preferred against him by the people of that place, and 
he in turn complained of the people. In 1790, the Pres- 
bytery decided that he was not guilty of the charges prefer- 
red against him, and left it optional with him to take his 
dismission whenever he should wish. This was one of the 
last acts of the Presbytery. Mr. McLean's connexion with it 
had, some time before, been dissolved at his own request ; 
and in 1791, the number of its members was so reduced by 
the removal of Messrs. Urquhart and Whitaker, that it became 
informally dissolved, and ended this form of church govern- 
ment in Maine.* 

* Greenleaf 's Ec. Sketches. Town Eecords. Record of Court of 
Sessions. Orig. Letters among papers of A. Lermond, and tradition. 




From the anticipation of time into which the obliquities of 
an unworthy man have led us, we now return to the year 
1782. The beginning of this year, like many others during 
the war, was distinguished for a great scarcity of provisions, 
and difficulty of obtaining subsistence. When every resource 
was failing, and the minds of all were filled with anxiety, 
Providence seemed in pity to hasten the arrival of the alewives, 
which were caught at the upper falls the 27th of April. 
On the following day, Sunday, large quantities were taken as 
a work of mercy to suffering families. 

The people, this year, voted to build a pound near Capt. 
Mclntyre's house, and chose him for pound-keeper. This 
subject had been broached at the first annual meeting in 
1777, when they voted to build a pound near Mr. Cooper's 
house, and chose Mr. Cooper for pound-keeper. But this 
was merely a joke upon him, who was a great lover of good 
fences ; and when his Irish servants were with him, whom 
he always took pains to keep employed, whether their labor 
was needed or not ; being one day at a loss for something to 
go to work at, he set them to cutting large pine trees and 
building a log-fence of an unusual height round a few acres 
of pasture-land, saying he wanted a pound to turn his horse 
into. This spot, though its fence has decayed, is called " the 
pound" to this day. 

The town, this year voted " that Capt. Payson be exempt- 
ed from working on the roads" on condition of making a 
road for himself. Payson had now taken up the farm west 
of South Pond, since known as the Storer farm. He after- 
wards removed to Hope ; but many of his posterity still 
remain in town. During his residence here, he had much 
to encounter from wild beasts, poverty, and the scarcity of 
provisions. Often, says one of his daughters, whilst weaving, 
wdth nothing but alewives to eat, was she compelled to lay 
her head down upon the beam and weep till rest enabled her 
to resume the shuttle, and this for days and weeks together. 
A cow, which they subsequently obtained, added much to the 
comfort of the family ; but one dark evening the boys heard 
a rustling among the green corn, and the father, not doubting 
but that it was a marauding bear, leveled his musket in the 



direction of the sound, fired, and found to his dismay that 
he had killed his only cow. He was much annoyed, also, by 
a negro, called Africa Peter,* whom Mr. Thomas had en- 
couraged to settle on a lot of his, near by, in the town of 
Waldoboro'. Peter had been a prince in his own country, 
and the remembrance of this, and his subsequent treatment, 
rendered him moody, savage, and at last insane. At the 
sight of the sun and moon, he would often fall prostrate, and 
writhe on the ground in the utmost agitation. Becoming at 
last dangerous, he was confined as a maniac, and died in 
jail. Nathan Sprague, from Waldoboro', had a log-house 
and small clearing on the lot next above Payson's. A saw- 
mill, also, was built, about this time, by Mr. Spear and his 
sons, on the outlet of West Pond. For the accommodation 
of this neighborhood, an expenditure on Back River bridge 
was this year ordered ; and, as there now began to be some 
travel between Mclntyre's ferry and the head of Broad Bay, 
Sprague, in 1784, took out license and kept a kind of tavern 
some years. 

The first colored person was brought to this town by Capt. 
J. Mclntyre, who this year purchased Sarah, as a slave, of 
one Capt. Brown of Damariscotta, who brought her from 
Guinea. He gave 850 or 8100 for her ; but, about a year 
after this purchase, all slaves in Massachusetts were declared 
free under the Constitution. Hearing a rumor of this, she gave 
the representative, P. Pebbles, one dollar to ascertain its truth, 
and claimed her freedom. This woman is believed to have 
sustained a good character, and was early and long a mem- 
ber of the Baptist church. She was married to Amos Peters, 
from whom those of that name are descended. Others of 
their race joined them from time to time, till in 1823 they 
formed a sufficient number to be set off into a separate school 

On the 30th of Nov. 1782, provisional articles of peace 
were agreed upon with Great Britain, by which that power 
acknowledged the independence of the United States. This 
relieved the minds of the people, although the definitive 
treaty was not signed till the 3d of Sept. 1783. The British 
troops remained at Biguyduce ; and restriction on the inter- 
course with them was so far relaxed, that Dea. Crawford, with 

* Payson himself was not very patient of injury ; and on one oc- 
casion the two were found armed, posted behind trees or stumps, 
alternately snapping their guns at each other, without, however, pro- 
ducing any serious result. — M. Robinson. 


his wife, visited his countrymen there, — the Highlanders, 
under the command of Gen. Campbell. He was kindly re- 
ceived by the General, found many old acquaintances in his 
corps, and among them James Fisher, a cousin of Mrs. Craw- 
ford, who wished to come with them to Warren ; but, though 
the war was over, his term of service was not yet expired, 
and he could not obtain his discharge. He took the first 
opportunity, however, to desert, and visited Mr. Crawford, 
but being afraid to remain there, passed on to Damariscotta 
and hired out. A party of soldiers, dressed in Highland 
costume, pursued him, came to Crawford's, searched the house 
and barn, and, afraid to proceed farther, returned without 
him. Another soldier, a Highlander, by the name of John 
McCallum, deserted soon after, found his way to the same 
place, and hearing of Fisher, sought him in the field. 
Fisher, supposing him to be in pursuit, was about to take to 
his heels ; when a mutual recognition took place, and the 
two remained together till the British left the country. 
Fisher afterwards married in this town, settled a short dis- 
tance above his friend Crawford, was the first deacon of the 
Baptist church, and esteemed as an humble and pious chris- 
tian. McCallum married a daughter of Dea. Miller, lived on 
the deacon's farm some years, and then removed to that still 
possessed by his family, on the western side of North Pond. 

The return of peace found the country impoverished, 
commerce embarrassed, the people burdened with debt, 
specie withdrawn from circulation, and the paper currency 
constantly sinking in value. Yet, amid all these discourage- 
ments, the people of Warren did not neglect the education 
of their children ; though as yet no public schools had been 
provided. A school was kept a considerable part of this 
and the following year, a portion of the time at the house of 
Wm. Boggs, and the remainder at that of Joseph Copeland. 
The person employed as a teacher was John O'Brien, a 
native of Craig, near Cork in Ireland. He made two 
voyages in the capacity of ship's steward to Quebec, and, 
on a third voyage to New York, was captured off Marble- 
head, and carried to Boston. Thence, on an exchange of 
prisoners, he was sent to Castine, and allowed by the Captain 
to escape to Fox Island, whence, after teaching there two 
months, he came to this town. He was an elegant penman, 
and a good accountant, but somewhat severe in the manage- 
ment of his scholars. Severity, however, was thought 
requisite in those days ; and he was employed in different 
parts of the town for many succeeding years. Whilst he 


was teaching in Mrs. James's house, about 1784, a log school- 
house, probably the first structure of the kind in town, was 
built in the Oyster River neighborhood, a little below the 
Wyllie house now owned by R. Robinson. The only 
branches taught at this time were reading, writing, spelling 
and arithmetic. The only books in school, were Dilworth's 
Spelling-book and the Psalter. The only introduction to 
arithmetic, was the committing to memory of the numeration 
table, the multiplication table, and the pence table. Oral 
instruction, with questions set by the teacher in manuscripts, 
supplied all the rest. Geography was then scarcely heard 
of; and grammar was nowhere taught, except in connex- 
ion with the Latin language. Not long after this date, 
Mr. O'Brien married the daughter of Col. Starrett, and pur- 
chased of John Lermond the farm on which his son, E. 
O'Brien, Esq., until recently resided. 

The evil effects of an unsound currency were now severe- 
ly felt, and among others by Dea. David Patterson, one of 
the original settler^, a man universally esteemed, who 
had transferred his estate to his son-in-law, Reuben Hall, 
and taken notes as security for his maintenance. After 
the marriage of a second wife, Mr. Hall availed him- 
self of the depreciation of the currency, to pay up his notes, 
and exonerate himself from farther liability. The payment, 
thus reduced in value, was soon exhausted ; and the recipi- 
ent, in the helplessness of age, was mortified to find himself 
possessed of nothing but the dwellinghouse, which he had re- 
served. His feelings would not suffer him to apply for assist- 
ance ; and, as winter came on, he was in danger of perishing 
with the cold. Under these circumstances a town meeting 
was called, December 19th, to take the subject into considera- 
tion. Great sympathy was expressed for the sufferer ; and, 
as Mr. H. had discharged his obligation in the legal currency 
of the country, it was voted " that the town be divided into 
six classes, and that each class should cut and haul five cords 
of wood for the use of Mr. Patterson." This was the begin- 
ning of that liberal and generous policy, which the town, for 
so many years, pursued towards the destitute of its population. 

Patterson was not the only sufferer from paper money. 
Robert Mathews, who came early from Ireland to Massachu- 
setts and settled in Woburn, removed soon after the French 
and Indian war to the lower town of St. George's, and, sub- 
s'equently, purchased the Kelloch farm in Warren, now owned 
by Robert Robinson. This, he had been tempted by an offer 
nominally high, to sell to Col, Wheaton, and was obliged at 


the time stipulated to receive his pay in depreciated bills, 
which, dying on his hands, reduced him to poverty. Having, 
during his youth, been crippled by fever sores, and receiving, 
in consequence, something more than a common education, 
he was sometimes employed as a school-master, and, in the 
French and Indian war, served for a time as a soldier ; but 
now, from age and disappointment, was rendered unable to 
make much farther effort. 

Prior to this year, there had been no bridge across the 
main river. Ferries were kept at Watson's point and Mcln- 
tyre's shore. There was a fording place between Deacon 
Crawford's and Wm. Boggs's, where, except in high freshets, 
a person might cross on horseback ; and foot passengers were 
set across, in floats. As this service was performed without 
remuneration, and often in the night time, causing considera- 
ble trouble to Boggs and Crawford, the former determined to 
free himself from it.* He therefore went to work, and with 
no other assistance than the voluntary contributions of the 
neighbors, completed a bridge across the river to Crawford's 

In the State valuation, which was adopted March 6th of 
this year, Warren was to pay 12s. out of every c£1000 raised, 
until the next valuation. By a resolve passed the succeed- 
ing day, 1500 men were ordered to be raised for the army, 
one of whom was apportioned to this town. Money also 
seems to have been called for, to pay soldiers' bounty ; as, 
six years later, on complaint that the town had neglected to as- 
sess such money, as also the county tax for 1782, the Court of 
Sessions appointed persons to assess and collect the same.t 

Patrick Pebbles was this year chosen representative, and 
appointed the first justice in the town of Warren, an ofiice 
then regarded as an honorable and important one. M. Cope- 
land was, this year, also, licensed as a retailer, and in the 
year following, furnished for J. Paine of Bristol, an entire 
ship load of timber and staves. 

1783. In 1783, in addition to two road surveyors on 
each side of the river, John Dicke and John Wyllie were 
chosen to that office, probably with a view of opening a way 
to Stirling on the one side and to Peabody's mill on the other. 
" Voted, that Joseph Skinner, Robert Mathews, and the heirs 
of John Annis, deceased, be exempted from paying the beef 

* In 1778 he took out license as innholdcr, and in this way, whilst 
the war lasted, received some compensation. — Rec. Court of Sessions, 
t Rec. of Court of Sessions, Wis. and INf^ss. Rec. 


tax, and the same charged to the tov/n ; and that all other 
deficiencies in said tax be turned into silver money, and com- 
mitted to the collectors." Annis first settled at Broad Cove 
in the lower plantation, but had lived some years on the GifFen 
farm in this town, and had been master of a sloop belonging 
to McLean. He was shot on board of a privateer, a short 
time before the passage of this vote. 

At a meeting in June, T, Starrett, J. Mclntyre, A. Kelloch, 
W. Lermond, and H. Libbey, were chosen a committee of 
safety. No such committee had been chosen at the meeting in 
March, probably because the war was considered virtually at 
an end ; and its revival at this time might have been owing 
to some apprehension of the return of the tory refugees on 
the restoration of peace, which was confidently expected. 
Some such apprehension, or some movement made by their 
friends, may have given rise to the following vote, which was 
passed at the same meeting ; viz. " that the town will at all 
times to the utmost of their power oppose the return of the 
refugees into their town." Only two such. Nelson and 
Waldo Dicke, are known to have belonged to this town. As 
the former of these had gone to the English for the purposes 
of trade only, most of the citizens, at the request of his 
father-in-law, Dea. Crawford, subsequently gave their appro- 
bation in writing for his return ; which was effected without 
opposition. He afterwards removed to Reading, Massachu- 
setts. Dicke had been too active to be so readily forgiven ; 
and, in consequence of the above vote and other indications, 
gave up all thoughts of returning, and fixed his residence at 
St. Andrews, N. B. There he was successfully employed as 
master of a vessel till about 1794, when he was captured in the 
W. Indies by a French vessel, and carried into New London. 
Being confined in irons for some offence given on board, he 
succeeded in releasing himself in the night time, and, attempt- 
ing to escape by swimming, was drowned at no great distance 
from the shore. 

On the 24th of July, it was voted " that this town is willing 
that all the inhabitants of the lower town, down as far as 
Mr. Malcolm's, should be annexed to this town." In June, 
1784, a petition, signed by Jonathan Nutting and others, 
praying to be annexed to the town of Warren, was read in 
the House of Representatives, referred to a committee, and, 
on their report, leave was given to bring in a bill for the 
purpose ; but it is not known that any thing farther was done 
about it. 

The hardships of the war had not been favorable to the 


increase of the settlement ; and Samuel Boggs's lot, on the 
west side of the river, and Dea. Crawford's on the east, still 
formed its utmost limit towards tlie north. But this year, a 
lot on the western side, at the foot of Seven-tree Pond, now 
owned by W. Payson, was settled by Eli Bosworth, a carpen- 
ter and joiner, wlio had previously resided in St. George and 
Stirlington. He was from Halifax, Mass. and being a good 
and faithful workman, many houses in Union, and most of 
those which during the next twenty years sprang up at the 
head of the tide here, were constructed by him or liis sons. 
In 1794, Mr. Bosworth removed to the place now occupied 
by L. H. Vaughan, and built a small house there. The rest 
of his life was passed in that vicinity, where two of his chil- 
dren still reside. 

The anticipations of peace, which, for nearly a year, had 
been waxing stronger and stronger, were at length realized ; 
and the definitive treaty was signed at Paris on the 3d of 
Sept. On the 18th of Oct. the American army was disband- 
ed ; and the soldiers, who had risked their lives and shed 
their blood in the cause of independence, returned home, 
covered with glory, but with no other reward, except Govern- 
ment securities, which they could scarcely dispose of at 2s. 
6d. on the pound. Some had lost their lives in the contest ; 
others, with empty purse, and habits all unsettled by the 
idleness of the camp, commenced life's voyage anew, and 
with difficulty pursued their course in the usual channels of 
industry. From the lower town, and other marhime and 
exposed places, a greater number, in proportion to the popu- 
lation, were engaged in the land and naval service, than in 
Warren. In Waldoboro', the Dutch Neck alone is said to 
have furnished not less than 60 soldiers to the continental 
army. Among those in this place who died in the service, 
or never returned, were Eobert Gitlen, Joseph Peabody, 
Samuel Boggs the 2d, and Benjamin Gaut, a young man 
brought up by his uncle, A. Kelloch. Of those who enlisted 
into the continental service, were AVilliam Robinson, (who 
served at Cambridge and vicinity whilst the British occupied 
Boston, and, it is believed, at Ticonderoga and other places 
later in the contest,) Samuel Boggs the 3d, David Brown, and 
David Kelloch, 2d. The two last, enlisted for one year, then 
for three years, and afterwards served in the navy till the 
end of the war; and, in 1812, Kelloch again enlisted, and 
served through the whole of that war. Of those who were 
drafted or enlisted for shorter periods, were Joseph Cope- 
land, Lieut. ; Samuel Counce, Sergeant ; James Anderson, 


William Dicke, Andrew Malcolm, and Francis Young, who 
served at Machias under Capt. Ludwig ; Alexander Kelloch, 
Ensign ; F. Young, Corporal ; Samuel Crane, John Lihbey, 
John Sidensherger, and Joseph Jameson, drafted to Biguy- 
duce ; Stephen Peabody, John Montgomery, William Boggs, 
Philip Sechrist, and Nathaniel Copeland, who were drafted 
or enlisted for short periods, and served under VVadsworth 
at Thomaston, Clam Cove, and other parts of the coast. 
Besides these, most of the other citizens capable of bearing 
arms, occasionally served as volunteers by land or sea. 
Capt. J. Wyllie commanded a transport in the expedition 
to Biguyduce. Capts. Samuel Gregg, John Annis, and 
probably some others, were for a time engaged in priva- 
teering. Some had lost property captured at sea; all had 
suffered from the interruption of business, and the derange- 
ment of the currency. General poverty, and the utmost 
economy in food, clothing, and furniture, everywhere pre- 
vailed.* But all private griefs were now merged in the 
triumphs of freedom and the joys of returning peace. 

In the midst of the general rejoicing, a melancholy oc- 
currence happened in this town on the 10th of November. 
Samuel Creighton, returning in his float from Thomaston, 
whither he had been to purchase some vegetables from a 
trading coaster lying at the wharf, was upset by a sudden 
and violent squall from the N. West, and drowned in the 
river nearly opposite his own house. So true is it, that the 
fountains of private distress frequently gush up beneath the 
broad stream of public gratulation. Samuel Boggs, (the 
first,) one of the most active of the original settlers, died 
the same year. 

1784. The first step towards a legal highway, was this 
year taken, by voting " that the selectmen lay out the town 
road on each side of the river." A stipulation for such a 
road had been made in the original contract between the 
proprietors and settlors ; and a foot path had gradually been 
widened and improved by the expenditure of the annual high- 
way tax, usually one day's work for each poll and the estates 
in proportion. As the proportion between polls and estates 
was then as one to two, and the number of polls in town did 

* There were at this time but two pair of boots in the town. 
These belonged to Messrs. Copeland and Pebbles, both of a long, 
lank, loose-jointed frame, ill calculated to do honor to such a luxury'" ; 
but Pebbles used to contend that he had the advantage of Copeland, 
inasmuch as he could mount his horse without losing a boot, which, 
the other seldom could. — J. llokes. A. Kelloch, 2d. 


not exceed 80, the sum thus expended was not over 240 
days' work. 

About this time, began to appear in the woods, and occa- 
sionally visit the settlement, a man by the name of Davis, 
one of those singular characters that sometimes vary the pic- 
ture of life ; a sort of " Leatherstocking" of the wilderness, 
hovering on the borders between civilized and savage society. 
He lived a solitary life in the woods, clad in skins, and sub- 
sisting on the products of the chase, which formed his sole 
occupation. He had no intercourse with the settlers, except 
an occasional visit for the purpose of exchanging his fur for 
ammunition and other necessaries ; but his path was frequent- 
ly crossed by the hunter, who was oftentimes entertained by 
him with such refreshment as his camp afforded. On these 
occasions, he was hospitable and social, talked of his dangers 
and accidents by " flood and field, his hair-breadth 'scapes," 
and causeless frights, with apparent satisfaction ; but it was 
evident his heart was not with his guests — he sighed not at 
their departure, and returned whh pleasure to the society of 
his own feelings. His grotesque appearance, his hairy cos- 
tume, his beard descending to his breast, and his white locks 
streaming to the wind, excited the curiosity of children, and 
rendered his coming a memorable event. Nor was his beha- 
viour more free from whimsical peculiarities, than his dress. 
One of these was that of bowing with great reverence, when 
favored with the sight of bread. Whether this proceeded 
from religious, or other motives, his distant and taciturn man- 
ner rendered it difficult to determine. He shifted his quar- 
ters to various places, as convenience required, and followed 
hunting and trapping from the Kennebec to the Penobscot. 
From his long residence in the present town of Montville, 
that place, before its incorporation, was called Davis-town. 
Of his early history, and the time of his coming hither, noth- 
ing was known. Rumor ascribed his eccentricity to disap- 
pointment in love, and it was said he had one daughter in the 
western country to whom he contrived to remit the proceeds 
of his hunting. On one occasion, after a hunting tour of 
some days, he returned to his camp, kindled a fire, and sat 
down to his lonely musings ; when he was suddenly startled by 
the most piercing cries proceeding from his fire. At first he 
could ascribe it to nothing but the foul fiend himself; but a 
huge tortoise, crawling out from the ashes in which he had 
made his bed, soon relieved his apprehensions, and afforded 
him a delicious repast. At another time, he was confined to 
his camp, five or six weeks, by sickness, and came near starv- 


ing. In this time, his traps were found by a hunting party 
from Warren, and, from their neglected appearance, being 
supposed to be abandoned, were carried off. The owner, 
however, recovering in season to observe the tracks of the 
party, pursued them, and recovered his property. He con- 
tinued this kind of Hfe for a long period, when, his hunting 
range being gradually curtailed by the settlement of the 
country, and his natural powers abating, he was at last com- 
pelled to receive support from his fellow-men, and is said to 
have died a pauper, in one of the towns that had sprung up 
beneath his eye on the borders of the Penobscot. But the 
majestic groves and lofty peaks of Montville, were not slow 
in attracting another kindred spirit, to enjoy its primeval 
scenery, before it should all be transformed by the sturdy 
hand of advancing industry. Toward the close of the cen- 
tury, a man equally eccentric, but more communicative and 
intelligent, by the name of Barrett, wandered thither from 
New Hampshire, and, for more than 40 years, passed a life 
of solitude in the woods of that town. 

The tide of emigration, which had been checked by the 
recent war, began now again to flow eastward. Daniel J)un- 
bar, a native of Bridgewater, Mass., who, before the war, had 
bargained with Mr. Cooper, for his two front lots, but whose 
removal had been delayed by the war, in May, 1784, brought 
down his family, and took up his residence here. He was a 
carpenter by trade, had a hand in the construction of several 
wharves, mills, and other structures in this vicinity, and be- 
came a skilful and thriving farmer. One of his first works 
here, was the erection of a building for a dwellinghouse and 
store, on the eastern side of the river above the Smelt creek, 
near the head of tide waters. This was the first framed 
house in that vicinity, standing partly ov^ the water, and 
belonged to Rufus Crane, a young man from Milton, who was 
afterwards followed by his brother Calvin, and had been 
preceded by Samuel Crane, a more distant relative, already 
mentioned, brought up by M. Copeland. He arrived the pre- 
ceding fall, taught scbool at the house of the widow of John 
Boggs, and, the present year, brought goods from Boston and 
commenced trading at McLean's Point. In the autumn, he 
removed to the head of the tide, and opened the first store in 
what has since been the centre of business and the principal 
village of the town. There were there, at this time, no mills, 
and very little cultivated land. David and John Brown had 
cleared a rye field, and built a house and blacksmith's shop, 
not far from the site of the present McLellan house, but were 


now gone. Alexander Bird was in possession of the two lots 
opposite, and had a small house at some distance from the 
river, near the present graveyard. Of him and the Browns, 
Moses Copeland had now obtained a possessory title, and 
commanded both sides of the water privilege. The land on 
each side, including the present village, was covered with 
heavy oak timber ; except in some places, where it had been 
cut away for staves, and been succeeded by a growth of 
hazel bushes, blackberries, and wild cherries.* 

Wild animals, with the exception of the more valuable 
kinds, such as the beaver, sable, and otter, were still abundant. 
Bears and wolves were veiy destructive to sheep and young 
cattle. Fifteen or twenty sheep, when they happened to be 
left out of their pen, were sometimes destroyed by wolves in 
a single night. Barns and hovels were sometimes broken 
into, in order to get at them. Mr. Dunbar's barn being at a 
distance, he made a pen for his sheep back of liis house, 
directly under his window. But this did not deter the ma- 
rauders, who broke or leaped the fence, scattered the sheep, 
and killed several. Bears were less destructive, as they sel- 
dom killed more than they ate ; but their depredations were 
directed equally against swine, calves, and yearling cattle. 
The daughters of Mr. Peabody, on one occasion, encountered 
seven bears in a single excursion to the Burnt-land for blue- 
berries ; but as there was a sufficient supply of berries for 
both parties, neither thought proper to interfere with the other. 
On another occasion, Matthew Kelloch, during the season of 
cherries and blackberries, in passing from Howard's, now 
Weston's, landing, to Mr. Anderson's, shot 14 bears, young and 
old, without going out of his way. Alexander and William 
Igermond, while hunting near Oyster river, were led by the 
tracks of a raccofcn to a hollow tree, which they ascended, 
expecting, by probing the hollow and thumping the trunk, to 
bring him out. Instead of a raccoon, however, they soon 
found the tree was occupied by a bear in a semi-torpid state, 
who refused to leave her quarters. Measuring her distance 
from the top, and marking her situation on the outside of the 
tree, they fired a ball or two at the spot, killed the bear, and, 
falling the tree, found two cubs which they killed with the 
axe as they came out. At Stirling, after repeated depreda- 
tions upon cattle and swine, James Anderson applied to Mr. 
Peabody, who, with the aid of another blacksmith, constructed 
a massive steel trap, almost as heavy as a man could carry. 

* Capt. Crane. D. Dunbar, &c. 


This being set in a favorable place, eight bears were taken, 
before it was moved from the spot. The moose and deer 
had retreated farther back, and were less frequently seen. 
They were, however, still pursued with avidity by the second 
generation that had grown up and become acquainted with 
every yarding place from that of Hart's Falls, much resorted 
to for its open water, to Quantabacook and George's Ponds. 
These hunters had a store-house, at their place of rendezvous 
above Senebec Pond, to which they used to drag the carcasses 
on hand-sleds. At the end of the campaign, the company, 
often 80 or more, broke up, and with their booty returned down 
the river on the ice. Conspicuous among this generation of 
hunters, was Archibald Anderson, 2d, who, on one occasion, 
discovered a young moose swimming beside of his dam across 
Round Pond in Union. Waiting their approach, he shot the 
mother, and made a captive of the young. This, he took home, 
fed, and kept till autumn ; when it had become so tame as to 
go out to browse by day, and return of its own accord at night. 
It was unfortunately found by dogs in the woods, and so lacera- 
ted as to cause its death. In times when, for want of snow, 
the moose could not be easily hunted down, they were often 
taken by nooses of rope suspended in their paths. One of 
these, about this time, was set near Moose Meadow in the 
burnt-land district, by R. Montgomery, J. Watts, and J. Cope- 
land, whilst making hay there. Copeland, with a youngster, 
J. Montgomery, took his gun, and, going to the noose, found 
a large moose entangled by the horns, rearing and stamping 
most furiously. He at first hesitated to fire, lest, breaking 
the rope, the animal should come at him. At length, taking 
his station behind the trunk of a tree, he discharged his piece 
and brought him to the ground. Being dressed and hauled 
home on an ox-sled, the carcass, according tp the recollection 
of the then young man, weighed over one thousand pounds, 
and yielded 50 or 601bs. of tallow. 

The last beaver that is recollected, was killed some years 
after this time in Starrett's meadow, in the upper part of the 
town, by Samuel Dunham, a man who, not long before, came 
from Deer Island, and, together with Timothy Hills, settled 
on the two lots on the west side of Seven-tree Pond, after- 
wards owned by W. Blake, and still occupied by his family. 
The price of beaver, before the war, was usually $3 a 
pound ; and a good skin weighed three pounds. The dams 
and habitations of this sagacious animal, were found in va- 
rious parts of the town, and had done much to facilitate the 
settlement of the country. The ponds which they flowed, 


prevented or destroyed the growth of trees ; and when these 
were drained by the decay of the dams, the wild grass came 
in and formed luxuriant meadows. One of these beaver 
dams crossed the outlet of South Pond, and formed a cross- 
ing place for the early settlers. It was as high as a man's 
head, and occupied the place of the present Stirling bridge, 
on the VValdoboro' road. There were dams, also, across 
Oyster River, particularly at the burnt-land, which gave rise 
to the meadows there. Others existed on Judas' meadow, and 
Crawford's meadow, brooks. A dam also was made across 
the main river at the foot of White Oak pond, which, accord- 
ing to one account, was abandoned after being several times 
carried away by freshets. Another account is, that the estab- 
lishment was broken up by an Indian, who, having destroyed 
their habitations, lay in wait, and shot twenty-one, as they 
successively rose from the water. These interesting animals, 
having performed their work and prepared the way for our 
ancestors, were, like their Indian contemporaries, entrapped, 
hunted, and compelled to retreat before the encroaching step 
of industry and civilization. The animal here called the cat- 
fawn, probably the black-cat, or fisher, whose skin bore a 
price about equal to that of a red fox, together with the sable, 
lingered a while longer, and also disappeared. The otter is 
occasionally found even to the present day. 

Agriculture had made but small progress during the war. 
The interruption of business, and unpropitious seasons, had 
prevented the accumulation of capital ; and there was a 
great want of farming tools. Col. Starrett and Mr. Pebbles 
possessed the only two carts at this time in town, although 
Capt. Mclntyre, and probably Mr, Boggs, had previously had 
such a vehicle. Mr. Dunbar now brought a third, which was 
sought for by the neighbors, near and remote, even as far as 
Mr. Boggs's, and yielded considerable income. This was 
occasionally rigged with a long tongue and shafts for carry- 
ing lumber, and was the first machine in the place on which 
it could be carried free from the ground. The first breaking 
up plow was owned by Wm. Boggs, and was also in great 
request. Being, with its owner, employed one day by the 
sons of Dea. Crawford, among cradle-knolls and hazel roots, 
the old gentleman observed its working, in silence, till night, 
when he exclaimed, " deed, lads, ye've made the land look 
iL'aur than it did before." 

The only pleasure-carriage was a sleigh, owned by Peb- 
bles, with unshod wooden runners. One double sleigh with 
bells, had been seen in the place. Thfe belonged to one Col. 


Noyes, of Booth bay, who paid a visit to Mr. Cooper, and, as 
he stopped at Mclntyre's and thence crossed the river on the 
ice, drew together a large crowd of spectators.* 


EXTENDING FROM 178-t TO 1789. 

The injurious effect of a fluctuating currency, was strik- 
ingly exemplified at this time by the paper money, or emis- 
sions of^ State and Continental bills; which had depreciated 
to 50 for 1, in 1780, soon after to 150 for 1, and finally to 
several hundreds for one, till they ceased to be a tender, and 
went out of circulation. Many persons, trusting to their 
ultimate redemption by the government, saw their whole 
fortune vanish in these bills. Many, who had sold property 
on credit, were obliged, at the time of payment, to take this 
paper or lose their debt entirely. Patterson and Mathews, 
mentioned before, were not the only ones in this place who 
suffered. Mr. Cooper had bargained away his farms before 
the war commenced, and given a bond for a deed on the 
payment of a given sum. Mr. Dunbar obtained the money 
when considerably depreciated, and sent it down by W. 
Thomas, representative from Waldoboro'. He was long in 
returning ; and, before the money was tendered, it had 
undergone a still farther depreciation ; so that, with the fur- 
ther loss which it sustained in his own hands, Mr. Cooper 
realized little or nothing from it. Having, some years before, 
given away his two back lots, one to David Y. Kelloch, and 
the other to his grandson John Montgomery, ten acres, which 
he reserved, where James C. Dunbar now lives, and a new 
dwellinghouse which he built upon it, was all that remain- 
ed of his patrimonial fortune. t 

In the mean time, as new emigrants arrived, and young 
men grew up, new farms were taken, and the settlement 
gradually extended. Archibald Crawford went on to the 
farm above the upper mill lot, and built a house near Hart's 
falls. At a subsequent period, Crawford took his father's 

* D. and A. Dunbar. A. KeUoch, 2d. D. Dicke. H. M. Watts. 
J. Montgomery. J. Rokes. S. Peabody. J. Payson, &c. 
t D. and A. Dunbar. J. Montgomery. 



farm for tho support of his parents, and relinquished his own 
to Stephen March, Esq., who came from N. H. about 1794, 
and, after residing here a few years, removed to Union and 
afterwards to Ohio. James Mathews, and probably James 
Fisher, about this time, and Lemuel Counce, a little earlier, 
went on to the farms now occupied by their respective sons. 
Eliakim, John, and Nathan Libbey, had, a year or two 
before this period, taken up their farms, now occupied by 
Mero Kelloch, Alexander Libbey, J. Stevens, and others. 
They, with their wives, were now established in their respec- 
tive log-houses ; and the oak forest was rapidly giving way 
to fields of rye and wheat around them. Whippoorwills 
hatched their eggs within a few rods of the houses, and gave 
a nightly serenade at the threshold. Bears claimed a share 
of the acorns and whortleberries. One Sunday afternoon, 
the wife of Nathan Libbey left her child with her husband, 
and ran down to the brother's below. After spending an 
hour or two, she set out to return, but on her way perceiv- 
ed a large bear in the top of a lofty oak, and, fearful he 
might escape if she returned, remained at the tree till her 
cries brought the men, who soon dispatched him with their 

The tract thus taken up by the Libbeys, had also been ex- 
amined with a view to settlement by the sons of M. Copeland, 
who commenced a suit against them, but finally abandoned 
their claim, and took possession of several lots on the western 
side of North Pond. These lots, when their attention was 
afterwards directed to the head of the tide, they transferred 
to their relatives, Samuel Crane, Calvin Crane, and Elijah 
Vose, who, about 1787, settled on them, and became indus- 
trious and wealthy farmers. Calvin Crane soon after relin- 
quished his lot to Seth Vose, and removed to Hope, but 
returned to Warren and spent his last years at the residence 
of his second wife, the widow of J. Mclntyre, 2d- Jn the 
eastern part of the town, beybnd Peabody's, were now settled 
Joseph Skinner and John Lermond, the former on the farm 
now of J. Clark, and the latter near where C. Copeland now 
lives. Lermond, disliking the soil at the Burnt-land, removed 
before the close of the war, took up a large tract of land, and 
erected a saw and grist-mill at Cherry Meadow. Such was 
his facility in constructing mills, that often, with few carpen- 
ter's tools and no help but his own, he would have up a saw- 
mill before his neighbors w^ere aware of his design. Several 
such mills, slightly constructed, were built by him, and did 
good service till carried away by freshets, or removed to some 


more favorable spot. But on this occasion, when a grist-mill 
was to be added, greater stability was required, and more as- 
sistance needed. Accordingly, the neighbors, as far out as 
Crawford's and Kirkpatrick's, turned out with their cattle to 
aid in the work. As the mill at Oyster river worked slowly, 
was interrupted by the tide, and often overstocked, the new 
mill was regarded with favor ; and Deacon Crawford observed 
at Watts's, on his return from the raising, that " Johnny Ler- 
mond is a public blessing ; it's a pity he should e'er die." 
After some years, these mills also went away, in time of a 
freshet, whilst the saw-mill was in operation ; and the owner 
with difficulty escaped. The materials, however, were picked 
lip lower down ; ai||l, by autumn, the mills appeared again in a 
more eligible situation, where that of N. Cobb has since been. 
Two years after the present time, Daniel Rokes, before men- 
tioned, and Abner Farrington, originally from Dedham, but. 
for several years an inhabitant of the lower town, took their 
respective lots farther out towards the north-east. 

Shipbuilding was this year resumed ; and the sloop Warren 
was built by M. Copeland at his own shore. This sloop was 
commanded by Jonathan Sprague of Duxbury, W. Thomas 
of VValdoboro' having purchased one-half of her. Encour- 
aged by this attempt, Mr. Copeland erected a house near the 
ship-yard for his workmen, and prepared to pursue the business 

With the increase of inhabitants, the fisheries in the river 
assumed an additional importance ; and, as the fish had never 
yet been caught in wiers, and were taken only at the upper 
falls in dip-nets, the eagerness and competition of the people 
from all the settlements on the river, sometimes gave rise to 
difficulties and contentions about the most favorable stations 
for taking them. To obviate these, it was this year voted, 
" that there be a committee chosen to make a town act 
about the ale wife fishery," and J. Mclntyre, VV. Lermond, 
and J. Watts, were chosen a committee for that purpose. 

1785. This act was approved the following year; but 
its provisions cannot now be ascertained. May 2d, voted 
" that Mr. Cooper shall see that there is no ale wives catched 
on Saturday, he to have four a day for his trouble." Sept. 
8, voted " that there shall be no obstruction built in the river 
at the falls, or below them, that shall hinder the fish from 
going up the said river to cast their spawn." This vote, 
probably, had reference to the erection of a saw-mill and 
dam at the upper falls, then in contemplation ; and was the 
commencement of that jealousy between mills and fisheries 


which has continued, more or less, down to the present day. 
And when we consider the important services which these 
fisheries had rendered to the early settlers, frequently sus- 
taining hfe, and carrying them through seasons of scarcity 
when all other resources failed, we cannot wonder at the 
watchfulness which was, and continued to be, exercised over 

A brig was, this year, built for W. Thomas, in the yard of 
Mr. Copeland, who furnished all the timber. The work was 
performed by Samuel Weston, who had served in the late 
war, and who now removed hither from Duxbury, spending 
the first year in the house which Copeland had built near the 
ship-yard. The next season, he put up«i log-house at the 
shore of Col. Starrett, on the old McCraken cellar, and 
built there the sloop Union for Starrett, Killeran, and others. 
The year after, 1787, having purchased of Alexander Bird a 
tract of land at the head of the tide, he took down his house, 
rafted the logs up the river, and put them up again where A. 
McCallum now lives, having previously cleared a patch there 
of the heavy oak timber which he burnt on the soil. Here 
at first, and afterwards a little lower down, he continued the 
business of ship-building, more or less, to the close of his 

The Lermonds, also, in 1785, with J. Wyllie and others, 
built the sloop Friendship, which Capts. Henderson and 
Norton, also part owners, commanded in turn, coasting to 
Boston or carrying lumber to the W. Indies for many years. 
This sloop made many profitable voyages ; and brought home 
large supplies of W. I. goods. 

It was this year, we believe, that Reuben Tolman, from 
some part of the old Plymouth colony, purchased the Urqu- 
hart farm, and set up his trade as a blacksmith. He became 
an active member of the Baptist church, and in 1802 remov- 
ed to the plantation of Hope or Barrettstown. 

On the 8th of September, the road on the eastern side of 
the river was approved, and became the first highway legally 
established in town. But that on the western side, delayed 
for an alteration, was not accepfed till 1803. These roads 
did not materially vary from the present route ; but that on 
the western side, as first traveled between Nelson's and 
Boggs's, passed round further west, near the present house 
of E. B. Alford. Measures were also taken to lay out a 
road from E. Libbey's to Union line. 

The town being now fairly rid of Mr. Urquhart, the 
people began to think of providing a successor, and, in May, 


voted, " that the town hh'e Rev. Thurston Whiting to preach 
for a certain time." This gentleman, in consequence of 
some irregularities, had been dismissed from the ministry at 
Newcastle, in Jan. 1782. He was subsequently employed at 
Edgecomb; and, in June, 1783, a council was convened 
there, and restored him to good standing as a Congregational 
minister. His preaching was highly appreciated at Edge- 
comb, and his installation in that place was in contemplation. 
It did not, however, take place ; and he was now in search 
of employment as a preacher or instructor. He was a 
native of Franklin, Mass., entered Harvard College, but 
seems to have left before receiving his degree, possessed a 
literary taste, a classical style, a pleasing address, and sel- 
dom failed to interest and move his audience.* 

At the March meeting, it was also voted '' that the town 
have a town school this year." Voted " M. Copeland, W. 
Lermond, and J. Watts, for a committee to hire a school- 
master." This was the first provision which the town had 
made for a public school. The instructor employed was 
Mr. O'Brien, before mentioned, who seems to have taught 
eight months, one half on each side of the river. On the 
eastern side, the vacant house on the present Haskell, farm, 
was used for a school-house. 

The officers of the militia regiment, M. Wheaton, Wm. 
Farnsworth, and H. Robinson, having honorably discharged 
their duties through the arduous struggle of the revolution, 
now felt themselves at liberty to retire, and were succeeded 
by Thomas Starrett, Colonel ; Benjamin Burton, Lieut. Col- 
onel ; and Hatevil Libbey, Major. Robert Porterfield was 
appointed Adjutant. During the war, the military spirit had 
increased, and commissions were held in more honorable 
repute ; yet so little were the decorations of office regarded, 
that none of these officers wore any uniform, except Burton, 
who had acquired his in the regular service. The places of 
Starrett and Libbey, left vacant by this election, were sub- 
sequently supplied by J. Mclntyre, who was again chosen 
Captain, and Reuben Hall, Lieut. Ensign Kelloch was 
succeeded by Alexander Lermond, 2d ; whose commission 
was signed by Gov. Bowdoin, Aug. 4, 1785. 

As no tax was voted to be raised this year, it is probable 
that the sale of timber and salt hay on the public lots, was 
sufficient for the necessary expenses. The amount thus rcal- 

* Greenleaf' s Eccl. Sketches, &c. 


ized from lands given for the support of a school and the 
ministry, might have had some influence, also, in inducing 
the town to make some provision for those objects, lest the 
lots should be resumed by the representatives of the grantor. 
Indeed, great interest was felt at this time, not only in these, 
but in the subject of land titles in general. It had been cus- 
tomary, before the war, to take up wild lands, on the express 
or implied understanding, that a title would be given when- 
ever the ordinary price should be paid. ' This practice in the 
absence of the proprietors, had been continued from neces- 
sity during the war ; and many persons here, as well as in 
other parts of the country, had erected buildings and made 
other valuable improvements on lands, to which they had no 
other title than that of possession. Government had, in con- 
sequence of the hardships suffered in the recent war, taken 
measures to quiet those who had thus settled on the public 
lands of the State, for a mere nominal sum ; and, as a great 
portion of the Waldo patent had been confiscated with the 
rest of Fluker's estate, and thus become public property, many 
of the settlers here, thought the same terms ought in equity 
to be extended to them. It had passed, however, or was 
about passing, partly by sale, and partly by inheritance, into 
the hands of Gen. Henry Knox, the son-in-law of Fluker, and 
administrator on his estate, appointed the preceding year, 
1784. Although this gentleman had been distinguished dur- 
ing the war for warm patriotism and eminent military services, 
he was personally unknown to the people here, who could 
not, consequently, place much dependence on his leniency as 
a landlord. It was not strange, therefore, that in common 
with the rest of the eastern country, the citizens of this town 
should feel great interest, and no little concern, on this 
subject. In May of the present year, the town appointed 
M. Copeland, P. Pebbles, W. Boggs, W. Lermond, and 
A. Kelloch, a committee " to write a petition to the 
General Court." In consequence, a petition, probably 
written by the chairman of the committee and signed by 
two of the selectmen, was presented to the Legislature, 
stating in substance that in the contract with the original 
settlers here, many conditions promised, such as finishing 
off the meeting-house, the assignment of 10 acres of 
marsh or meadow to each settler, and the grant of 100 acres 
of land to each child born prior to 1752, had never been ful- 
filled on the part of the proprietors ; and, on this account, 
and because the settlers had " suffered grate Clamaty in a 
savig wilderness and in the late contast with Grate Britton," 


the petitioners prayed that the claim of said proprietors might 
not be confirmed by the General Court, but left to be decided 
by a jury in due course of law. This petition was signed 
May 14th, and, in connexion probably with many others, 
seems to have had some weight, as, in July, the Court proposed 
to confirm to the Waldo proprietors a tract equal to 30 miles 
square, between the Penobscot and Muscongus, on condition 
that they would quiet all such settlers as were in possession 
of their lots prior to April 19, 1775.* 

Though this made no provision for those who had settled 
since the war began, yet, as it barred any claim the proprie- 
tors might have for quit- rents, and, perhaps, removed the 
restrictions on the lime quarries reserved in the conveyance to 
the 20 associates, it in some degree quieted the minds of the 
people here. 

1786. Settlers continued to arrive. John Andrews of 
Dedham had, the preceding year, purchased McLean's estate 
at what is now called Andrews's Point, and, Oct. 13, 1785, 
arrived with his family, and took up his abode at that place. 
He was a wheelwright by trade, a faithful workman, and, 
from the general want of articles in his line, here, found no 
lack of employment. His purchase included the lands oc- 
cupied by his grandsons, Silas, Seth, and John Andrews, 
together with that of Thomas Howard, the pine tree in front 
of Capt. Jameson's house being near its northern corner. 
At this time, some of the apple-trees set out by McLean, in 
1763, were still living. But the rest being dead, Mr. An- 
drews, shortly after, set others in their place ; these in turn, 
either from the want of care or an unfavorable soil, dwindled 
away by degrees, and two of them only, now remain. At 
or before this time, apple-trees were planted, also, by T. Star- 
rett, J. Mclntyre, Wm. Boggs, and J. Crawford, Jr. ; and cur- 
rants, red cherries, and damson plums, were possessed by 

There was still a scarcity of mechanics ; and, in the pres- 
ent year, several carpenters and joiners came from the west- 
ward to supply the deficiency. Aaron Davis came from 
Wrentham, Mass., worked at the joiner's trade, and settled in 
the upper part of Warren. He had been a soldier in the 
revolution, was present at the taking of Cornwall is, sustained 
several offices in the militia of this town, and, for several 
years before his death, received a pension from Government. 

* Petition on file in Mass. E,ec. Jour. House, 1784 and 1785. 2 
WiU. His. p. 584. 


Jacob p. Davis came about tbe same time, worked at the 
same business, lived on the place next above his brother's for . 
a few years, and in 1794 settled with Willing Blake, on the 
farm now owned by Wm. Payson. James Standish came 
from Duxbury or Hanover, and worked, this season, with Mr. 
Weston on the sloop Union, at Starrett's. He commenced 
clearing, with the intention of settling, the farm which he 
afterwards sold to Amos Lawrence, whose sons still live upon 
it. Standish and Weston were, for some time, the principal 
ship-builders in town ; as will appear from Table XIII. 

The old meeting-house having stood forty-six years, most 
of the time without glass or doors, and its situation being 
thought not sufficiently central or convenient, the town this 
year began to take measures preparatory to the construction 
of a new one, and voted, June 12th, on the report of a large 
committee, " to set the meeting-house on Wm. Robinson's 
land, between the town road and the river." Mr. Whiting 
was again employed for nine weeks, boarded at Major 
Libbey's, and preached, a part of the time, at Thomaston 
and other places. 

This year was memorable for the first dam across the 
main river, and the erection of a saw-mill, at the upper 
falls. Mr. Pebbles, who inherited the lot which his father 
was prevented by the Indians from settling, with the consent 
of Mr. Ray, transferred the irons of their mill at Back River 
to that place, and contracted with some of the young Craw- 
fords to put up a mill there, on condition of keeping three 
quarters to themselves and leaving one quarter to Ray and 
Pebbles. This was completed on the eastern bank of the 
river ; W^iiliam and Samuel Boggs, some time after, built 
another saw-mill on the opposite side ; and both mills 
continued to run till they were purchased, with the Pebbles 
lot, by Gen. Knox in 1796. This dam was furnished with 
flood gates, and the pond annually drawn off, during the 
fishing season. 

The close of this year, or beginning of the next, was 
also distinguished by the arrival of James W, Head, and 
the commencement of his career as a merchant. He was 
a native of Boston, was apprenticed to Clark & Nightingale, 
merchants of Providence, enlisted in 1779 into the govern- 
ment service on board the Queen of France, was captured 
at Charleston when Gen. Lincoln surrendered, and remained 
a prisoner about three months. Having come this year to 
Bristol, where two of his brothers had just commenced 
trading, though they afterwards removed to Waldoboro', 


he now decided on commencing business in this town. Mc- 
Lean's, or Andrew's Point, was selected, as the most eligible 
situation, and Mr. Andrews applied to for leave to erect a 
store there. This, the latter refused to give, on the ground 
that the customers would occasion him too much trouble in 
passing through his fields. Had he consented, the bridge 
would probably have been built there ; the mills erected at 
the lower ripplings, as proposed by Capt. McLean ; the 
meeting-house located at Robinson's, according to the vote 
this year passed ; and the features of the town assumed an 
appearance very different from the present. Disappointed 
in this quarter. Head proceeded up the river to the site of 
the present village, where Rev. Mr. Whiting and Moses 
Copeland, now jointly interested in the mill-lots on the 
western side, were preparing, in connexion with some others, 
to erect mills and a dwellinghouse. Here, he succeeded 
in hiring the house and store of Rufus Crane, whose stock 
of goods was now nearly exhausted ; and, in the spring of 
1787, brought down goods and commenced trading. 

This building, which stood above the Smelt creek, as before 
related, together with the log-house of Mr. Weston on the hill 
opposite, were the only buildings then there. In the former 
of these, April 12, 1787, was born Moses Crane, the first 
white child born in the village. Mr. Copeland soon after put 
up a log-house on the site of Col. Head's present store, to 
which Mr. Crane then removed. Alexander Bird had a small 
house near the present grave-yard ; and Joseph Copeland and 
John Watts were settled on their respective farms, the former 
at Burton's corner, and the latter where Robert Montgomery 
now lives. 

The two preceding winters had been remarkable for their 
severity. In that of 1785 — 6, the snow was very deep, and 
so hard crusted that loaded teams might pass upon it over 
fields and fences in every direction. The night of Tuesday, 
the 18th of January, was thought to be the coldest ever expe- 
rienced in New England. Daniel Dunbar, on the last of 
April, was hauling boards from Peabody's mill to the landing 
near James Kirkpatrick's, when the snow was more than 
two feet deep the whole distance. He continued to haul 
in this manner till the 3d of May; and so little frost 
was there, beneath this deep covering of snow, that, on 
the next day, he commenced plowing his ground. The 
opening of spring was so long delayed, that the crop of 
breadstuff was exhausted ; and a universal scarcity prevailed 
on the river, until the coasters got to running and brought a 


supply from Boston. Nature again seemed to pity the condi- 
tion of the people, and sent the shad and alewives at an ear- 
lier period than usual. Farrington and J. Lermond had sent 
up a lot of boards for corn, and were anxiously waiting for 
the return of the vessel. The former went down to the falls 
and tried to procure a few fish ; but, not succeeding, potatoes 
were his only resource. On the following Sunday, feeling 
unable to endure longer, he went out to Mr. Watts's, who 
had wintered a few sheep for him, with a determination to 
kill one of them, even at that unfavorable season. Mr. Watts 
dissuaded him from his purpose, offered him his net, and ad- 
vised him to try for fish, notwithstanding the Sabbath. This 
he did with success, taking as many shad as he could carry 
home, besides several alewives which he distributed to others 
in a condition similar to his own. On his way home, he came 
across a porcupine, which he killed with a club, and thus ob- 
tained a supply of animal food. Still, bread was wanting ; and 
a northerly wind forbade any expectation of the vessel's 
speedy arrival. On Monday morning, however, Lermond's 
boy came with the joyful news of her being in the river. 
They set off, with bags, immediately. On arriving at Oyster 
river, they were invited to breakfast, as usual, on condition, 
however, that they could dispense with bread ; as none could 
be furnished till the corn was landed and the mill set a going. 
The arrival of this vessel aflx^rded a partial supply ; but the 
scarcity continued ; many were destitute for several days at a 
time ; and even Col. Starrett, remarkable for prudence and 
care, did not escape the evil. Mr. Rokes, who had been but 
one year on his new farm, lived a long time on alewives and 
the tongue-plant, (Dracsena) boiled for greens ; and contin- 
ued, though with a feeble hand, to clear his ground in expect- 
ation of future crops and better limes. The fall of 1786 
was so dry, that, in the early part of November, a person 
might, at low water, walk across the river on the stones without 
wetting a shoe. On the 14th of the same month, the river 
froze up sufficiently hard to bear a horse and sleigh as far 
down as Watson's point. On the next day, the ice extended 
to the mouth of the river, and did not break up again till the 
26th of March. The sloop Warren, then loading for the 
West Indies, was frozen in, and lay at the wharf in Thomas- 
ton all winter. A trading vessel, commanded by a Captain 
Young, was caught above the lower ripplings, and was unable 
to disengage herself till the following May. The drought 
continued through the winter ; water was very scarce ; and 
people had to go to Medumcook and Damariscotta for grind- 


ing. The cold was severe ; the snow very deep, and scarcely 
showed signs of melting till March. On the 10th of April, 
the snow was still so deep and hard crusted, that teams might 
pass over all the fences without obstruction. 

The road to Thomaston, recently laid out, was as yet little 
more than marked trees ; and the river was still the principal 
highway. A path existed, past Capt. Payson's to Thomas's 
in Waldoboro', by which, through some half dozen sets of 
bars, a person might go there for a physician ; Doct. Schaef- 
fer, or Shepherd, as usually styled by the English, being still 
in high repute. On that road, besides Capt. Payson and 
Nathan Sprague, before mentioned, John Sidensberger had 
now established himself near the town line ; and Robert, the 
eldest of Mr. Spear's ten sons, was building a house, and 
about to take the mill, and settle where he still resides. A 
road was, this year, voted to be laid out by way of Stirling, 
over the beaver dam to Waldoboro', and another to Union by 
N. Libbey's. 

Settlements had been, at this time, recently commenced, by 
Joseph and Samuel Jameson, on the peninsula below the great 
bend in the river. These came originally from Friendship. 
Their widowed mother, marrying Wm. James, removed her 
numerous family to his farm in this town, now occupied by 
L. VVyllie, M. Comery, and others. Joseph's possession in- 
cluded the Vaughan farms, which he, in 1797, sold to Miles 
Cobb, and removed to Senebeck. Samuel, dying, was suc- 
ceeded by his brother George, who was an energetic farmer, 
and became a forehanded man, ending his days there. To 
these, was soon added Thomas Robinson, a deserter from the 
British army, who settled on the lot now owned by J. C. How- 
land ; and in 1794, Alexander Kelloch (2nd), took up the 
intermediate lot, and, with an axe, all the property he posses- 
sed, commenced clearing the land, which he successfully 
cultivated during the active portion of his life. The tract 
lately built on by George F. Starrett, was originally taken up 
during the revolution, by John Mingerson, who married a 
daughter of Mr. Gamble. He removed to Boston, and his title 
passed into the hands of Col. T. Starrett, with whose posterity 
both it and its valuable quarries still remain. 

The opening of Mr. Head's store, was not the only ad- 
vance made, this year, at what is now the principal village. 
M. Copeland and Rev. Mr. Whiting, erected a grist-mill and 
a dwell inghouse there ; to ihe latter of which, now occupied 
by Wm. Hovey, when finished the subsequent year, Mr. 
Whiting removed. They jointly built the grist-mill and one 


half the dam ; whilst R. Hall and D. Dunbar built the re- 
maining half of the dam, together with a saw-mill on the east- 
ern side, on condition of being joint owners of one half said 
saw-mill ; the other being retained by Copeland. The river 
was, in that place, narrower than it has since become. The 
grist-mill stood at the south-west corner of the present dam, 
at the western bank, which then extended to that point. A 
year or two after, the freshet was pretty high, and water 
began to run across the point west of the mill, and before 
morning, had made a complete channel, and left the mill 
entirely insulated. Thousands of tons could not repair the 
breach so suddenly made. In addition to these appearances 
of activity, ship-building was commenced for the first time 
in the same vicinity, by Mr. Weston, who, this year, built the 
sloop Jane for J. VVyllie, Alexander and Wm. Lermond, and 
R. Henderson. She was commanded by Wyllie, and em- 
ployed in the coasting trade. 

The present federal constitution having been agreed upon 
and reported to the several States by delegates assembled at 
Philadelphia, a State convention was ordered to meet in Bos- 
ton, in the ensuing January, to take the same into considera- 
tion. To attend this convention, the people of Warren, Dec. 
31st, made choice of James W. Head for their delegate. 

1788. An additional stop towards the erection of a new 
house of worship, was taken, by appointing a committee to draw 
a plan of a meeting-house, and make an estimation of the cost 
of building the same ; and, notwithstanding the vote of the 
preceding year, a committee was appointed to look out a suit- 
able situation for it. By this time, some little rivalship seems 
to have sprung up, between the different localities, in respect 
to the principal village and seat of business. The mills and 
other buildings erected by Copeland and Whiting, the store 
of Head, to which he this year added a dvvellinghouse, (the 
one now occupied by R. W. Jarvis,) and the ship-building 
carried on by Weston, gave an impulse to business in that 
quarter, and no equivocal indications of its rising importance. 
A blacksmith's shop was also erected, near where the barn of 
the late T. Burton now stands, by Miles Cobb ; who, not far 
from this time, purcliased J. Copeland's buildings and a portion 
of his land, and soon after built the dwellinghouse which said 
Burton's widow now inhabits. He was from Bridgwater, 
came hither as an apprentice with R. Tolman, and was now 
vigorously pursuing his occupation. The growing pretensions 
of this place, probably led to a combination of rival interests ; 
and, at a subsequent meeting in June, the town voted to buil^l 


a bridge across the river, above the great falls, another from 
Robinson's to Andrews's shores, and to build a meeting-house 
on Robinson's land, as determined in 1786. 

The rate of labor on the highway, was this year fixed 
at 4s. for a man, 2s. for a yoke of oxen, and Is. for a cart 
or plow, per day. Good mechanics at this time received 
4s. 6d., and common laborers 2s. 8d. per day. Prices, in 
general, were proportionally low. According to Mr. Head, 
pine boards, for many years, were $S per thousand, oak 
plank $15, and masts $10, payment being made in goods, 
on which a profit was charged. 

In filling the vacancy, this year, in the militia company, 
occasioned by the resignation of Capt. Mclntyre, John Spear 
was/chosen Captain ; and S. Payson, Jr., and R. Crane, who 
had acquired some experience in the army, were his efficient 

Prior to this year, it would seem, from the records, that 
the town had taken no part in the election of Governor, 
Lieut. Governor, and Senators. But whether this was 
actually the case, or whether it was not thought necessary 
to enter in the town book a record which was attested and 
sealed up in open town meeting, we are unable to say. 
From this time such votes appear on record, and may be 
found by consulting Table VIII. 

In consequence of an important omission in the resolve 
of 1785, confirming the Patent to the heirs of Waldo, and 
to prevent opposition to having the same rectified by the 
General Court, Knox, administrator on Fluker's estate, made 
an offer to all persons in possession of lands, who would 
come forward and sign an agreement to pay for the same at 
4s. per acre in seven years, to confirm the same to them by 
deed on such payment being made. Most of the settlers 
signed the agreement ; but some, and particularly those who 
had purchased lands sold for the payment of taxes, refused, 
although Knox offered to deduct the sums actually paid. 

Among the persons who had, within a few years past, been 
added to the neighborhood, were Benjamin Webb, John 
Fairbanks, and Ezekiel G. Dodge. The last of these, son 
of a clergyman of Pembroke, the present year, established 
himself as a regular physician at Micah Packard's public 
house, but settled in Thomaston, and had a large practice 
in that and the neighboring towns. Fairbanks was a good 
singer, and the first on the river who taught vocal music 
scientifically ; was employed in this and other towns as a 
teacher not only of music but of common town schools ; 



commenced clearing the J. Leach lot, but relinquished it, 
and removed to Hope. Webb, a native of Boston, came 
somewhat earlier, and kept a small assortment of dry goods, 
first at Packard's, and afterwards at Union. Unsuccessful 
in trade and other projects which he formed, he, about this 
time, studied physic with Dr Jl^dge, and commenced practice 
under his auspices. 

1789. On the 28th of January, 1789, the lower plan- 
tation of St. George's, including the present towns of Gush- 
ing and St. George, long the friendly ally and generous rival 
of Warren, was incorporated into a town, and named 
Gushing, in honor of the Lieut. Governor. 

George Washington, first President of the United States 
under the new constitution, being inaugurated at New York 
on the 30th April of this year, the government commenced 
its career by adopting measures for protecting American in- 
dustry and commerce, and the resuscitation of credit and 


FROM THE YEAR 1789 TO 1793. 

In Warren, settlers continued to arrive. Josiah Mero from 
Dedham, commenced work as a blacksmith at Mr. Andrews's ; 
in a year or two after, erected a shop and small dwellinghouse 
near the site of James Andrevvs's present shop ; and a few 
years later, removed to the head of the tide. Having been a 
revolutionary soldier, he received a pension from government 
for something like twenty years, till his death in 1844. Isaac 
Fuller, also, had a blacksmith's shop at Capt. Spear's ; but 
the time of his coming here from Bridgwater, is not precisely 
known. He had probably been here a few years, as, about 
this time, he settled on the farm above Judas' Meadow brook, 
where a part of his posterity reside. James Cox, originally 
from Pembroke, but who had for some years resided in St. 
George, was now settled on the farm above, (since owned by 
the late Hatevil Libbey, 3d,) and had probably been there a 
year or two before. Francis Young, born in Gushing, but 
for some time a resident of this town, had taken up and was 
preparing to settle the lot above Bosworth's, where his son, 


Alexander, still resides. Jesse Rogers, son-in-law of Mr. 
Boswortli, had succeeded Timothy Hills, then deceased, on 
the farm next below Dunham's. There were others employed 
as mechanics at this time ; among whom may be mentioned, 
Thomas Morison, from Peterboro', N. H., who built a second 
saw-mill, for himself and Mr. Copeland, at the village ; where 
he subsequently lived several years in the house of R. Crane ; 
and Major James Keith, from Bridgwater, a revolutionary offi- 
cer, and a good framer, who, on the death of Mr. Cooper, 
purchased his house and land. James Carven, a native of 
Ireland, was living below D. Dunbar's, and, about 1806, built 
the house now occupied by J. Starrett, Jr. Lore Alford, a 
tanner, from Hartford, Conn., settled on one of the lots in 
the northern part of the town, which had been sold about this 
time for taxes due from non-resident proprietors. His pur- 
chase extended from Crawford's pond to Seven-tree pond, but 
selling the western portion to Capt. Aaron Davis, he settled 
on the other, and carried on farming and tanning, till his 
death in 1818, having been an early member and deacon 
of the Baptist church. He was this year appointed surveyor 
of highways, for the new road which the town directed the 
selectmen to lay out on the eastern side of the river to Union. 
Wm. Mormon, a native of Wales, Eng. settled, not long 
after, on the lot since owned by A. Russel. 

In a town tax, assessed this year, in which the polls were 
rated at 2s. each, and a common 100 acre lot of unimproved 
land, at Is. 4d., the first class of tax payers, were, John 
Spear, £1 15s. 4d. ; Thomas Starrett, £1 6s.; and Wm. 
Lermond, c£l 2s. 6d. The second class, paying from 15 to 
20s. were as follows; Wm. Boggs, H. Libbey, Moses Cope- 
land, Patrick Pebbles, Alexander Lermond, D. Dunbar, J. 
Mclntyre, R. Hall, J. Watts, and J. Wyllie. Capt. J. Spear, 
this year, commenced ship-building, with the schooner Indus- 
try, built by S. Weston, and commanded by Archibald Mc- 
Kellar of St. George. 

1790. About this time, the first ox-wagon was introduc- 
ed by Jolin Lermond, who, seeing one used by Mr. Walcot 
of Union, was so struck by its advantages, that he immediately 
purchased and drove it home, exciting much curiosity as he 
passed. He now occupied a large tract of land, including 
the present farms of C. Copeland, N. Cobb, and Ira Robinson. 
At the raising of his barn, on the 2d of Sept., one entire side 
of the frame fell, slightly injuring several persons, and so 
rbadly crushing John Rokes, then 17 years of age, that his 
life was despaired of. He, after a long time, so far recover- 


ed, however, as to clear more acres of land, for himself and 
other people, than, perhaps, any other person in town. 

Benjamin Bracket and Samuel Davis, this year, came from 
Boston, and commenced business in partnership as mer- 
chants. Mr. Head having now transferred his goods to his 
new dwellinghouse, and Mr. Crane returned to his own, 
the firm occupied a part of the latter, and carried on potash 
works near by, on the other side of the creek. Bracket 
lived in the house which Mr. Copeland, the following year, 
built for his accommodation, where A. Counce's now stands ; 
and, about 1803, built for himself the one now belonging 
to Alexander McCallum. In 1792, the firm erected the store 
lately occupied by R. W. Jarvis, which at first stood on the 
point of land, now island, where the Hawk building stands.* 

A new and eccentric character made his appearance, 
about this time, in the person of John Sullivan, a native of 
Dublin, Ireland, who, for many years, was an occasional res- 
ident in the town, and repaid the trouble he occasioned, by 
the merriment he produced, and the literary taste he assisted 
to form. He had made respectable attainments in science, 
and possessed a highly cultivated taste in literature ; but was 
subject to periodical fits of intemperance, and an appetite for 
strong drink, which, while the fit lasted, nothing could re- 
strain or appease. He had been employed in various places, 
between here and Pennsylvania, either in teaching or making 
shoes, in both which he excelled ; leaving one place after an- 
other, as his excesses made his departure alike welcome to 
his own feelings and the convenience of his employers. 
Having formed an acquaintance with his Catholic country- 
men, O^Brien and Carven, he was a long time employed as a 
teacher in the school-house which stood on Col. Starrett's 
land, a little above the present house of Deacon Singer. 
Here, his skill as a teacher, saving his prejudice against the 
" silver spoons", as he called the darlings and favorites of 
their parents, was highly approved ; while his companionable 
properties, and never failing good humor, induced the people 
to overlook the vacations, made necessary by his infirmity. 
Boarding round, as a school-master then, as now, was expected 
to do, he at one time left a boarding-house before supper, and 
arrived at a new one when supper there was over. Waiting 

* S. Davis. On their first \dsit to the place, in search of a situa- 
tion, they put up at Mclntyre's, made known then- object, and in 
reply to their inquiries respecting the prospect, were told in the most 
gutteral tones of the host, " work or starve, work or starve." 


sometime with no prospect of any thing to eat, he called 
for a candle, saying he must go and look for his supper, 
which he believed he had lost somewhere between the two 
houses. The anecdotes of Swift, the sublime passages of 
Milton, and the whole of Young's Night Thoughts, were at 
his tongue's end. Taking up the last of these, at Rufus 
Crane's, who told him he was unable to read the book and 
wished he would teach him ; " find your place," said he. 
" Any place," said Crane, " it is all alike to me." " Open 
your book," said Sullivan. C. opened, promiscuously, at 
one of the Nights, and handed him the book. " Keep it," 
said S., and immediately commenced repeating, and went 
through with the whole chapter without missing a word. In 
the school-house before named, he had his chest well stored 
with favorite authors, and containing some thirty or forty 
quires of arithmetical and algebraical solutions of curious and 
difficult questions, with a variety of contractions and short 
methods, which he had discovered, of performing common 
operations. These, he intended to abridge and publish. 
But one unlucky morning having kindled a fire as usual and 
gone back to breakfast, on his return he found the house 
enveloped in flames, and his chest and books beyond recov- 
ery. The shock was too great for his nerves ; he turned and 
walked off without uttering a word ; and nothing more was 
seen of him for many months. He afterwards attempted to 
recover his solutions and inventions ; but the appearance of 
Pike's Arithmetic, which anticipated the most valuable part 
of them, discouraged and disheartened him. He continued 
to exercise one or the other of his two callings, in the neigh- 
boring towns and on the islands, apparently unhappy in him- 
self, but a source of amusement to others, for some twenty- 
five years, and ended his days in the almshouse at Boston. 

The dissatisfaction, felt by many, with the place which 
the town had twice voted to erect a meeting-house on, led 
to farther action upon that subject, the present year; and 
so great was the desire to preserve harmony in the town, 
that, March 2d, it was voted to choose David Fales of Thom- 
aston, Capt. Schenk of Waldoboro', and Philip Robbins of 
Union, to fix upon a site for the meeting-house. Whether 
this committee reported or not, on the 23d of June, ensuing, 
the town voted " the meeting-house be set on the land of 
Mr. Wm. Boggs, across the road to the west of his house." 
The town now seemed in earnest ; sold the old meeting-house 
to J. Watts for ^3 6s. ; and chose committees to hire 
carpenters, and obtain funds by the sale of the ministerial 


and school lots. But it is probable that some doubt respect- 
ing the legality of such sale, operated to prevent purchasers 
from coming forward, and nothing farther was done. 

Dr. Schaeffer, who had before employed Mr. Copeland to 
repair his house in Warren, the one built by D. Patterson, 2d, 
and also given him a power of attorney to transact business 
for him, (his own activity being now impaired by age and 
intemperance,) this year removed to the place. He here 
continued his medical practice at his own house, took out 
a license for retailing, lived high, drank flip, and went but 
little from home. He was considered wealthy, was supposed 
to own several houses in Boston, and to have large sums of 
money hoarded in his house. As he had no legitimate chil- 
dren, nor even a wife, in this country, speculations were 
sometimes indulged in as to the disposition of his property 
in the event of his death. But the Doctor himself, enjoyed 
life too well, to give himself much uneasiness on that 
account. The youngsters in the neighborhood, were at- 
tracted, of an evening, by his flip, and amused by his 
" donner und blitzen," " tausend teufel," and other exclama- 
tions equally intelligible. 

1791- Signs of improvement continue. New emigrants 
arrive, and new names appear on the records. Nelson had 
removed from the place ; and his house had been, for some 
time, rented and occupied by J. Standish, who, about this 
time or a little later, purchased of Mr. Whiting the land 
and built the house where J. Cobb now lives. Jf. P. Davis, 
A. Davis, John Payson, and Wm. Starrett, had settled, or 
were about settling on the middle road to Union ; where the 
posterity of the three last still inhabit. Daniel Peabody 
was now settled on the Haskell farm, and Alexander Kelloch 
on the adjoining lot known as the Kelloch place. Mr. 
Whiting, in exchange for real estate at Newcastle, conveyed 
his house at the head of the tide, together with the land 
where the tan-yard now is, and that now owned by Wm. 
Hovey, to Ichabod Frost, who removed hither from New- 
castle and opened a tavern, the first ever kept in that village. 
William Moore had, before this, erected a store where A. 
Fuller at present trades, and now sold goods there, and 
boarded with Frost ; but afterwards failed, left the place, and 
was, at a later period, employed as a clerk in the custom 
house at Waldol3oro'. 

A law was this year passed, to protect the more valuable 
wild animals from being hunted at improper seasons. Game 


was now become so scarce in this vicinity, that little profit 
was derived from hunting, and not much time devoted to it. 
The martin and beaver had nearly disappeared. Beasts of 
prey were more numerous. Wolves and bears were so trouble- 
some as to compel the people to hunt them in self-defence. 
On the western side of the river, the young Libbeys, Halls, and 
others, were particularly active in destroying them. Major 
Libbey had a large dog, that never hesitated to engage and 
detain a wolf, till the hunters came up and despatched him. 
Many a wolf was immolated by his instrumentality ; but he fell 
a victim at last to his heroism. Venturing out alone, he com- 
menced an a^ault, as is supposed, in his usual way, but was 
overpowered by numbers, and found dead on the field of 
battle. Other canine exploits, there, doubtless, were, in those 
days ; but, like the heroes that preceded Agamemnon, the 
names of the actors have perished for want of an historian. 

Several afflictive casualties occurred this year. In April, 
Joseph Skinner, a lad of about 13 years of age, whilst em- 
ployed with others, in rolling logs down the bank at Peabody's 
mill, was killed by a log passing over him. Eli Bosworth, 
about 9 years of age, later in the season, fell from a float, 
whilst gathering lilies in North Pond, and was drowned. 
Catherine, wife of Samuel Dunham, who had from childhood 
exhibited signs of insanity, in the summer of this year, left 
her home in one of her moody spells, and was supposed to 
have gone in the direction of the old stone blockhouse in 
Gushing, about which, and on the seashore, she was wont to 
linger, as if absorbed in some pleasing reverie known only 
to herself. It was ascertained, however, from some frag- 
ments of her dress, that, after crossing the river, she had 
wandered away towards Crawford's meadow. People from 
different parts of the town, turned out and made a diligent 
search, for a week or more, but finally gave it up as hopeless. 
Her bones were found in something like a year afterwards, 
in the borders of Union or Hope. A son of hers, Joseph 
Dunham, inherited her eccentricities, leading a vagrant life, 
and sometimes taking up his abode, unbidden, in the cabin of 
a coaster hauled up for the winter, trusting to his wits for 
food and fuel. 

It was while in search of this unfortunate woman, that a 
clearing was observed on one of the hills in the present town 
of Hope ; and some of the old hunters familiar with the 
region, led by cariosity to visit the place, found there some 
sixty acres of excellent rye, sown by Messrs. Barrett and 
Miles, pioneers in the settlement of that place ; the latter of 


whom, had bought out his companion, and was now in 
solitary possession of the whole. John Lermond was so 
struck with the promising appearance of this crop, together 
with the ponds and streams in the vicinity, which he exam- 
ined with the eye of an amateur in such matters, that he 
immediately resolved to change his residence, and erect mills 
there. For the present, however, he only contracted with 
Miles to clear a road for him, as far as Crawford's meadow, 
which he performed the following winter, for thirty bushels 
of rye. This crop of grain, excessively large, which was 
thus laid open, proved very acceptable to the inhabitants 
of this town ; though the producer would take nothing but 
hard dollars in payment. Lermond kept his purpose in 
view, till, having made his arrangements, he removed with 
his sons into that neighborhood, near the close of the century, 
built mills, and established himself in the borders of Union. 
He was a laborious, honest man, but distinguished by some 
peculiarities, among which was that of refusing interest for 
money due him. He used to say, it was " hard enough 
for a poor man to pay the principal, without adding interest 
to it." 

Ship-building, though it continued to increase, had, with the 
exception of a few vessels built for people in other places, 
been thus far, in this town, confined to sloops and schooners. 
This year, however, Col. Starrett and Capt. Spear commenced 
building the brig Speedwell, on the shore of the latter, oppo- 
site Andrews's point. This vessel, the first brig owned in 
town, probably launched the next spring, was commanded by 
James Crawford, till captured by a French privateer when 
coming from Demarara in 1799. 

The bridge at Boggs's shore, and one of the saw-mills 
below, were, this year, carried away by the freshet. In the 
fall, the mill was rebuilt ; and Mr. Copeland, with some aid 
from others, made a temporary bridge at the lower falls. 
Prior to this time, there had been no crossing there, except on 
a single plank by foot passengers, or by fording the river on 

1792. It was again voted to hire preaching a part of the 
year, and to raise a tax of .£100 for building a meeting-house. 
In 1792, a farther sum of <£22 18s. was raised by the sale of 
timber on the ministerial and school lots ; committees were 

* Joseph. Copeland is said to have had an old mare which used to 
walk this plank, and his wife often rode across on that narrow bridge. 
— Capt. Crane, &c. 


chosen to receive the materials, and superintend the raising of 
the house ; which, notwithstanding former votes, was now or- 
dered to be located at the corner, near Alexander Bird's house. 
The land was purchased of M. Copeland ; and it was voted 
" that the town raise the meeting-house on Tuesday the 2d 
day of October next." Probably on that day, certainly in 
October, the long talked of house, was raised ; and the con- 
troversy respecting its location brought to an end. 

Mr. Copeland continued his activity, and, this year, built a 
store for Mr. Head, and a tailor's shop. The former was a 
one story building, and stood at the corner where Mr. Head 
afterwards built the store now occupied by B. Dillingham. 
The tailor's shop was occupied by Simon Lovett, who carried 
on his business here several years, living in the same building 
till he built the house since new-modelled and occupied by 
the late J. H. Counce. This house he afterwards sold to 
Samuel Davis, and removed to Portland. Nathaniel, son of 
Moses Copeland, this year erected the house now occupied by 
Mrs. M. Wetherbee ; but it was not finished till a year or 
two later. This was the second two story house built in 
town, P. Pebbles having built the first one some years before. 
Bracket & Davis were doing a thriving business. Rufus 
Crane had now taken up shoemaking ; and Luther Crane, a 
distant member of the same family, worked here as a journey- 
man at the same business. The latter settled, in 1799, on 
the farm adjoining Mr. Peabody's, and the next year built the 
house where his family still live. Mr. Weston, this year 
built a sloop called the Betsey, which was owned by her Cap- 
tain, E. Killeran, Bracket & Davis, and others. This vessel 
was running in 1826. 

The first public Library in town, was established, this year, 
by a division of the Friendly Society founded in 1787. In 
September of that year, a number of persons in this and 
other towns between the Sheepscot and Penobscot rivers, sub- 
scribed the following sums for procuring books to be owned 
by them in common ; viz. Joshua Head, John Head, Zebedee 
Simmons, David Vinal, Marlboro' Packard, David Fales, 
Philip M. Ulmer, Peter Creamer, David Jenks, and Benjamin 
Brown, £1 8s. each ; Waterman Thomas, £6, Thurston 
Whiting, £2, Ezekiel G. Dodge, £2 16s., George Ulmer, =£1 
12s., Charles Sampson, £2^ J. W. Head, .£2, Moses Copeland, 
.£2, Benjamin Webb, £2 16s., and John Paine, £2. The 
subscribers held their first meeting at the house of Capt. 
Stephen Andrews, in Waldoboro', November 6th of the same 
year ; and W. Thomas was chosen Librarian. The Society 


continued to flourish ; meetings were held at various places, 
in Waldoboro', Warren, and Thomaston ; new members were 
added, public addresses delivered ; and there was nothing but 
the remoteness of its members from each other, to prevent it 
from being a permanent, harmonious, and valuable institution. 
In February, 1792, a division took place ; and the eastern 
portion of the members, about 16 in number, met at the house 
of Ichabod Frost, in Warren, and organized as " the Friendly- 
Society on St. George's river." For eight years, the annual 
meeting in January was held, and the Library kept, at War- 
ren and Thomaston, alternately. The novelty of the thing, 
the popularity of many of the books, illustrated, occasionally, 
as the dramatic portion of them were, by the histrionic pow- 
ers of Sullivan, Dodge, and others; the public dinners and 
convivial merriment usual at the meetings of the society, to- 
gether with the practice of celebrating the 4th of July by a 
public dinner and oration, attracted general attention, and in- 
duced great numbers to share its advantages. Orations were 
delivered, by Rev. J. Huse in 1796, S. S. Wilde, Esq. 1797, 
and Rev. T. Whiting in 1798 and 1799. In 1799, its mem- 
bers were 86 in number, paying an annual contribution of 
$43 ; but in January of that year, the society was again divid- 
ed, and a portion of its members held a meeting, and, Janu- 
ary 13, 1799, organized themselves as the " Proprietors of 
the Social Library in the town of Warren," according to the 
provisions of a recent statute. The number of members 
was 37, which in four years was doubled by the admission of 
new ones, embracing most of the intelligent and respectable 
citizens of the town, including two ladies, Mrs. James and 
Miss E. Kirkpatrick. In 1802, the price of a share was fixed 
at $5 ; and in 1820, the annual assessment reduced to 25 
cents ; both which still continue. The society continued to 
celebrate the 4th of July, and orations were delivered, by S. 
Thatcher, Esq. in 1800, Rev. T. Whiting in 1802, M. Smith, 
Esq. in 1805, E. Thatcher, Esq. in 1808, 1. G. Reed, Esq. in 
1809, and G. Starrett, Esq. in 1820. For several years past, 
in consequence of the abundance of periodical and other 
cheap literature, less interest in this institution, than formerly, 
has been manifested. Several unsuccessful attempts have 
been made, to authorize' the sale of the books on hand, as 
also to raise the annual assessment to the original sum of 50 
cents. During the first quarter of the century, large additions 
were annually made to the Library, which in 1825 contained 
something over 500 volumes, valued at about 8800, and 
owned by 91 proprietors. Since that time, the increase has 


been less ; some valuable works have disappeared ; and the 
number of shares is reduced to 66. Still the collection is a 
valuable one, containing, as it does, most of the standard 
works in the various departments of English and American 
literature and science. Nothing is wanting, but that our 
young men should duly appreciate the treasure within their 
reach, and feel the same desire for improvement manifested 
by their ancestors sixty years ago, to make this institution, 
by its annual additions, again become an attractive source of 
rational amusement, the means of cultivating the taste, en- 
lightening the mind, and purifying the heart of the commu- 

Upon the subject of separating Maine from Massachusetts, 
first agitated about 1785, and at that time denounced as 
treason by Gov. Bovvdoin, the people of Warren, in 1792, 
for the first time, took a vote ; the result of which was, one 
in favor of, and fourteen against the measure. 

1793. Wm. Boggs, the first town clerk, who had also 
filled most of the other town offices, having deceased the 
preceding year, town meetings, which used so frequently 
to be held at his house, were this year called at the house 
of his widow and son. At that held Jan. 14, a committee 
was chosen to draw two different plans of the pews of the 
meeting-house, and report the same for examination. There 
was, probably, a rivalship between the slips of the present 
day, and the square pews of an earlier date. A committee 
was also chosen, to get the window frames and sashes ; and 
a vote passed that the pews be sold on March meeting day. 
At that meeting, March 4th, held at the house of Joseph 
Boggs, and thence, probably from the extra numbers attend- 
ing on account of the sale, adjourned to the barn, a plan of 
pews was accepted. The house itself was 49 feet by 40, 
with its high gable ends on the north and south, the pulpit on 
the eastern side, and the entrance on the west ; where was 
a porch, with stairs leading up to a capacious gallery occu- 
pying three entire sides of the house. Between the entrance 
and the pulpit, according to the plan accepted, were two 
rows, of seven slips eachj on each side of the broad aisle ; 
five slips and two free seats on each side of the pulpit ; and 
square pews on the other three walls. Nothing above, but 
the front gallery, designed for the singers, was finished. The 
pews were appraised at $881, the highest at $25, and the 
lowest at $9 each ; and the right of choice,, set up to the 
highest bidders, amounted to $333,50. The <£100 raised by 
the town, is said to have paid for the frame ; and the pro- 


ceeds of the pews to have defrayed all other expenses. 
The first choice, on the right hand of the broad aisle next 
the pulpit, was taken by Wm. Lermond, and the opposite 
one reserved for the minister. Behind these, were the pews 
of J. W. Head, and B. Bracket. Moses Copeland sat north 
of the pulpit, and, for twenty years or more, was scarcely 
absent for a single Sabbath. In April, a contract was made 
with Alexander and Wm. Lermond to find stuff and finish 
the house, outside and in, with the exception of the gallery 
pews, for the sum of =£349 10s. or $1163,33.* 

A committee was again empowered to procure preaching 
a part of the time ; and probably Mr. Whiting was employed, 
who was also, in May, chosen representative. On the 9th 
of Dec. it was voted, " that the town purchase as much land 
about the meeting-house, as will be sufficient for a burying- 
ground and other public uses." The land on that side of the 
road, had, by that time, passed from Mr. Bird into the hands 
of Wm. Lermond, who gave a portion thereof to the town 
for a public common, and sold another portion for a burying- 
ground. As if hastening to occupy this newly appointed 
resling-place, great numbers of children were carried off, this 
season, by the scarlet fever, or throat distemper, as it was 
then called, which was very mahgnant and mortal. The 
grave-yard, at first, extended northward near to the road 
as now travelled, south of where the meeting-house stood ; 
but in May, 1794, when the town voted to fence the old 
burying-ground with pine logs and the new one with 
stone wall and board fence, it was restricted to a line 
running square from the corner of the wall near the hearse- 
house, according to the purchase. By this restriction, the 
graves of several children were left outside, on the common ; 
and the town voted " to remove such of them, whose rela- 
tions were willing, within the said limits." This was done ; 
but some were allowed to remain ; and the graves of Mr. 
Sylvester's children were enclosed by a fence, which remain- 
ed on the common for many years. The ground was, in 
some respects, ill adapted to its purpose ; a ledge in some 
places approaches too near the surface, and in others the 
soil is not sufficiently dry. It had never been cultivated, and 
no pains were taken to level its uneven surface. But this 
defect became less and less obtrusive, as the graves became 
more crowded ; and, in 1840, it was enlarged by re-annexing 
a portion of what had been before fenced out. 

* Plan and other papers of A. Lermond. Copeland's MS. 


Mr. Bird, about this time, built the house now owned by 
Col. Richmond. Between there, and Mr. Crawford's (now 
French's,) as also between the meeting-house and bridge, the 
ground was mostly covered with trees and bushes. But this 
year, the town voted " that the selectmen lay out a road, from 
the meeting-house to Miles Cobb's shop." This appears not 
to have been done, till 1795. 

A committee was also chosen, in April, " to lay out a road 
to Barrettstovvn, and make report." This was the name at 
that time applied to what is now Hope, and a part of Apple- 
ton, being so called from Charles Barrett, Esq. of New Ips- 
wich, N. H., who was engaged in settling the same with 
emigrants from that and other places. He had previously 
been concerned with J. Jameson in a mill at Hart's Falls, 
which he built about 1790, and was this year authorized, by 
an act of the General Court, to improve the navigation of the 
river by locks and canals. 

Willing Blake came, this year, from Wrentham, Mass., 
and after residing a year at J, P. Davis's, purchased, in con- 
nexion with him, the Bosworth farm, west of the pond ; to 
which they removed in 1794. Blake, subsequently, sold out 
to Davis, and bought of A. Lawrence, the farm first settled 
by Dunham, with part of that of T. Hills. These farms 
were little valued, on account of the sandy and barren qual- 
ity of the soil ; but Blake, by industry and skilful manage- 
ment, converted them into one of the best in town. He had 
served in the revolutionary army, and here filled the office 
of militia Captain for many years. Lawrence, who had also 
served six years in the war of the revolution, for which he 
brought home enough of paper money to purchase one sheep, 
came from Franklin, Mass., first settled in Union, but ex- 
changed his farm there for that of Dunham, and now settled 
on the eastern side of the river, where his sons still reside. 

Others came to the place, the same year. Jesse and 
Edmund Page were from Atkinson, N. H. The former, 
having spent the preceding season at Wiscasset, brought 
hither a few goods, which he sold out at Frost's. He 
subsequently traded some years, in a store, the frame of 
which he purchased of Frost, together with a small piece of 
land, where he and Wm. McLellan, in 1818, built the stores 
at present occupied by S. B. Wetherbee & son. On the 
removal of Frost, he opened a tavern at first in his house, 
afterwards in that now owned by L. H. Vaughan, which he 
built in 1803. In that year, he was appointed deputy 
sheriff, and for nearly 20 years continued in that office. 


which, from the great number of suits then brought, was 
very lucrative, the fees sometimes amounting to 860 in a 
single day. He was, many years, deputy marshal under 
Thornton, which office, also, particularly during the war, 
yielded a handsome income ; and was postmaster 29 years. 
His brother was a joiner, and occupied as a work-shop part 
of his brother's store, till he built where his family still 
reside. David Page, a younger brother, also a joiner by 
trade, came later, and after residing some years on the 
present J. Payson place, removed and built the house lately 
purchased by P. Rollins. 

Dr. Edmund^Buxton came from Reading, Mass. where he 
had studied physic ; and, taking lodgings at Frost's, com- 
menced, here, the practice of his profession. His prepara- 
tion was, perhaps, less ample than what is usual at the pres- 
ent day ; but, possessing a discerning eye, his skill increased 
with his practice ; and, for 35 years, he was held in deserv- 
edly high repute in this and the neighboring towns. He 
was moderate in his charges, prompt in his attendance, 
pleasant and unpretending in his intercourse, and, though 
sustaining many town offices, allowed nothing to interfere 
with his fidelity to his patients. He lived many years in the 
Richmond house, which he purchased of Alexander Bird, 
and afterwards built that in which his widow resided till her 
decease in 1850. He died, much regretted, July 30, 1828, 
in the sixtieth year of his age. His death was occasioned 
by a fall from an ungovernable horse. During his lifetime, 
several physicians attempted to establish themselves here, 
among them Drs. Bracket, Stepliens, WeJJs, and Ayers ; 
but none of them could withstanoThe assiduity and establish- 
ed reputation of the first physician, who was succeeded in 
practice and popularity by his son, B. F. Buxton. Dr. A. 
W. Kennedy practiced here four years from 1829, and has 

recently^ returned. Drs. C. C,_jChandler, Stearns, 

James H. Glidden, and John M.^Brown, have each resided 
a time iii town, but gained no very extensive practice. 

Wm. McBeath came from Scotland, where he had receiv- 
ed what was termed a liberal education. His parents had 
designed him for the ministry ; and he brought letters of 
recommendation to Rev. Mr. McLean of Bristol, requesting 
him, if he thought it expedient, to receive him as a student 
in divinity.* He was employed by him some time on his 

* The story is, that McBeath arrived in McLean's absence on a 
visit to Scotland, and, being a portly, well looking young man, and 


farm, but probably not encouraged to engage in the ministry. 
He came here about this time, with a small stock of goods, 
which he at first kept in the store erected by Moore, but soon 
rented the house which Mr. Copeland this year built. This 
was a low, bevel-roofed building; one part of which Mc- 
Beath occupied as a store, and the other as a dwelling. This 
building, with the land on which it stood, was subsequently 
sold to Joseph Boggs, who erected in its room a store, in 
which he traded several years, and which is now converted 
into a dwellinghouse standing opposite the factory. It was 
probably in this year, also, that Timothy Parsons, from Read- 
ing, in company with a brother, established the tan-works 
now carried on by G. Kirkpatrick. He lived in the upper 
part of the tan-house, and carried on the business till 1803 ; 
when he sold out to the Hoveys, and removed to North Yar- 
mouth, or vicinity. John Parsons, a joiner, settled and built 
a small house, which was successively owned by B. Bussell, 
D. Page, and J. Page, till taken down in 1834, and the pres- 
ent house of James Payson built on its site. 

Besides the building before mentioned, which was designed 
for the clothier, Mr. Copeland this year erected a fulling-mill 
at the head of the tide, the first establishment of the kind on 
the river. The first clothier was Benjamin Sylvester, who 
carried on the business about five years, and removed to New- 
castle. Ebenezer Wells succeeded, bargained for the mill, 
and, for awhile, carried on the works on his own account ; 
but not fulfilling the contract, Copeland, in 1803, sold the 
works for $500 to Robert Chase, who, after a few years, sold 
out to Miles Cobb. Cobb, and his son-in-law, John M. Gates, 
employed difi'erent workmen, and carried on the works till 
April 12, 1812 ; when they were purchased by Lewis Stacy. 
In Feb. 1814, Stacy sold out to Amos H. Hodgman, who, 
for many years, carried on the works satisfactorily to the 
customers, and profitably to himself. Cloth was, at the com- 
mencement of the business, dressed in rather a rough and 
inferior manner ; the coarse wool of the English sheep, intro- 

understood to be a student in divinity, was invited to preach the en- 
suing Sabbath. He requested to be excused till McL's return, which 
was every v/eek expected ; but several weeks having elapsed, and the 
parson not returning, the people became impatient, declared the young 
man's reluctance was but the effect of unreasonable modesty, and in- 
sisted upon his preaching. He put them off as long as he could, but 
when their urgency became imperative, put an end to their importu- 
nity by exclaiming " I'll be dumned if I'll preach tiU McLean comes 


duced by Gen. Knox, deteriorated its appearance ; and it was 
not till the introduction of merinos, about 1810, and the su- 
perior workmanship of Stacy, that any tolerably handsome 
cloth was made. A carding machine was added to the 
works, about 1803. The old fashioned hand shears were 
employed until Hodgman's time, who introduced the first 
shearing machine, and indigo dye. Hodgman was succeed- 
ed by B. Dillingham, till the latter went into trade, and the 
present factory was established. 

In 1793, J. Standish commenced ship-building on his own 
account, and launched the sloop Polly, for D. Dunbar, J. 
O'Brien and A. Malcolm ; probably at the yard which he 
subsequently occupied, near J. McCallum's present house. 

The year 1793 is also distinguished for the introduction 
of the first pleasure carriage into the town ; Mr. Copeland 
having this year purchased a chaise — probably a second 
handed one, but not the less a mark of distinction on that 

As yet, no mail had penetrated so far east ; and probably 
few or no newspapers were read in the place, except those 
occasionally brought by the coasters. The most eastern 
post office, was now at Wiscasset, to which a mail from 
Portland was brought twice a month. In 1793, a person by 
the name of Russel, was hired by private individuals to go 
from Castine lo Wiscasset, to carry letters and newspapers 
to the several towns between those places. He went on foot 
once a fortnight, and carried his mail at first in a handker- 
chief, afterwards in saddle-bags. He lived at the Penobscot 
ferry, and, finding traveling agreed with him so well, he 
traveled off to the western states, leaving his family and the 
mail to take care of themselves. The next year, in con- 
sequence of a petition from the inhabitants, postmasters were 
appointed, and the mail sent, by Government. It was then 
carried once a week, on horseback. Rufus Crane was 
appointed the first postmaster in this town. Col. Wheaton in 
Thomaston, and Joseph Eaton in Camden. At the present 
village of Belfast, there were then only a few log huts. Mr. 
Crane's emoluments, for the first 3 months after his appoint- 
ment, amounted to 20 cents. He held the office till 1810, 
when he was succeeded by Jesse Page. The latter kept the 
office at first at his house, but afterwards, going into trade 
with his nephew, J. Page, Jr., he removed the same to his 
store, at or near which it has since remained. About 1838, 
the office was transferred to Hon. A. H. Hodgman, and kept 
by his brother, Thomas Hodgman, in the Head store, which 


he then occupied. Seth B. Wetherbee held the office from 
1841, till Gen. Hodgman again received it in 1848.* The 
income of the office was much lessened by the reduction of 
postage, which took place in 1844. Before that time, whilst 
held by Mr. Page, it is said to have yielded to the Govern- 
ment from i55 to $70 per quarter, and to the P. M. who 
received one half the postage on newspapers and one third 
of that on letters, about $150 per annum. 

Hitherto, the standard of morals in the place, had been un- 
exceptionable ; and, if the people had not always lived up to 
it, they had at least escaped the more heinous and infamous 
crimes. But, about this time, an event occurred of a more 
serious and alarming character. The house of Dr. Schaeffer, 
during his absence in Boston, was entered in the evening by 
four men, in disguise, who seized the women, the only inmates 
of the house, pinioned their arms, confined them in the cellar, 
broke open the chests and closets, and carried off all the gold 
and silver they contained. The women, three in number, 
being left in confinement, were long in disengaging them- 
selves ; but succeeding at length, and recovering from their 
fright, fled to their neighbors and spread the alarm. Every 
search was made, every inquiry was instituted, but without 
obtaining any clue to the transaction. His agent, M. Cope- 
land, was particularly assiduous in his efforts to detect the per- 
petrators. Advertisements were posted up, and inquiries 
made in this and the neighboring towns of the whereabouts of 
every person thought capable of such an act, but no trace of 
the robbers was discovered ; and, from that day to this, a 
dark uncertainty has rested on the transaction. 

At first, the community was struck aghast at the enormity 
of the crime ; but some were more easily reconciled to it by 
the belief that the treasures thus dishonestly taken, had been 
as dishonestly obtained ; and that, however infamous in itself, 
it was, to the sufferer, but an act of retributive justice. It 
was said, tou, that the Doctor was not long for this world, that 
he would soon fall a prey "to dropsy and high living, that he 
had here no legitimate heirs, and that, saving the criminality 
of the deed, the money might as well be kept in the country 
as to go to foreigners, his connexions, whom he was daily ex- 
pecting to arrive from Germany. Suggestions of this kind, 
blunted the edge of public indignation, though they could not 
remove it. In the absence of proof, various surmises and 

* The office lias since been restored to Mr. Wetherbee. 


conjectures were engendered, which it is not the office of au- 
thentic history to record. The Doctor, who was in Boston at 
the time, repaired to the celebrated Moll Pitcher, the far 
famed fortune teller of Lynn, for assistance in detecting the 
criminal. She, probably judging from his appearance, had 
no hesitation in declaring that he would never see his treasure 
again ; " it was in possession of a long-headed man, who 
knew how to keep it." He returned in rage and despair, and 
plunging still deeper into intemperance, expired on the 20th 
April, 1794. Mr. Copeland was appointed administrator, 
with a will annexed, which was made in 1767, bequeathing 
his estate to his wife Margaret and to his daughters Margaret 
and Mary. The personal property and notes, according to 
the inventory, amounted to £6^6 2s. 6d. or $2265,15 cents ; 
and the debts and payments allowed, were $707,69 cents ; 
leaving a balance, besides real estate, of $1557,44 cents. On 
the 20th of August following, Mr. Copeland, whose wife 
had deceased the preceding year, married the doctor's 

The autumn of 1793 is memorable for a premature snow 
storm, which, on Tuesday the 29th of October, whilst the corn 
and potatoes were but partially secured, covered the ground 
to the depth of a foot or more ; and was succeeded by weather 
so cold as to freeze up the ponds, and make good sleighing for 
several weeks. Afterwards, however, a spell of more mod- 
erate weather carried off the snow, and gave an opportunity 
to complete the harvest, though the ponds did not break up till 

* J. P. Davis, and J. Rokes, the latter of whom places this storm 
on the 11th. 



TO 1800. 

1794. The annual meeting in March, was called this 
year at the new meeting-house, which proving uncomforta- 
ble for the want of windows, it was adjourned to Mr. Bird's 
barn, and the town officers chosen by nomination and hand 
vote. To assist in repairing the more difficult and thinly 
peopled portions of the road, M. Copeland was appointed 
surveyor for the whole distance from Gushing to Union, and 
also to Waldoboro'. At an adjourned meeting, held at the 
school-house near M. Cobb's, it was voted " that the hogs 
within the town may go at large, in the commons, they being 
well yoked and ringed." This vote was doubtless passed, 
not because the swine had not before made use of this priv- 
ilege, but because an attempt was now made for the first time 
to deprive them of it. 

D. Dunbar was chosen agent to answer to an indictment 
against Oyster river bridge, which being out of repair, was, 
on the report of a committee appointed to examine the local- 
ity and confer with a similar committee from Thomaston, 
built anew, probably in connexion with that town, in its pres- 
ent situation. 

The collector being, probably, pressed for the payment of 
the State tax, and the people, at that time of year, before 
their wood and lumber could be transported to market, find- 
ing it difficult to pay their respective rates, the town, in May, 
voted '• to pay the cost of any execution that might be issued 
against Mr. Dunbar, the collector, for State tax No. 10, pre- 
vious to Sept. 1st." July 5th, voted " to hire a town school- 
master for this year." Sept. 8th, voted " that the town will 
make up to the 17 men that are called for out of this town, 
$12 per month, whilst in actual service." These men M^ere 
probably part of a draft made from the militia by the gener- 
al Government, to be in readiness for actual service when 
called for. The call was made in view of the Indian hostili- 
ties in the western country, and the unsettled difficulties with 
England, which were assuming a more serious aspect. They 
were never called for ; as the Indians were defeated by Gen. 
Wayne, Aug, 20th ; and the difficulties with England settled 


by a commercial treaty, negotiated Nov. 19th, by Mr. Jay, 
at London. 

The season, this year, was as unpropitious to the husband- 
man, as the prospect was gloomy to the politician. On the 
17th of May, there was a heavy frost, so thick as to resemble 
snow, and so severe, that, while crops in general were poor, 
those of apples, nuts, acorns and berries, were entirely cut off. 
For want of these, the bears were forced to leave their 
woody retreats, and seek subsistence nearer the seashore. 
Many were killed in Union and the upper part of Warren. 
It was said, that more than 300 were slain or taken in the 
whole State (then District,) of Maine.* 

The first regular lawyer in the place, Samuel Sumner 
Wilde, Esq., late one of the Justices of the Supreme Court 
of Mass., who had been a short time in the practice of the 
law at Waldoboro', being resolved to remove to Warren, 
agreed with Mr. Head, to build him a house on the hill west 
of the river. This was done, we believe, the present year; 
and Mr. Wilde lived and practised law here till 1799, when 
he moved to Hallowell, and, on the division of the State, to 
Boston or vicinity, where he still resides. This house was 
afterwards owned and occupied by Hon. Samuel Thatcher, 
and now by Mr. Dillingham. 

On the 7th of April, the meeting-house was ordered to 
be painted ; and it now remained to provide a minister. 
Josiah Thaxter, a missionary from Martha's Vineyard, came 
here in June, and on the 22d and 23d, baptised 89 persons ; 
but his stay was short. Rev. Mr. Whiting, who had previous- 
ly been employed, was a man of talents and taste ; his senti- 
ments were orthodox, and his public services approved ; but 
his infirmity of will, his compliant and convivial disposition, 
led him into irregularities inconsistent with the character and 
subversive of the influence of a christian minister. The 
committee, therefore, who had charge of the matter, gave an 
invitation to stop here for a time, to Rev. Jonathan Huse, 
who had, the preceding season, been employed a short time 
at Blue Hill, and was again on a visit to this part of the coun- 
try; and the town voted, Sept. 8th, to hire him till the " last 
day of October." 

This gentleman was a native of Methuen, Mass., graduat- 
ed at Dartmouth college in 1788, and studied divinity with 
the Rev. Jonathan French of Andover. He boarded at first 

* Capt. A. Davis. 


with Mr. John Mclntyre, Jr., who then lived in a one-story 
house, on the place since occupied by the late Dea. Crane. 
On the expiration of his term, the town, Nov. 3d, voted to 
invite him to return the ensuing spring, and preach as a can- 
didate for settlement. 1795. Accordingly, in the following 
April, Mr. Huse returned. On the last day of his journey, 
which was performed on horseback, he came from Wiscasset 
in company with Silas Lee and Manasseh Smith, lawyers of 
that town, who were proceeding eastward on business. The 
travelling was bad, the freshet high, and the road, particular- 
ly at Stirling in this town, almost impassable. It was late 
before they arrived at Frost's tavern ; the crop of hay, which 
had been scanty that year, was exhausted, and, though the 
host was willing to entertain the men, he could furnish noth- 
ing for their horses. After some deliberation, Mr. Lee de- 
termined to try the hospitality of Mr. Head, with whom he 
had some acquaintance, and left the others to shift for them- 
selves. Mr. Huse, from what he knew of Col. Starrett, 
thought it likely that hay or provender might be found there ; 
and he and Mr. Smith went down and spent the night at his 
house. Prior to this, April 6th, the town had appointed T. 
Starrett, M. Copeland, and J. Andrews, a committee " to 
agree with Rev. Mr. Huse if he should return, otherwise with 
some other minister, to preach on probation." This commit- 
tee now employed him accordingly ; and on the 29th of June, 
the town voted to give him " a call to settle in this town in 
the work of the Gospel ministry." After a conference on 
the terms, it was voted, in August, that the town would give 
Mr. Jonathan Huse c£100 a year, so long as he should con- 
tinue their minister, and for six months after the town, by a 
two thirds vote, should determine on the discontinuance of 
his ministry ; all disputes that might arise under the con- 
tract to be finally settled by arbitrators mutually chosen. 

These votes passed without any opposition ; and after ma- 
ture deliberation and advice, Mr. Huse gave an affirmative 
answer to the invitation. The Presbyterian polity being 
found inconvenient, and somewhat out of f\ivor, a Congrega- 
tional council was invited to convene in Warren, Oct. 28th, 
for the purpose of organizing a church, and ordaining their 
minister. The Council accordingly met on said day, consist- 
ing of Rev. Josiah Winship of Woolwich, Alfred Johnson of 
Freeport, and Alden Bradford of Wiscasset, with delegates 
from their respective churches, who, after organizing the 
church, and sufficiently examining the candidate, proceeded 
to his ordination. The church consisted of John Dicke, 


Moses Copeland, Daniel Peabody, Thomas Starrett, John 
Andrews, Joseph Copeland, and James Mathews, who adopt- 
ed the following articles of faith and covenant. 


" We, whose names are hereunto subjoined, that we may 
promote the growth of religion in our souls, and enjoy the 
ordinances of the Gospel in a church state, do covenant and 
agree together in manner following, viz. : — We declare our 
faith in the divine inspiration of the scriptures of the Old 
and New Testament, which we receive as the word of God. 
We believe there is one God, the Father, Son, and Holy 
Ghost. We believe in the fall of man, the depravity of 
human nature, and the redemption through the mediation, 
intercession, and atonement of Christ. We believe that 
Christ hath appointed two special ordinances to be observed by 
every true believer in his name, viz. : — Baptism and the 
Lord's Supper. We believe that the qualifications for these 
ordinances in all adults, are sincere repentance towards God, 
and faith in our Lord Jesus Christ. We also believe the future 
existence of the soul, the resurrection of the body, and the 
day of future judgment, in which every one will receive a 
reward according to his works. And we do also, humbly and 
penitently, asking the forgiveness of our sins through the blood 
of the Redeemer, give up ourselves to God in an everlasting 
covenant in our Lord Jesus Christ is- and, as in the presence 
of God, we solemnly promise, that, by the assistance of the 
Divine Spirit, we will forsake the vanities of the present evil 
world, and approve ourselves the true disciples of Jesus Christ 
in all good carriage toward God and toward man. And we 
likewise promise to walk together in christian communion as 
members of the church of Christ, and to attend statedly upon 
the administration of the ordinances of the gospel, to watch 
over one another, and to submit to the discipline of the church 
in this place. And finally, by daily prayer to God, we will 
seek for grace to enable us to keep this covenant.'" 

To the young reader, it may appear singular that the con- 
tract was entered into, and the minister settled, by the town 
in its corporate capacity. But such was, at the time, the 
universal practice ; and the laws of Massachusetts had, from 
the very first, not only allowed, but absolutely required, every 
town to maintain a minister of the Gospel as well as a teacher 
of the public school, on the principle that instruction in religion 
and morality was as essential to the public welfare as in liter- 
ature and science. 

The relation thus entered into between Mr. Huse and the 


town, continued; and the salary first stipulated remained, 
without increase or diminution, till the contract was dissolv- 
ed by mutual consent in April, 1830. As a farther induce- 
ment for him to settle, an acre of land for a house lot was 
given him by M. Copeland, and a hundred acres of wood- 
land by Gen. Knox ; the latter of which he advantageously 
disposed of, at a time when land was high. From the pro- 
ceeds of this sale, and his annual stipend, joined with strict 
economy in living, he supported and educated his family, and 
has even acquired a handsome property. 

Col. Thomas Starrett was chosen, June 9th, 1796, the 
first deacon of this church and for more than a quarter of 
a century exercised the office, and, by his piety and meek- 
ness, contributed much to its prosperity. After his death, in 
1822, James Mathews succeeded and discharged the office till 
his death in 1836. The male members of the church, were, 
however, never numerous. The sentiments professed, as 
may be seen from the articles of faith, as well as the general 
tenor of the pastor's preaching, were what may be called 
moderate Calvinism ; and the intention, probably, was to 
take an intermediate position between Arminianism on the 
one hand and ultra Calvinism, or Hopkinsianism, on the 
other ; which two parties at that time existed in, without 
rending asunder, the Congregational churches. Questions 
of strife and disputation, were generally avoided by the 
preacher, who, content with inculcating the practical duties, 
was not anxious to disturb the dogmas of theory. The con- 
gregation, for a time, embraced nearly the whole town. A 
few were Baptists ; a few others were dissatisfied with the 
location of the meeting-house, and kept aloof from its wor- 
ship ; but the new house, the new pastor, and the new mode 
of singing without the intermediate reading of the lines, 
together with the new tunes that had been introduced, were 
generally attractive ; and the meetings were well attend- 
ed. No dissension in the church, or any other cause 
requiring a council, ever occurred whilst Mr. Huse's ministry 

As this event forms a new epoch in the history of the 
town, it may be well to pause for a moment to consider the 
condition to which it had now arrived. The original settlers 
from Ireland, and a part of those from Scotland, were now 
gone. The names of Giffen, James, Locke, Scott, McLean, 
and Gregg, had disappeared, or were confined to females. 
The elder Lermond and his wife deceased about 1790 ; Pat- 
terson, Robinson, and Miller, probably before that time ; Kirk- 


patrick died in 1785 ; Samuel Boggs in 1783, and in 1792, 
was followed by William, the oldest and latest surviving of 
his sons. Boice Cooper's was the first funeral that Mr. 
Huse attended. Deacon Crawford, whose services had been 
so long appreciated and whose praise was in every mouth, 
was yet living, and, though not formally admitted as a mem- 
ber, regularly communed with the new church till his death 
in 1797. A new generation had sprung up, and was fast 
taking the place of the preceding. Of the second genera- 
tion, some were advanced in years, and others past the me- 
ridian of life. The young Starrelts, Spears, Robinsons, 
McTntyres, Boggses, Lermonds, Creightons, and Kellochs, 
of the third generation, the Mathewses, Waltses, Kirkpatricks, 
Crawfotds, Andersons, Dickes, Copelands, Libbeys, Jame- 
sons, and others of the second, were settled, or about 
settling, on farms of their own. Near the western limits of 
the town, were established, about or soon after this period, 
several German families from Waldoboro', such as Sidens- 
berger, before mentioned, Hoffsis, Hysler, Storer, Stahl, and 
Winchenbach, together with Peter and John Mink ; the two 
last of whom, though their lands extended into Warren, fixed 
their dwellings in the limits of Waldoboro'. A large addi- 
tion had been made to the population, by emigrants arriving 
more or less recently from the west, whose ideas, manners, 
and customs, mingled with and modified those of the first 
settlers. Ship-building was successfully carried on ; stores and 
mills were multiplied; and a central point of attraction was 
beginning to show itself. Agriculture had made some ad- 
vances. Potatoes were beginning to be cultivated for expor- 
tation.* Farmers were supplied with more and better imple- 
ments, particularly plows and carts. Of pleasure carriages, 
there was but one ; horse wagons were unknown, and ox 
wagons but just coming into use. The usual conveyance for 
persons and light burdens, was on horseback. Men and boys 
rode to mill with two or three bags beneath them. Kegs of 
molasses and rum, were carried home in the same way. The 
practice of 'riding double', as it was called, was universal. 
Whether to the church or the ball, the man rode before on the 
saddle, the lady on the pillion behind him. But this mode of 
conveyance was beginning to yield, during the winter months, 

* The varieties of the potato, then chiefly raised, were the Rough- 
skin and Bunker ; the former, less productive, but in great request for 
roasting on the ample hearths, beneath the huge lires of those times. 


to sleighs, which, both double and single, were now become 
common. But there were, as yet, no robes of buffalo or other 
furs, for the protection of man or beast ; though the feet were 
sometimes relieved by portable foot stoves, both on journeys 
and at church. 

Most of the older settlers were now furnished with framed 
houses ; few of these were painted, without or within. Major 
Libbey's and Capt. Mclntyre's were painted on the outside 
whh red ochre ; Miles Cobb's, now, or not long after, of the 
same color ; and Head's, Wilde's and Bracket's, were yellow. 
There were no carpets, rugs, sofas. The floors, made of the 
hardest and whitest boards, were frequently scoured, and 
covered with white sand, which was drawn and tastefully fig- 
ured with the broom — not the present corn broom from the 
valley of the Connecticut, but brooms manufactured from 
trunks of the yellow birch or the twigs of the hemlock and 
spruce. The kitchen was usually provided with a dresser, or 
set of shelves in one corner, extending four or five feet on 
each wall, with closets beneath. These were filled with glit- 
tering rows of pewter plates, dishes, and spoons, which were 
scoured to the last degree of brightness. Little crockery 
was used, except cups and saucers, which had now replaced 
the wooden ones of the Revolution. About this time and 
after, to the close of the century, spermaceti oil, and lamps, 
made of tin, brass, or other metal, gradually came into use 
in the place of candles. Men continued to wear their hair in 
clubs or queues. Petticoat trowsei's and leather breeches, had 
given place to French pantaloons or sailor's trowsers ; yet 'the 
full dress of the former period, was still worn by gentlemen 
advanced in life. The town was well supplied with mechan- 
ics and professional men. One or more schools were taught 
on each side of the river ; settlements were made or making 
in most parts of the town ; public worship was established ; a 
choir of singers formed ; and all the elements seemed pro- 
vided for a prosperous and harmonious community. 

With the increase of business and influx of strangers, came 
also some change in the customs and condition of society. 
The practice of sending portions, and sharing one's good for- 
tune with his neighbors, of borrowing and lending without 
reckoning or accounts, had somewhat declined. People be- 
gan to expect pay for the use of a horse or a yoke of oxen, 
a cart or a plow. Tea and coffee were in general use. Ar- 
dent spirits, which were formerly used only on extraordinary 
occasions, were becoming more dangerously common. Hos- 
pitality still abounded ; and no occasion was lost for getting 


up what was called ?i frolic. The women had their spinning- 
bees and wool-breakings ; and the men, their huskings and 
wood-haiilings. When a building was raised, a vessel launch- 
ed, or the militia mustered, everybody attended, and every- 
body was treated. On all these occasions, a dance was 
generally got up in the evening, in which there was neither 
selection nor exclusion ; all who wished, participated. At 
first on the uniform level of poverty, the little inequalities of 
fortune which had since sprung up, had given rise to no 
invidious distinctions, no upper and lower classes in society. 
But this, also, was now undergoing some change ; and the 
power of wealth, dress, and fashionable connexions, was be- 
ginning to produce emulation and envy, divisions and de- 

This year, 1795, was memorable for the resignation of 
Gen. Henry Knox, as Secretary of War under Washington, 
and his removal to the town of Thomaston. This distinguish- 
ed gentleman, whose public services are too well known to 
need any eulogium here, had married the daughter of Thom- 
as Fluker, and, in her right, came into possession of a portion, 
we believe one fifth, of the Waldo Patent. Having, in 1784, 
been appointed agent to settle said Fluker's estate, he had 
made sale, July 2, 1791, to one Oliver Smith, of two-fifth 
parts of said Patent, which, after several mean conveyances, 
were repurchased by himself, and, together with two other 
fifth parts, which in 1793 he purchased of Samuel Waldo 
(3d) and others, put him in possession of the entire Patent, 
with the exception of what had been previously alienated. 
During the preceding year, a splendid mansion-house, un- 
rivaled for its symmetry and beauty, called by French 
visitors a chateau, and named Montpelier, had been con- 
structed by his order, and was now ready for the reception 
of his family, who were brought from Philadelphia in a 
sloop commanded by Capt. A. Malcolm. 

At the same time, the General published advertisements in 
the public papers, offering favorable terms to new settlers, 
and extolling the fertility of the soil and salubrity of the 
climate, to the latter of which, the balsamic firs, he said, so 
greatly contributed. As a farther encouragement to the set- 
tlement of the country, he commenced several kinds of busi- 
ness on an extensive scale, which gave employment to a 
large number of workmen, and afforded a market for the 
products of the soil and the forest. Besides farming, brick- 
making, lime-burning, and trading in Thomaston, he deter- 
mined also to go into the lumber business ; and purchased 


the mills at the upper falls in Warren, together with the saw- 
mill which M. Cobb and W. Lermond had then in operation 
at Hart's falls. The latter, he removed to the site of the 
former, which he also rebuilt, enlarged, and supplied with 
gangs of saws sufficient to cut up a whole log at once. 
These saws could be easily removed and replaced at pleas- 
ure, so as to make boards, plank, or joists, of any required 
thickness. A grist-mill with burr-stones was also erected, 
together with two dwellinghouses near by. Mr. Barrett had 
now been employed a year or two, in constructing locks at 
the several falls in Warren. His plan, which located the 
locks in the main channel of the river, not succeeding to his 
mind, he became discouraged after expending some thous- 
ands of dollars, and sold out the whole concern to General 
Knox. The latter resumed the work, and, after some unsuc- 
cessful experiments, completed it, so far as the falls in War- 
ren were concerned. He raised the dam at the upper falls 
sufficiently high to supersede the necessity of a lock at Hart's 
falls, and constructed locks around the former, on the 
eastern bank. These, formed of earth only, and covered with 
sods to prevent erosion, were the work of a French engineer, 
who received his pay, and left the place before the water was 
high enough to make trial of them. The weather continuing 
dry, the sods were scorched by the sun, and the embankment 
rendered friable ; so that, when the waters were let in, the 
whole was swept away ; and the labor of months disappeared 
in an hour. The following season, Life Wilson was employed 
to construct the work anew, with plank and timber. At the 
falls below, a canal was cut across the point on which the 
Hawk building now stands, and connected with a lock west of 
the grist-mill. These locks afforded a passage for rafts and 
gondolas, and continued in use till after the death of Gen. 
Knox ; when they went to decay with his other works. The 
tolls allowed by law, were, at Senebeck Pond, Is. 6d. for every 
ton in weight and for every thousand feet of lumber ; and the 
same again at the falls in Warren. At the latter, where alone 
any locks was made, the toll was, in 1803, raised to fifty 
cents. The income, however, was not great ; Knox's own 
lumber constituting the greater part of the amount transport- 
ed. About the period last mentioned, to prevent the neces- 
sity of taking up the dams at the upper falls, a passage was 
made for the shad and alewives on the western side of the 
river, which answered very well for the last, but altogether 
excluded the salmon, which have since nearly disappeared. 
The shad and alewiyes were taken without labor by obstruct- 


ing their way with wire and opening a slit on one side, 
through which they were carried by the water into a recep- 
tacle floored with slats, and left ready to be carried off by 

The various works carried on by Knox, brought hither a 
great number of mechanics, particularly carpenters and mill- 
wrights ; many of whom became permanent residents in 
this town. Clarke Gerrish, in 1794, came from Newburyport 
or vicinity, and though not regularly bred to any trade, was a 
capable man and much employed about the upper falls and 
head of the tide. James Gerrish, a brother, came a few years 
later. Life Wilson, a carpenter and joiner, came from Dra- 
cut, Mass., lived awhile in Knox's house at the upper falls, 
purchased and enlarged that of Nathaniel Copeland, built a 
store now occupied by T. Wilson as a cabinet-maker's shop, 
commenced trading, but, meeting with losses by the embargo 
of 1807, was compelled to stop business, though he saved a 
portion of his property. Parker Coburn, also from Dracut, 
lived many years at the upper falls, purchased the place and 
repaired the house where his widow now lives, and followed 
his trade more or less as a mill-wright, till his death in 1845. 
Nathan Williams came from the same neighborhood, and fol- 
lowed the same business ; purchased and lived awhile on the 
farm in Union which he exchanged with John Whiting for 
that in Warren, on a part of which his sons still live. He, 
many years, commanded the Union Light Infantry company, 
and was a good officer. His brother, Jesse Williams, was a 
shoemaker by trade, and settled on the farm where he still re- 
sides. Luther and Lot Lincoln were masons, and came from 
Hillsboro', N. H. The former settled in Thomaston, the lat- 
ter in Warren, where he followed his trade for many years, 
and rang the bell for the Baptist Society from near the time of 
its purchase till 1848. Joseph Calef, a cooper of Marblehead, 
resided at the upper falls and other places in town, till his 
death in 1839. Others of these workmen settled in the neigh- 
boring towns. 

The various kinds of business thus commenced by Knox, 
stimulated the enterprise of others, and was the beginning 
of a season of prosperous activity, which lasted many years. 
Mill-logs, kiln- wood, staves, and hoop poles, were taken at a 
generous price ; employment was given to vessels in the 
coasting and W. 1. trade ; and ship-building met with more 
ample encouragement. It was in 1795, that the first lime 
was burnt in Warren. Thomas Kirkpatrick erected a kiln 
that year at the upper falls, below the dam, where a great 


quantity of slabs had accumulated, which he used for kiln- 
wood. Lime was then put up in fifty gallon casks, which 
brought from 10s, to 12s. The next year, William Kirk- 
patriek, v/ho settled on the present Cutting farm, in connexion 
with John Libbey, built a kiln on the hill beyond Mr. Paskiel's, 
the remains of which are still to be seen. Another was 
built at the lower falls about the same time ; and thus com- 
menced a business, which has been more or less extensively 
prosecuted ever since. The following year, B. Webb, J. 
Libbey, T. Kirkpatrick, and J. Copeland were chosen the first 
lime inspectors. The first of these, who had married a daugh- 
ter of Samuel Boggs, at that time lived on the farm now 
owned by Alvan Vaughan, and, besides his professional prac- 
tice, carried on farming and other branches of business. His 
mother and sister kept a small assortment of English goods 
there. His brother. Deacon William H. who came in 1799, 
purchased a small portion of the farm, built the house in 
which he now dwells, and commenced business as a silver- 
smith and worker in brass and other hardware, which he and 
his son have since successfully carried on. 

The town was this year, for the first time, divided into 
school districts, there having previously been but one town 
school, taught alternately on each side of the river. 

1796. Early in the summer of this year, was launched 
from the yard of Mr. Weston, the brig Neptune, of 123 tons, 
owned by W. Lermond, A. Lermond, R. Henderson and 
others, being the second square rigged vessel owned in the 
place. She was commanded by Alexander Pease, from 
Martha's Vineyard, who had, the preceding j^ear, built the 
house afterwards owned by D. Standish, and more recently 
by P. Ludwig. One quarter of the vessel, owned by A. Ler- 
mond, and perhaps other portions, were chartered at 82 a 
month, per ton, by Bracket & Davis, who, together with W. 
Lermond, furnished a cargo of timber, and sent her to Liver- 
pool, with instructions to return directly to the river. Instead 
of this, Capt. Pease commenced freighting to different parts 
of Europe, or lying idle in port, without either writing to 
the owners, or making any remittances. After a year and a 
half had elapsed, W. Lermond embarked for Liverpool, 
where he arrived May 10, 1798, and learnt that the brig was 
then at Rotterdam, advertised for sale. Following her there, 
he found the vessel, but so involved in debt, that little or 
nothing remained to the owners. The captain avoided an 
interview, and did not afterwards return. The loss on this 
vessel was severely feU by the owners, and more especially 
22 • 


by Bracket & Davis, who never fully recovered from its 
effects, though they continued to do business for many years. 

Mr. Head, also, engaged in ship-building this season, and 
built the schooner Angelica on the eastern side of the river, 
near the present yard of T. P. Burgess. He employed a crew 
from Newburyport or its vicinity, consisting of Ezekiel and 
John Barnard, Jonathan Harriman, carpenters, and Edward 
Brown, catilker, all of whom remained and settled in this 
vicinity. Harriman lived in a small house below Weston's, 
till he removed to his present dwelling, near the upper falls. 
Brown, after building the house now owned by Ambrose 
Cobb, on the site of the late Wm. L. Starrett's, settled at 
Watson's Point. 

The same year, were built the schooner Dove, by the Ler- 
monds, Wyllie and others ; the schooners Lucy, and Hope, by 
Cobb, Copeland and Anderson ; and the schooner Jenny, by 
the Libbeys. 

On the 9th or 10th of May, a fatal accident occurred at the 
village. Mr. Rokes came out in the morning for the purpose 
of obtaining some garden seeds, and remarked to some one 
in conversation, that, after many years of toil and hardship, 
he had just got able to live. W^aiting for the stores to be 
opened, and probably watching for the appearance of the 
fish, he fell from the bridge, upon the rock below, and ter- 
minated an honest and laborious life at the age of sixty-seven. 
In the autumn of the same year, Thomas Morison, in a dark 
evening, crossing the same bridge, of which he had been the 
architect, stepped off at a place where the railing was defi- 
cient, and was drowned. 

In consequence of a law of the State passed the preceding 
year, the Federal currency of dollars and cents was this year 
adopted by the town in its votes for raising money ; though 
' pounds' occasionally appear on the records a few years 
later. Coins from the U. S. mint, established in 1793, were 
now beginning to circulate here. The other coins in circu- 
lation, were, the Massachusetts cent, and the English half- 
penny, English and French guineas at 28s., English and 
French crowns at 6s. 8d., the Spanish dollar at 6s., together 
with halves, quarters, &c., at the same rate, and pistareens at 
20 cents each. The old paper money disappeared with the 
adoption of the constitution ; but bank bills were now grad- 
ually coming into use. 

This year, began the practice, which was for a long time 
prevalent in town, of choosing every newly married man to 
the office of hogreeve, which in March was exemplified by 


the choice of Samuel Davis and Thomas Kirkpatrick. As 
every person elected for the first time to any office, was called 
upon after the meeting for a coWs tail, in the shape of 
brandy or gin, it was no objection, in those days, that this 
rule, in particular years, gave a superfluity of these 

A new pound was directed to be built on J. W. Head's 
land near the meeting-house ; one of the first uses of which, 
was, we believe, the confinement of some goats, about this 
time introduced and kept by A. Anderson. The animals, 
however, disappeared during the night, leaving no other clue 
to their escape, than a board extending from the top rail to 
the ground inside. 

The trouble occasioned by the freshet this year, was 
thought to be increased by the dam at Hart's falls ; and an 
investigation of the matter, probably, led to the sale and 
removal of the mill there, the following year. To repair 
damages done by these and subsequent freshets, $1,50 
was, till 1801, assessed upon each poll, and estates in pro- 

1797- The meeting-house being now painted, (outside,) 
and the galleries finished, by E. Page for $140, a vote was 
passed empowering the selectmen to procure stone steps for 
the doors, and Alexander Lermond, who was now the leader 
of the choir, to purchase 12 singing books and as many psalm 
books for the use of the singers. 

In consequence of the threatening attitude and hostile acts 
of the French republic, particular attention was directed to 
the condition of the militia and military stores. This town 
having neglected to provide its quota of gunpowder, and other 
matters required by law, and being now indicted for such neg- 
lect, a committee was appointed, August 21st, consisting of B. 
Bracket, T. Starrett, and S. S. Wilde, to examine the law on 
this subject, and report what its requirements were. It was, 
also, vo*ed that Mr. Wilde be appointed agent to answer to 
the indictment ; and that the military stores, when purchased, 
be deposited in the garret of the meeting-house until some 
other place be provided. As fires, at this time, were alto- 
gether unknown in such places, meeting-houses were gener- 
ally used in country towns as the safest depositories of such 
stores ; and no one seems to have been shocked with the sin- 
gular incongruity of filling the churches of the Prince of 
Peace with the murderous munitions of war. 

It was this year that Col. Benjamin Burton, who had, for a 
short time since the resignation of Col. Starrett, commanded 


the regiment, resigned his commission, and J. W. Head, who 
had previously succeeded Major I^ibbey, was chosen Colonel. 
Otis llobbins of Thomaston, and Bonjamin Brackett of War- 
ren, were chosen Majors ; and Clarke Gerrish was appointed 
Adjutant. Soon after, measures were taken, in consequence 
of their increasing number, to get the militia of this town 
divided into two companies, which was elFected in 1798. The 
officers then chosen, were, on the western side of the river, 
Willing Blake, Captain, J. P. Davis, Lieutenant, and J. 
Mclntyre,2d, Ensign ; on the eastern side, R. Crane, Captain, 
A. Davis, Lieutenant, and J. Payson, Ensign. These officers 
succeeded in introducing a better discipline and exching a 
more martial spirit, which, as well here as throughout the 
country, continued in a greater or less degree for many years, 
and rendered military reviews the most attractive and gener- 
ally attended spectacles of the period. 

Miles Cobb, having disposed of his mill at Hart's falls, this 
year purchased the farm of Joseph Jameson ; which he subse- 
quently sold, one-half to David Vose and the other to Anselm 
Vaughan. Vose took possession of his, the year following, 
1798. Vaughan came somewhat later from Carver, Mass. 
and was followed by his brothers, Lewis, in 1816, and Alvan, 
in 1839. Cobb this year began trade, and the year following 
purchased Copcland's saw-mill, or a part of it, and continued 
the lumber business. It was in 1797, also, that Jerathmael 
Leach, a native of Bridgwater, who had been about five years 
employed by Cobb, as chief workman in the blacksmith's 
shop, settled on the farm where he still lives, and drove, from 
Maxey's in Union to the head of the tide, the first cart that 
ever passed on that road. Enoch Leach and Freeman Jones, 
from the same place, settled on the same road not many yeare 
after. The Leaches were descended from the celebrated 
Miles Standish ; and an ancient looking decanter, said to have 
been brought over in the Mayflower and handed down to this 
branch of the family, is now in possession of their nephew, 
L. Jones. 

A highway was laid out the same year,throug]i what has often 
been denominated the " Kelloch neighborhood," to Union. 
The first settlers on this road, were Brice Jameson, wbo at 
least as early as 1793 had established himself on t!ie lot on 
which J. Crawford now lives, and David Y. Kelloch, who 
that year commenced work on the place where his widow 
is still living. Some years later, Kelloch was followed by his 
father and three brothers, who all settled near him. In 
1797, Joel Robbins from Union, settled on the farm now 


owned by R. Lawry, and his brother, Joseph Robbins, suc- 
ceeded J. Rogers on that now owned by M. Stetson. 

Mr. Weston, this year, built the schooner Minerva, J. Hall 
master, for the Creightons, Payson and others ; and Mr. 
Standish built in the gully below J. McCallum's, the schoon- 
er Lark, of which A. Malcolm was master till her sale in the 
south not long after. 

1798« The acceptance of the road from the meeting- 
house to M. Cobb's requiring a public bridge at the head of 
the tide, and the private one erected some years before be- 
ing now out of repair, the town voted, June 14th, to build a 
bridge in that place ; and John Andrews was chosen agent to 
superintend the building of it. 

On the 3d of Sept., the town made choice of Mr. Wilde, as 
a delegate to attend a convention held at Hallowell on the 
4th Tuesday of October ; a nieasure which resulted in the 
division of the county, on the 20th of February following, 
and the establishment of a new one by the name of Kenne- 
bec. The town, also, lost a portion of its territory, by an 
act passed Juno 28th, setting off W. and J, Watson, with 
their estates at Watson's Point, to the town of Thomaston. 
Up to the time of building the meeting-houso, the affairs of 
the town had been manao;ed with a good degree of harmony. 
But many causes conspired, about tliis time, to create some 
division. The location of the meeting-house, had occasioned 
much dissatisfaction to many in the neighborhood of the 
old one. That of Major Libbey was so great, that he declar- 
ed his determination never to enter the house ; whilst that of 
Mr. Hall was aggravated by a difference which had arisen 
between him and Mr. Copeland, who had great influence in 
town affairs. Mr. Dunbar was opposed in principle, not only 
to a ministerial tax, but to any legal interference in religious 
matters whatever. Several had now joined the Baptist de- 
nomination ; and to these local circumstances, were added 
Jay's treaty, and the neutral policy of Washington, which 
though generally approved, were the subjects of complaint 
with some. From stime or all these causes, in 1796 there 
was more want of unanimity in votes for Governor, than had 
ever occurred before, though after that year, the vote for Gov. 
Sumner was nearly unanimous for three years. At a town 
meeting, Sept. 3, 1798, Mr. Wilde was chosen agent to ap- 
ply to the Court of Common Pleas for a new trial in an 
action commenced against the town by Reuben Hall, and in 
which the said Hall recovered judgment by default. The 
explanation of this, as near as can be ascertained, is as fol- 


lows : — Hall had refused to pay bis portion of the tax as- 
sessed for the support of the minister ; the collector had 
taken and sold property of his, sufficient to pay the amount ; 
thereupon, Hall commenced a suit against the town, for the 
money received. The writ was served by James Malcolm, 
coroner, upon Major Libbey, as one of the principal inhab- 
itants of Warren ; and the case was tried before Samuel 
Brown, Esq. of Thomaston. Libbey, from the dissatisfaction 
before alluded to, was willing to remain silent ; Malcolm was 
induced from regard to his employer, to do the same ; the 
Justice was at a distance ; and, before any thing of the suit 
was known to the town, judgment was obtained in Hall's fa- 
vor. The application for a new trial was, probably, unsuc- 
cessful; as, in the following year, Libbey and Hall were 
indicted by the Grand Jury for this proceeding, fined, Libbey 
$2, and Hall $10; and the cost amounted" to $40,95 cts. 
Mr. Dunbar also resisted the payment of the ministerial tax, 
till, when about to be committed, his friends pursuaded him 
to yield. 

Among the new names which appear about this time, we 
find those of Daniel Snow and Perley Emerson. Snow came 
from Bridgwater, purchased a portion of J. Lermond's land, 
and after selling there, bought out Emerson, who had built a 
house and lived awhile where D. Page afterwards built and 
resided till the time of his death. Emerson removed ; and 
Snow, after some years, sold a portion of his land to M. Cobb, 
subsequently the remainder to J. Page, and left here for 
Union. Mr. Bird, who had, a short time before, transferred 
hisd welling house to Dr. EJ^uxton, and erected another on ihe 
Waldoboro' road, this year transferred the latter with the 
remainder of his land to M. Copeland. The latter having 
relinquished his own house to his son Moses, was living on 
the Schaefl^er place, at present owned by James Copeland. 
The land purchased of Bird, was, about the same time, sold 
to Capt. Matthew Dagget, who came from Martha's Vineyard, 
and had, the preceding year, been in charge of Copeland's 
sloop. Dagget occupied this estate, and vvas employed as 
master of various vessels in the coasting and foreign trade, 
till his death in 183L 

The vessels built this year, were the Sch. Ten Brothers 
for Capt Spear and sons, and the Sch. Bridgwater for D. & 
A. Dunbar, R. Mclntyre, and R. Hall, both by Mr. Wes- 

1799. This last year of the century, was distinguished 
by the death of Gov. Sumner, June 7th, and still further 


saddened on the 14th of Dec. by that of Washington, the 
most remarkable man of this or any other age. In this town, 
a discoupe, exhibiting a parallel between the lives of Wash- 
ington and Moses, was preached by the Rev. Mr. Huse, and 
printed at the request of the hearers. 

The spoliations committed on our commerce by the 
French, about this time, had a disastrous effect upon the busi- 
ness of this place, not only by the actual losses sustained at 
sea, but still more, perhaps, by the interruption it caused in 
the W. I. trade and the exportation of lumber. The Speed- 
well, owned by Starrett and Spear, was captured and con- 
demned ; as was also the Dolphin, owned by Messrs. Hall, 
Parsons, and others. On the other hand, the entry and 
clearance of vessels were greatly facilitated by a custom 
house, this year established at Waldoboro'. 

By the exertions of Mr. Wilde, then representing the 
town in the General Court, the term of the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas, before held at Waldoboro', was removed to 
this town. This was the last of Mr. Wilde's services in 
this place, as he this year removed to Hallowell, carrying 
with him the general good-will, and many strong attach- 
ments. A court-house was erected ;* and, in Nov. 1799, 
the first Court was lield here. The house, however, was not 
finished till a year or two afterwards. It was a wooden 
structure, with a hip roof, and a belfry in the centre. Mr. 
Copeland, and others, who built the house by contract, re- 
served to themselves the use of the upper story, which, on 
the incorporation of Warren Academy, they sold to that 
institution for a school-room. The building was also used for 
religious and other public meetings, as occasion required ; and 
the town meetings were uniformly held there till the present 
town-house was built in 1840. The courts were held once 
a year in it, till 1847, when the half-shire towns were given 
up, and all the courts in the county held at Wiscasset. The 
building and lot on which it stood, was then sold for $751, 
and the lower part is now occupied as a school-house for 
district No. 20. 

Several deaths occurred this year from accidental drown- 

* At tlie raising of the court-house, Col. Head attracted some 
attention by a high crowned, conical hat, which he wore, a fashion 
which was just beginning to supplant the low hemispherical crowns, 
then universally worn. It was crushed by a board which accident- 
ally fell from the frame, which gave him an opportunity to expatiate 
upon its utility in preserving the skull from a similar fate. 


ing. June 12th, Seth, a son of Capt. Crane, 6 years old, 
perished in the river at the village ; and, on the 26th, a child 
of Francis Young, 3 years old, in a well having no curb. 
Wm. Perham, who had settled on the farm now owned by 
S. Payson, was also drowned in the course of this season, 
whilst rafting in the river. 

1800. Mr. Wilde's place was, this year, supplied by 
Samuel Thatcher, Esq., who purchased his property and 
succeeded to his practice. He was a native of Cambridge, 
Mass., graduated at the University there in 1793, taught an 
Academy one year at Concord, studied law with Hon. Tim- 
othy Bigelow, then of Groton, and, possessing talents and 
confidence, commenced his profession here under the most 
favorable auspices. He represented the town 11 years ; 
was twice elected to Congress, and sustained the office of 
High Sheriff of the county of Lincoln from 1812 to 1821. 
He was particularly active in raising funds and getting an 
endowment for the Academy here ; and to him, and to Col. 
Head, is the town indebted for the elegant row of elms on 
each side of the street near the meeting-houses. In 1833 he 
removed to the town of Brewer. 

In the spring of this year, the town was, for the first time 
since its settlement, visited by the small pox ; a disease so 
direful in itself, and at that time so entirely new to most of 
the people, as to occasion a general panic of dread and appre- 
hension. A son of John Fitzgerald, in the borders of Wal- 
doboro', was first taken with it ; and, before any suspicion of 
its true nature was entertained, most of the neighbors had 
been exposed to the contagion. A visit was also made there 
by Mrs. Starrett and Mrs. Andrews, of this town, with Lewis, 
son of the former; and no apprehensions were felt, till, 
shortly after, the disease was pronounced small pox, and the 
patient died. Mrs. Starrett escaped ; her son and Mrs. 
Andrews had the disorder ; the latter of whom died, and 
the former barely escaped with life. Mr. Andrews's house 
was selected as a hospital, and, April 1st, the town voted, that 
as many as could be accommodated there should have leave 
to be inoculated within the 24 hours next ensuing, on condi- 
tion of not leaving the prescribed limits from the time of in- 
oculation till they procured a certificate of being thoroughly 
cleansed. About fifteen embraced the opportunity, and had 
the disease. 

In May, when the patients at Mr. Andrews's were nearly 
ready to leave, a son of Thomas Starrett, Jr. took the disease, 
and, before its nature was suspected, the rest of the family 


and some of the neighbors had been sufficiently exposed to 
give rise to serious apprehensions. As Mr. Starrett then lived 
in the old house near the river, it was converted into a hospi- 
tal, and his whole family, together whh many others, were 
inoculated. But at a meeting called for the purpose, the 
town refused to give leave for further inoculations; and the 
distemper did not make its appearance in town again until 
1843. At that time, none but one child was affected. But 
in 1845, it prevailed more extensively, making its appearance 
on both sides of the river simultaneously, with some fatal 
cases among the colored population. In 1848, it was again 
brought home by two seamen, and a hospital provided on J, 
Lermond's land, near D. Page's. Several cases occurred 
again in 1850, in the eastern part of the town, but, in conse- 
quence of the general vaccination voted in 1845, excited little 

The alarm of the small pox, did not prevent party spirit, 
which was now raging, from extending to this town ; and the 
unanimity which the votes of the three preceding years exhibit, 
was not again witnessed for twenty years. Of the two par- 
ties which divided the country, the supporters of Washing- 
ton's and Adams's administrations, were called Federalists, 
or Federal Republicans ; their opponents, Anti-Federalists or 
Democrats. William Lermond, who had spent some time 
abroad trying to save something from the Brig Neptune, came 
home with feelings strongly enlisted in the republican cause 
in Europe, and immediately became a principal leader of 
the democratic party in this town. But in April, C. Strong, 
the federal candidate, who was chosen Governor, received 
51 votes; M. Gill, also a federalist, 3; and E. Gerry, the 
democratic candidate, 7. The Presidential electors were 
chosen by the Legislature, and unanimously voted for Mr. 
Adams ; but his opponent, T. Jefferson, was elected. 

Military reviews, as before observed, from the improved 
discipline, and sham battles which they exhibited, and also, 
in consequence of threatened hostilities with France, now 
excited great interest, and drew together crowds of spectators 
of all ages and both sexes. The regimental muster, was 
this year held in Thomaston ; but the bright anticipations 
concerning it, were turned into disappointment by a heavy 
and uninterrupted rain. 

Umbrellas had now been introduced ; and oilcloth hat 
cases, were used as a means of saving, in sudden emergen- 
cies, the napped, high crowned hats then generally worn. 
Men's vests had lost their skirts ; and double breasted coats, 


with lappels, were in fashion. Shoe-buckles had yielded to 
ribbons and silk strings ; the white tops, to half boots worn 
outside of the close pantaloons, which in summer were made 
of nankin. The toes of shoes and boots were brought to a 
sharp point, which was more and more elongated for some 
half dozen years later, when they were supplanted by the 
square toes, that, with some interruptions, have held their 
place till the present time. Ladies' slippers, also, with low 
heels, had succeeded to the white rands, buckled straps, and 
high wooden heels of an earlier date. Long queues and 
heavy clubs of hair, were now disappearing, and the author- 
ity of St. Paul prevailed over the heads, if not the hearts, of 
men. Such favor did short hair gain, that, in a few years 
after, it was adopted by young ladies ; and phrenologists, if 
they had existed in that day, might have gained a ready in- 
sight into the characters of all, and made matches after the 
most approved method. Horses' tails were docked and nick- 
ed in such a manner as to exhibit a short, upturned appen- 
dage, cropped square at the end. Pleasure carriages were 
beginning to multiply; and sleighs shod with iron, were in 
general use. Wooden clocks first made their appearance 
about this time, and, without casing, sold for 820 or S25. A 
few brass, eight-day clocks, and other time-pieces, had been 
used in town ; and watches, heretofore a rare article, were 
becoming fashionable. 




1801 to 1806. Rev. J. Huse, Rev. T. Whiting, and 
Samuel Davis, in conformity with a law then recently passed, 
were, in 1801, appointed a committee to visit the several 
schools in town, and see that they were properly conducted 
by teachers legally qualified. This was the first committee 
of the kind in town ; teachers having been before employed 
without examination, and, some of them, with very slender 
qualifications. Among those employed at and prior to this 
time, may be mentioned Messrs. Fairbanks and Whiting, 
before spoken of, and Edward Roach, a native of Ireland. 
Rev. Mr. Huse, also, taught one season at the village. Others 
from Massachusetts were temporarily employed ; Daniel 
Vaughan, Backus Leach, and Nathan Pierce, in 1802 and 3 ; 

Woodbury and C. Eaton, in 1804 ; the last of whom, the 

year following, became a permanent resident. Nathan Lucas, 
from Carver, for many years occasionally taught a common 
as well as a singing school in this and the neighboring towns. 
The books used in school at this time, were, Webster's Spel- 
ling Book, the American Preceptor, Perry's Dictionary, and 
sometimes Pike's Arithmetic or its abridgment. English 
Grammar was here first taught to one of Col. Head's daugh- 
ters by Mr. Woodbury in 1804 ; and the following year, 
Eaton persuaded five or six of his most forward scholars at 
Oyster river to commence the same study. Geography was 
introduced a little later, but had few students for many years. 

During the period in question, the school tax was gradually 
increased fron $333 to $700. It was expended by commit- 
tees chosen by the school districts, independent of any other 
authority. The income of the ministerial and school lands, 
arising from the annual lease of the marshes and the sale of 
standing timber, had hitherto gone into the town treasury, and 
been expended without any particular regard to the objects 
for which these lands had been designed. But fears now 
began to be entertained, that, with the multiplication of sects, 
difficulties might arise concerning the land granted for the 
support of the ministry ; and, April 2, 1804, the town voted 
to sell both the school and ministerial lots, and appointed the 
selectmen a committee to apply to the General Court for an 


act to establish the proceeds thereof as a fund for the support 
of schools alone. This application was partially successful, 
and, March 4, 1805, an act was passed, incorporating T. Star- 
rett, John Libbey, A. Lermond, John Creighton, and M. 
Smith, Jr., with the power of filling any vacancies in their 
number, as trustees to dispose of all the real estate belonging 
to the town, which was originally appropriated for the use of 
schools ; to put the proceeds thereof at interest until a sum 
be accumulated sufficient to yield an annual income of $200 ; 
then to apply the same annually to the support of schools 
forever. The following year, an additional act conferred the 
power to sell the ministerial lot, and add the proceeds to the 
same fund. The trustees held their first meeting November 
7, 1806, and proceeded to advertise and sell both these lots 
accordingly. This was done at a favorable time, February 
16, 1807, and brought the sum of $2520. This fund contin- 
ued to increase till 1813, when the sum of $200 began to be 
annually paid for the support of schools. This annual pay- 
ment, with the exception of the years from 1840 to 1844, when 
it was omitted on account of some recent losses, has contin- 
ued ever since. The first report of the trustees was made in 
March, 1807. 

The depredation committed by crows upon the corn-fields, 
induced the town, in 1803 and 4, to vote a bounty of one 
shilling a head for the destruction of these birds ; and, in 
those two years, this bounty amounted to $24,67. 

In 1804, according to the treasurer's book, the town first 
began to derive a small revenue from the oyster fishery ; al- 
though a law for protecting such fisheries, and allowing 
selectmen to impose conditions upon the taking of them by 
people of other places, had been passed as early as 1796. 
In early times, oysters abounded in the lower part of the 
town, both in St. George's and Oyster rivers ; and vessels 
from Portsmouth and other places, used to come, and carry 
ofi* whole cargoes of them. After the passage of the above 
mentioned law, fewer vessels came for them. They were 
already on the decline, either from saw dust washed down 
from the mills, as some suppose, or from other causes not 
ascertained ; and they have now become so scarce that few 
take the trouble to search for them. Small sums were oc- 
casionally paid into the treasury for these fish, till 1813. 

The population of this and the adjacent towns, had now 
so increased, and so much disorder, growing out of eager- 
ness and violent contention for fishing-stands, was exhibited, 
as to induce many of the inhabitants to petition the Legisla- 


ture to make the fishery a town privilege. At a town meet- 
ing in Sept. 1801, the representative was instructed to use 
his endeavors in aid of said petition ; and, in 1802, an act 
was passed, giving to the town the exclusive right of dispos- 
ing of said fish, on condition of supplying the inhabitants 
living on the river, with alewives, when on hand, to the amount 
of five hundred each, at 20cts. per hundred, of fishing but 
three days in a week, and of choosing a committee to pre- 
vent obstructions in the river and other infractions of the law ; 
the proceeds to go into the town treasury, and be disposed of 
as the inhabitants of the town shall from time to time direct. 
The fishery was, accordingly, set up in April, 1802, to the 
highest bidder, and struck off to Reuben Hall, for the sum of 
$360. This put an end to the contest for fishing-stands, and, 
for a time, produced general satisfaction. Yet the old habits 
of the people, and their eagerness to obtain the earliest 
caught and best fish, still brought together, at the annual fish- 
ing season, large crowds from this and the neighboring towns, 
who, like the Indians before them, and the Greeks at the 
Olympic games, found, in this annual gathering, a fine oppor- 
tunity of renewing old, and forming new, acquaintances, re- 
suscitating former friendships, and preventing the ties of fam- 
ily and kindred from rusting out. 

The difficulties with France having been settled by the 
treaty of 1800, the period we are now treating of, was one 
of great commercial activity and general prosperity. Be- 
sides boards and staves to southern or W. I, ports, vast quan- 
tities of timber were exported to Great Britain and Ireland ; 
and goods brought back in return, to the great profit of 
merchants, ship-owners, lumberers, and sea-faring men. 
Traders multiplied ; ship-building increased ; and the appear- 
ance of the town was greatly improved by the disappearance 
of the woods, and the erection of new and commodious 
dwellings. Henry Knox, Jr., was established by his father 
with a store of goods at the upper falls. M. Cobb was 
engaged in trade at his, now Burton's, corner, and at the 
same time, besides farming, carried on the blacksmith busi- 
ness, lime-burning, ship-building, and foreign trade. Wm. 
Hovey, who, in Dec. 1802, came here, and commenced 
business in partnership with his uncle, Thomas Hovey of 
Portland, had now purchased the Frost or Whiting house, 
and was doing an extensive business in the old store erected 
by Mr. Moore. Frost had, about the commencement of this 
period, been detected in a nefarious attempt at seduction 
and incest ; and the general indignation of the people made 


it convenient for him to remove from the place. He subse- 
quently kept a broker's office in Boston, having transferred 
his property here to Joseph Shed of that city, whose son, 
William, brought down goods, and for a short time did busi- 
ness here. Hovey took in large quantities of staves, boards, 
and timber, which he exported to England and the W. Indies, 
often on his own account, and often, also, loading foreign 
vessels by contract. Putting his goods somewhat lower than 
they had previously been sold, he soon attracted customers 
from all the neighboring towns, selling annually not less than 
^8,000 worth of goods, and taking in lumber to the amount 
of 800,000 feet. Bracket and Davis still did business, but 
on a less extensive scale ; while Col. Head was extending 
his from year to year, selling a large amount of goods, and 
often loading 6 or 7 ships with lumber, annually. John 
Paine began the same business near the Narrows in Thomas- 
ton, and carried it on very successfully till after the peace 
of 1814. In addition to these. Life Wilson, near the close 
of this period, commenced trade in the building now occu- 
pied by Theodore Wilson, and was preparing to go exten- 
sively into the lumber business. Thomas Kirkpatrick, who 
now lived in a house he had previously built near the site 
of the present town-house, was engaged in the manufacture 
of lime. John H. Counce, after working two or three years 
in one of the ship-yards, in 1804 or 5, built, in connexion 
with Charles Bryant, the Sch. Union for H. Libbey, John 
Creighton, and others ; and, the following year, began, 
on his own account, the business he so successfully 
carried on for more than 40 years. The same business 
was continued by Stand ish and Weston ; the last of whom, 
in 1804, built for owners in Boston, the Fredonia, the first 
ship ever launched in the place. For the vessels built in 
this and the subsequent periods, the reader is referred to 
Table XIII, at the close of the volume. 

To facilitate the growing commerce of this river, a light- 
house was erected at its entrance in 1806, on Franklin 
Island, with a fixed light 50 feet above the level of the 
sea, at an expense of $3370. A year or two later, also, 
a small fort was built, for the defence of the river, in the 
town of St. George ; but little use was made of it, however, 
and it has long since gone to decay. 

The briskness of trade, and the manufactures carried on 
by Knox, affording a ready market for the products of the 
forest, stimulated farmers to clear up their lands, but at the 
same time tempted them into a more lavish expenditure, and 


rendered them less cautious in contracting debts. Land 
was stripped, rather than cultivated ; foreign fabrics began 
to displace those of domestic manufacture ; slaizy India 
cotton shirting and sheeting succeeded to the more substan- 
tial tow and linen ; and it was no uncommon thing for mer- 
chants to sell, to a single family, woollen cloths to the amount 
of 8100 a year. Women, however, with the exception of 
a few fashionable families, still manufactured their common 
winter garments of wool, — colored and pressed at the mill. 

This period of prosperity gave rise to a more ambitious 
style of building, and may be characterized as the era of 
two-story houses, no less than fifteen, having been, during 
this period, erected on the eastern side of the river, and per- 
haps nearly as many more on the western. Besides these, a 
large number of commodious one-story houses, together with 
some of smaller dimensions, sprang up in all parts of the 
town. Many of these houses, however, were begun under 
the expectation that years of continued prosperity would 
provide the means of completing them, and on a failure of 
this expectation, remained unfinished for a long period. 
A small proportion of them were finished and painted ; and 
others have been newly covered and painted within the last 
25 years. Attention was, also, turned to the planting of or- 
namental trees. Many adorned their dwellings with willows, 
butternuts, balm of gileads, and particularly, with lombardy 
poplars, most of which, except the last, are still standing. 
Mr. Thatcher set out a row of alternate poplars and elms as 
far as his land extended, on the north side of the road, be- 
tween Messrs. Vaughan's and Payson's. The poplars have 
since been cut away ; but the elms, except where injured by 
the removal of the soil, continue to thrive, forming a princi- 
pal ornament to the village. Those on the southern side of 
the street, were subsequently planted by Col. Head, at the 
time of erecting his house, about 1811 ; and those east of tho 
bridge, near Burton's corner, some twenty years later. 

Pleasure carriages were still scarce ; though some addition 
was made to the number, in the course of this period. Near 
its beginning, several, of different descriptions, were brought 
down by N. Blake when he settled in Union ; and one of 
them, an open chair designed for a single person, was 
purchased by M. Copeland, who already owned the only 
chaise in town. In 1802, Rev. Mr. Huse and wife, undertak- 
ing a journey by land to Massachusetts, and expecting to 
procure a chaise at Wiscasset, left home in the ill-accom- 
modating chair, the only vehicle they could here obtain. 


Disappointed in their expectations at Wiscasset, they proceeded 
on to Brunswick, not doubting but that a nriore comfortable 
carriage might be procured there. After considerable 
inquiry, they found one chaise in that part of the town 
called McQuoit, but, not succeeding in hiring it, they pro- 
ceeded on, the whole distance, in the chair. At Boston, 
sending the chair down by water, they purchased a second 
handed chaise, which, with the one owned by Mr. Copeland 
and one soon after by Mr. Pebbles, constituted for some time 
the whole number in town. Towards the close of the period, 
however, such carriages began to multiply. 

This period of commercial prosperity was not less inviting 
to the legal profession than to other employments. George 
Reed and Manasseh Smith, Jr., opened their offices here in 
the early part of this period ; but the former, in a few years, 
removed to Damariscotta. The latter, from Wiscasset, 
graduated at Harvard in 1800, came hither in 1803, purchas- 
ed, soon after, the house which Mr. Copeland built where A. 
Counce's now is, and afterwards built for himself the house 
now occupied by his son, Hon. M. H. Smith. He was 
eminent for his accurate knowledge of the law, assiduous 
attention to business, and skill in acquiring and managing 
property. The Social Library was under great obligations 
to him, not only for his aid in the selection of books, but also 
for his faithful and gratuitous services as librarian from 1809 
to his death in 1822. This Library, together with the 
number of newspapers which the growing asperity of parties 
contributed to swell, diffiised a taste for reading, and en- 
hanced the general desire for improving the education of 
children and youth. Mr. Smith's services on the school 
committee, in connexion with Messrs. Whiting and Huse, 
were faithful, fearless, and efficient. 

Many other new settlers came and took up their residence 
here, among whom were the following. Barnabas and 
Roland Cobb came from Carver, Mass. the former in 1802, 
the latter the year following, having stopped one year at 
North Yarmouth. They had been soldiers in the Revolution ; 
and Barnabas had held a captain's commission in the militia. 
He hired, of his brother Miles, the house built by E. Brown, 
where he died in 1807. Roland settled on a portion of the J. 
Lermond farm, still occupied by his son Nathaniel, afterwards 
removed, and resided some years in Union, but returned 
and died in Warren. Jonathan Fuller came from Newton 
probably as early as 1800, and settled on the Waldoboro' 
road, where his son still occupies. He kept there for many 


years a public bouse, rose to tbe rank of captain in tbe mili- 
tia, and was a successful manager of bees, vvbicb he was the 
first to introduce to the place, about the time of the last war 
with England. Marshal Wilbur for many years carried on 
his business as a framer and joiner, was promoted through 
several gradations to captain of the militia, and afterwards 
returned with his family to his native Bridgwater. One of 
his earliest apprentices, Abraham Jackson of Kingston, distin- 
guished at that time for studious habits and an inquiring turn 
of mind, afterwards received a theological education, and 
was settled as a Congregational minister in Machias. On 
leaving that place, he, in 1834, supplied Mr. Cutter's pulpit in 
this town very acceptably for a few weeks, and then returned 
to the place of his nativity. Thomas L. and James G. Mal- 
lett, blacksmiths by trade, came from Charlestown, at or per- 
haps before the beginning of this period, and built, the former 
the house long known as the Mallett tavern, and the latter 
that now owned by I. J. Burton. Charles Hovey, in 1803, 
and Ivory Hovey, in 1805, came from Boxford, and com- 
menced the tanning business as successors of T. Parsons. 
After some years, the first returned to Massachusetts, but the 
second remained, built the house now owned by S. Bosworth, 
and carried on the tanning business till about 1820, when he 
relinquished it to O. Copeland. Joseph Wetherbee from 
Brookfield, worked at the shoemaker's trade, and purchased 
the house of L. Wilson, where he kept tavern for several 
years. John M. Gates came from Barre, and set up the sad- 
dler's trade, was afterwards concerned with M. Cobb in the 
clothing mill, purchased and for some years tended the grist- 
mill, owned and occupied the place late William L. Starrett's, 
and, after building the house now owned by Rev. N. Chap- 
man, removed to Portland, and thence to Thomaston. Marble 
Alford from Connecticut, settled and erected a saw-mill on 
the place since owned by H. Hilt, and now by S. Merry. 
Micah Stone, a cabinet maker from Framingham, Mass. set up 
his business, built the house now owned by J. S. Newcomb, 
and, after many years, returned to his native town. Daniel 
Newcomb came from Mansfield in 1804 ; followed the busi- 
ness of painting, at which he was for many years the princi- 
pal or only workman, here ; and purchased the house built 
by Stone ; where a portion of his family still reside. William 
W. French, a cooper from Stratford, and William French 
from Bedford, N. PI. came about the same time, or perhaps a 
little earlier. Joshua Bracket, from Wakefield, N. H. settled 
in the Stirling neighborhood, about 1805. John Comery of 


Waldoboro', apprentice to R. Crane, in or before this period 
set up his business here as a shoemaker, but after some years 
removed to Waldoboro'. Matthias Comery, a brother, brought 
up by P. Sechrist, settled and built where he now resides, but 
not till the commencement of the succeeding period. Amasa 
Russel, also from Waldoboro', took the farm previously set- 
tled by William Morman, where he still resides. John Flack 
came from Marblehead, built the house now owned by O. L. 
Kelloch, and removed to China. Zipha Swift came, in 1800, 
from Canton, Mass. to Cushing, and in 1804 removed to the 
farm now owned by Ira Robinson in this town. William 
Jackson, much employed with the whip-saw before that instru- 
ment was superseded, settled on the farm previously occupied 
by W. Perham. William Hays, an English gardener em- 
ployed by Gen. Knox, about this time, took on shares the farm 
of the then late William Kirkpatrick, and, several years after, 
settled in the north-west part of the town. 

It was in this period, also, about 1802, that Holbrook Mar- 
tin, a hatter from Concord, Mass., in partnership with Jack 
Douglass, a colored man from New London, erected a shop 
and commenced the hatter's business. After a short time, 
Martin removed to Camden, and Douglass for a time carried 
on the business in company with Isaac Brakely, also a color- 
ed person from Poughkeepsie, N. Y., who ultimately bought 
out Douglass ; both living, whilst they remained in town, on 
the place now owned by Alexander Libbey, 2d. Douglass 
was celebrated as a violinist, and took a bass viol to meet- 
ing, the first musical instrument except a pitch pipe ever 
used in public worship here. 

For the new roads laid out in this and the subsequent 
periods, the reader, is referred to Table I, at the end of the 
work. Some changes, during this period, occurred among 
the officers of the militia. Col. Head and Major Bracket 
having resigned, Samuel Thatcher was chosen colonel, and 
Joshua Adams and Joseph Maxey, majors ; Jesse Page was 
appointed adjutant. A company of artillery was organized 
in this town and Thomaston, of which Ebenezer Thatcher of 
the latter place was chosen captain. Dr. Isaiah Cushing, of the 
same town, lieutenant, and D. Patterson of Warren, ensign. 
It was furnished with two brass four-pounders, for which a 
gun-house was erected near Capt. Wyllie's. Of the militia 
of Warren, the western company was still commanded by 
Capt. W. Blake, and the eastern by Capt. A. Davis. A com- 
pany of light infantry in Camden, commanded by Capt. 
Erastus Foote, and a company of cavalry, mostly in the same 


town, were also attached to the regiment. Regimental mus- 
ters were held in Warren and Thomaston, alternately. 

About this time, also, a band of music, in connexion with 
the militia, was organized, one half at Wiscasset and the 
other in this town. The branch in this town consisted of J. 
and D. Lermond, J. Flack, J. G. Mallett, and A. Davis, Jr. 
on the clarionet, J. Wyllie, Jr. and J. M. Gates on the bas- 
soon, John Beguey, (a young Frenchman from Bordeaux, 
then living with Col. Thatcher,) on the octave flute, and J. 
Wetherbee, on the bass drum. They were instructed by 
Job Plympton of Franklin, and continued their, services at 
regimental musters and on other public occasions for a few 
years, when, some leaving town, and others going to sea, the 
band was broken up, 

St. George's lodge of Free-masons, was instituted in the 
town in 1806, and, for some years, contributed by public 
processions and orations, to swell the number of gala days 
then in so much request. 

The prosperhy of the period we are speaking of, was not 
confined to this town and river, but left its traces in the civil 
and ecclesiastical condition of the neighboring places. On 
the 7th of Feb. 1803, the town of Gushing was divided by 
the river, and the eastern part incorporated into ar^town by 
the name of St. George. Hope was also incorporated, June 
23, 1804. A Congregational minister. Rev. Thomas Coch- 
ran, was ordained at Camden, in Sept. 1805 ; and, in the 
following year. Rev. Henry True, at Union. These, togeth- 
er with the installation of Mr. Johnson at Belfast, were favor- 
ably regarded by Mr. Huse ; whose exchanges had hereto- 
fore been confined, chiefly, to Messrs. McLean of Bristol, 
Parker of Dresden, and Packard of Wiscasset. Mr. Henry 
H. Cheely preached two years at Thomaston, but relinquish- 
ed the profession, and became a grocer near Tileston's wharf, 
Boston. The Lutheran minister at Waldoboro', Rev, Mr. 
Ritz, preached only in the German language ; though he had 
the good sense to advise his parishioners to abandon their 
German schools, and give their children an English educa- 
tion. Unlike some of his predecessors, he was a man of 
unexceptionable character.*' 

* When first called upon by the neighboring clergy, Mr. Ritz, was 
able to converse with them only in Latin. The nearest approach to 
levity we have ever heard of him, is contained in the following anec- 
dote. Mr. Demuth, had, in some way taken offence, and refused to 
speak to him. Mr. Ritz, in company with a friend, passing him one 


In some of the neighboring towns, the Methodists had now 
become numerous. There were few, however, of that de- 
nomination in this town ; but of the Baptists, the number was 
larger. The rise of the latter denomination in this part of 
the State, was effected through the instrumentality of Elder 
Isaac Case, who Nov. 4th, 1783, performed at Harpswell, the 
first baptism by immersion, east of Gorham. In January, 
1784, he went eastward as far as Newcastle, where he 
met two messengers from Thomaston on their way to Jnvite 
him to come to that place. He went, and preached his first 
sermon there, Jan. 31st, awakening three persons. The wife 
of Oliver Robbins was said to be the only pious Baptist then 
in these parts. But many converts were soon made, and 
several backsliders reclaimed. Among the latter, was Elder 
Elisha Snow, who had, we believe, been employed as a preach- 
er at Framingham, and other places in Massachusetts, but who, 
during the distractions of the Revolution and the cares inci- 
dent to the business he carried on, had become engrossed in 
the affairs of this world to the exclusion of those of religion. 
He at once became the friend and coadjutor of Mr. Case, and 
continued in the ministry to an advanced age. Mr. Case 
remained in Thomaston about 8 years, preaching in that and 
the neighboring settlements, and the islands in Penobscot Bay. 

Messrs. Case and Snow visited this town as early as 1784, 
and made some converts ; the first of whom was, it is be- 
lieved, the elder Stephen Peabody. Their number, however, 
was not large, and they attended meeting and joined the 
church in Thomaston. This church was organized in Oliver 
Robbins's barn, May 27, 1784. Dissatisfaction at the location 
of the meeting-house in Warren, and perhaps with the minis- 
ter settled in 1795, led others to attend the meetings of these 
zealous apostles, whose solemn appeals, based upon doctrines 
of awful import, could scarcely fail to make an impression. 
Converts were gradually multiplied, till", on the 2d August, 
1800, a church was here organized, consisting of 14 persons. 
These were, it is believed, James Fisher, Thomas Robinson 
and wife, Reuben Tolman, Archibald Crawford and wife, 
Alexander Kelloch, Jr., Marlboro' Packard, Nathan Buck! in 
and wife, Lore Alford, Hannah Lawrence, John Mclntyre,and 
Sally Eastman. Being few in number, and not over wealthy, 
they were unable to settle a minister, and for a season were 

day in the usual manner without a nod, the friend observed, " there 
goes Mr. Demnth." " Nein, nein," said the minister, *• nicht Meister 
Demnth, Meister Hochmuth." 


occasionally assisted by Elders Fuller of Hope and E. Hall 
of St. George. In 1801, they applied to the town to exempt 
them from the ministerial taxes, and to refund the sums pre- 
viously paid. Both requests were refused ; but, in the follow- 
ing year, the town increased the ministerial tax by 835, and 
allowed the Baptists to pay their portion of it to Rev. E. Hall. 
The year following, they, with others in Gushing and St. 
George, petitioned to be incorporated into a separate religious 
society. Their petition, not without some opposition on the 
part of the town of Warren, was granted, and an act passed, 
June 22, 1803, incorporating " The Baptist Religious Society 
in Warren, Gushing, and St. George." The first meeting of 
this society was held at the meeting-house in St. George, on 
the 6th of September following ; and meetings were annually 
held in that town or at Warren until 1807, when a separate 
religious society was formed in St. George, and most of the 
members in that town and Gushing withdrew from the parent 
society. Under this act of incorporation, and without any 
change of name, the society has since held its meetings here, 
and constitutes what is usually termed the Baptist Society in 
Warren. The act contained the names of 87 persons, of 
whom those belonging to this town, were L. Alford, J. Fisher, 
N. Buckland, Archibald Crawford, N. Buckland, Jr., R. Tol- 
man, D. Snow, J. Mclntyre, N. Peabody, R. Mclntyre, A. 
Kelloch, Jr., D. Vose, R. Hall, H. Libbey, J. Payson, I. Lib- 
bey, J. Counce, D. Libbey, P. Mclntyre, H. K. Dunbar, T. 
Parsons, and A. Dunbar. Thenceforward, while Mr. Huse's 
salary was paid from the proceeds of the fishery, the Baptists 
were allowed to draw a proportionate sum according to their 
valuation, from the same fund. Bishop Gheverus of Boston, 
who made his first visit to this country in 1798, having now 
revivified the faith of his Gatholic brethen scattered over the 
country, and formed a society at Newcastle, John O'Brien of 
that denomination, was, in 1805, also allowed his proportional 
part of the fish money for his own minister. There were 
one or two other Gatholics in town, but no application was 
made on their behalf. 

In the Baptist denomination, at this time, such was the 
want, and perhaps the appreciation, of learning, that very 
illiterate persons were employed in the ministry. But so 
far from being disguised, the want of learning was often 
boasted of, as a proof that the preacher was divinely called 
and supernatural ly qualified for his work. Two religious 
parties were formed, the difference between which was 
widened by mutual prejudice and occasional collision ; the 


one rejoicing in the clearness of head, the other in the 
warmth of the heart, and each stigmatizing the other's reh- 
gion as learned coldness, or misguided fervor. In 1803, the 
Rev. Andrew Fuller was induced from a sense of duty, 
rather than from any prospect of gain, to take the pastoral 
care of the church in this town, which he continued to exer- 
cise in an eminently satisfactory manner till his death in 
1820. Meetings for worship were held in dwellinghouses, 
school-houses, and barns, till 1806, when a small meeting- 
house was built near the site of school-house No. 6, and the 
first meeting held in it on the 6th of December. Mr. Fuller 
received the money allowed his society from the proceeds 
of the fishery, which rose with the increase of its members 
from 835 in 1804, to 8149 in 1820. As the church embraced 
many members belonging to Hope, Union, and other adjacent 
towns, he probably received contributions from them, and 
occasionally also from the brethren in this town, in addition 
to the above sum ; as we find the church voted, Dec. 5, 1807, 
" to raise money for Elder Fuller by subscription." The 
understanding was, that he should have a living from the 
society here, for preaching one half of the time, with 
liberty to spend the other half elsewhere ; and for aught 
that appears on record, these contributions, with what was 
received from the fishery, were all that the society paid for 
that purpose. But in 1809, a vote was passed to give him 
$180 for preaching three quarters of the time, or thirty-nine 
Sabbaths, and, in 1811, this sum was raised to 8200. From 
that time, the society annually voted that the money received 
from the fishery should be paid to the Rev. Mr. Fuller ; and 
this by private contributions, was increased, it is said, to 
8250 for a time, and ultimately to 8300. With this provision 
for his support, he was able to devote his whole time to the 
service of the society here, with unabated fidelity to the 

The first deacons of the church were J. Fisher and Archi- 
bald Crawford, chosen Sept. 6, 1800. To these were added 
Thos. Dagget, of Union, April 30, 1808, and Thos. Robin- 
son, Feb. 3, 1810. Deacons Crawford and Robinson were 
succeeded, Sept. 5th, 1817, by Calvin Crane and Lore 
Alford. On the 2d of Jan. 1819, John Miller was chosen 
deacon in place of Dea. Alford, deceased. Those who have 
since been elected to that office are M. Packard, Jr., Wm. L. 
Starrett, and Wm. H. Webb, April 3, 1830 ; Duncan McCal- 
lum, Aug. 6, 1842 ; Mere Kelloch and John Watts, Sept. 3, 
1842, the last of whom at his request was excused from 


serving. Saturday church meetings for conference and 
mutual edification were usually held once a month, and still 
continue. In 1809 and '10, most of the members belonging 
to Hope and the eastern part of Union, 17 in number, were 
dismissed at their request to join the church i?5 Union ; and 
in 1815 and 1824, several others, to constitute new churches 
in Thomaston and Waldoboro'. 

After the death of Mr. Fuller, Rev. John Wakefield was 
employed as pastor from 1821 to 1827. For his support, 
$215 were voted the first two years, and $250 in the subse- 
quent years. His education was higher, and his style of 
preaching more polished, than that of his predecessors. Mr. 
D. Dunbar, after hearing one of his earliest sermons, ironically, 
but prophetically, remarked to the writer, " we are going to 
be as proud as any of you, and have learned ministers." 

Mr. Wakefield's ministry, though zealous and successful, 
was not without its difiiculties and cares. In 1822, meetings 
were held in various parts of the town, by Rev. Abiezcr 
Bridges, a Free-will Baptist, who made many converts in the 
northern and eastern parts of the town ; and among them 
were some of Mr. Ws church. On the 22d of Sept. of that 
year, a Free-will Baptist church, consisting of two male and 
five female members, was organized, and has continued to 
thrive and languish by turns, with or without preaching, to 
the present time. This has contained, in all, 20 male and 29 
female members, of whom 8 of the former and 11 of the 
latter still remain. At ils institution, this church adopted the 
New Testament for its creed, and was soon after admitted as 
a sister church, into the Montville quarterly meeting. 

The zealous assiduity of Mr. Wakefield, stimulated per- 
haps by the temporary antagonism of these two societies, 
having impaired his health, his place was, for a time, supplied 
by Rev. Reuben Milner, and more permanently by Rev. Daniel 
Bartlett ; who, at the meeting of the Lincoln Association 
with this church, in Sept. 1827, having attended as messen- 
ger from the Penobscot Association, and been instrumental in 
awakening some of the young people in this place, imme- 
diately received an invitation to become their pastor. By his 
efforts and those of Rev. Samuel Fogg prior to Mr. B's re- 
turn, an extensive revival took place, and 90 members were 
added to the church. The society having become too numer- 
ous to be accommodated at their house of worship, and em- 
bracing many men of wealth, a new meeting-house, that 
which they still occupy, was built at the expense of $5400, 
and dedicated, Nov, 11, 1828, The land on which the house 


stands, together with a bell soon after purchased, cost 
more; and the whole expense was defrayed by the sale of 
the pews. A small organ was added in 1847. Mr. Bartlett 
was an affable, agreeable man, and a zealous advocate of the 
temperance reform, which being new, caused some disaffec- 
tion among his supporters. He served the church with a 
salary of $300, till 1833, when his place was supplied for one 
year by Rev. Horace Seaver. The next pastor was Rev. 
Phinehas Bond. His labors began in 1835, with a salary of 
$365, and ended in 1841, when he removed to Fayette. 
Under his ministry, in 1838, forty-four were added to the 
church. His services were highly appreciated, at least by a 
portion of his society, and his removal was the cause of 
some dissatisfaction. Rev. Silas Ilsley became pastor in 
1842, with a salary of $600. Previous to and at the time of 
his arrival, the Washingtonian movement, and other efforts in 
the cause of temperance, had greatly excited the public mind, 
and given a serious turn to all classes of the people. Many 
additions were made to the churches in this town, particularly 
the Baptist, which in a short time, under the strenuous efforts 
of Mr. Ilsley, received an accession of more than a hundred 
members. Rev. Abraham H. Granger, the present incum- 
bent, commenced his labors here, in the fall of 1843. He 
was ordained Nov. 2d. and his salary, at first $400, is now 
$500 a year. In 1845, the church reported 262 members, 
and is the most numerous and wealthy religious society in 
the town. 

The following are the articles of faith, adopted by this 
church at its organization, and which remained unaltered, 
till June 3, 1848, when the church voted " to adopt the arti- 
cles of faith and covenant as revised by the Convention." 

Articles of Faith. — " Having been enabled by divine 
grace to give up ourselves to the Lord, we account it a duty 
incumbent upon us to make a declaration of our faith to the 
honor of Christ and glory of his name, knowing that, as with 
the heart man believeth unto righteousness, so with the 
mouth confession is made unto salvation. We believe that 
the scriptures of the Old and New Testaments are the word 
of God. We believe there is one only living and true 
God. We believe the important doctrine of three equal 
persons in the Godhead, — eternal and personal election, — 
original sin, — particular redemption, — free justification by 
the imputed righteousness of Christ, — efficacious grace 
in regeneration, — the final perseverance of real believers, 
— the resurrection of the dead, — the future judgment, — 


the eternal happiness of tlie righteous and everlasting misery 
of the impenitent. We also believe that baptism and the 
Lord's supper are ordinances of Christ to be continued until 
his second coming, and the former is requisite to the latter ; 
that is to say, that those are to be admitted into the communion 
of the Church and so to partake of hs ordinances, who, upon 
profession of their faith, have been baptized by immersion 
in the name of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy 

From the history of this society, which has led us into an 
anticipation of time, we now return to note a few incidents 
in the period to which this chapter is devoted. On the 29th 
of January, 1803, the house built by John Lermond, Jr. on 
the farm now owned by William Watts, but at that time by 
Robert Porterfield, was consumed by fire. The night was 
cold and windy ; Porterfield came home late, and, with the 
rest of the family, was in a sound sleep. John Rokes, who 
boarded tliere and had a large quantity of corn in the cham- 
ber, awaking in the night, heard the crackling of fire and the 
parching of corn, made an ineffectual attempt to rouse the 
family, and, seizing the pails, repaired some distance to a 
spring for water. This was covered by the drifting snow, and 
before he could return, and elTectually rouse the family, who 
had again fallen asleep, it was too late to save the house or 
any part of its contents. Insurance against fire was then un- 
known in the place ; but the generous contributions of the 
people, in those days, seldom failed to make up, often exceed- 
ing, the actual loss. 

The fulling-mill, grist-mill, and bridge, at the village, were, 
in May, 1804, swept away ; and the materials, together with 
large quantities of cloth, carried down stream and strewed 
along its banks, or fished up as they floated in the current. 
The town voted that the plank and timber should be collected 
by labor taken from the road tax, appointed Life Wilson 
agent for rebuilding the bridge, and empowered the treasurer 
to borrow, if necessary, flOO for that purpose. 

In the early part of 1805, the canker-rash made its appear- 
ance here, and continued its ravages through the spring and 
summer. Many children and several adults died with it, 

1804 and 1805 were remarkable for the destruction of 
nearly all the spruce and a great part of the hemlock in this 
vicinity by the larva) of an insect, which preyed upon the 

* Millett's His. Bap. in Maine. Benedict's His, Warren Bap. 
and Free-will Bap. Cli. and Soc. Eec, kc. 


buds and leaves for two or three years, and then disappeared. 
They were less than an inch in length, suspended themselves 
by a thread while descending, and so numerous that persons 
employed in felling trees, would find their clothes almost 
covered with them, The loss of the spruce was considered a 
great misfortune at the time ; but, as the commercial difficul- 
ties that followed, rendered spars of less value, and, as the 
dead timber was cut off for kiln-wood, and the lands cleared 
up, or covered with a young growth of hard-wood, the town, 
perhaps, gained as much as it lost. A troublesome disease 
among neat cattle, called the hoof-ail, became common about 
this time, and continued for many years. 

An unusual display of the Aurora Borealis was wit- 
nessed here on the evening of Oct. 22, 1804, which was 
first observed in the E. and N. E., and soon after extended to 
the N.,N. W., W.,and S. VV., shooting up from near the hori- 
zon in vertical streaks to the zenith, where a luminous cloud 
was formed, curling and rolling like smoke, and soon after 
dissipated in quick and repeated coruscations. The emana- 
tions continued with more or less brilliance from 7 o'clock 
till 10, and more faintly till midnight. Of this kind of phe- 
nomena, first observed in this country in 1719, similar dis- 
plays have been whnessed here, at various times since, par- 
ticularly Jan. 25, 1837, when the light was mostly of a dark 
crimson, tinging the snow with the same color. On the 6th 
of Feb. 1805, a slight shock of an earthquake was felt in 
some places, and lasted about two seconds. On the 16th of 
June, 1806, there occurred a remarkable eclipse of the sun, 
which, at Boston and places farther south, was total. Here, 
a small portion of the sun's northern limb was visible at the 
time of its greatest obscuration. The day was clear and 
cloudless, and the constantly increasing gloom, during the 
first half of the eclipse, was awfully sublime, as if the source 
of day was about disappearing forever. The fowls took to 
their roosts ; the birds began their evening songs ; the cattle 
gazed with astonishment and concern; a sudden chill pervad- 
ed the atmosphere, and many were the colds caught in gazing 
at the phenomenon. Particles of dew, partially illumined 
by the fading light, were observed in the air, proceeding from 
no cloud ; and the largest of the stars became visible. This 
eclipse formed an epoch among farmers, who used to date 
from it the commencement of those cold seasons, which, 
with some exceptions, continued with increasing severity, for 
10 years. Some mistook the antecedent for the cause, and 
supposed the eclipse had produced some derangement in 


nature, which would forever preclude the return of the hot 
seasons and rich harvests of former times. Nor was it view- 
ed without some remains of that superstition, which, in an- 
cient times, supposed the sun 

" from behind the moon, 

In dim eclipse, disastrous twilight sheds 

On half the nations, and, with fear of change, 

Perplexes monarchs." 

Some of the Germans in Waldoboro', were said, in accord- 
ance with a superstition brought from the father-land, to 
have covered their wells, lest they should be poisoned with 
the dews that fell during the eclipse, and to have hesitated 
whether to allow the cattle to feed till it was dried from the 

The prosperity of this period was chequered by many 
casualties. In 1801, Capt. Roland Kirkpatrick was knocked 
overboard and drowned whilst sailing from one of the south- 
ern ports to the W. Indies. He had previously commanded 
the coaster ' St. George,' of Thomaston, but was at this 
time, mate with Capt. Norton. A Mr. Kinney, a native of 
St. George, residing in Warren, was lost overboard Jan. 6th, 
of the same year ; and David Hall died of fever at Jamaica 
about the same time. June 10th, 1802, Mr. John Paskiel 
fell from the bridge at the lower falls, and was so injured 
that he died within a few days. In Sept. of the same year, 
James Gerrish, a person of dissipated habits, committed 
suicide by hanging himself on a tree in J. Andrews's pasture 
near the potash works. In July, 1804, Mr. Hanson, a man 
of business in Thomaston, was killed by a fall from a horse, 
near Mr. J. Page's. On Sunday, Aug. 26, 1804, two boys, 
Cornelius Butler, son of Asa Dunbar, and George Moriston, 
residing at the time with J. Carven, and belonging to a high- 
land Scotch family, of which there were several then living 
in one of Knox's houses in Thomaston, went with two others 
to the river, and put out into the stream on a raft which they 
constructed. In returning to the shore, the raft parted and 
they were both drowned. Their companions escaped to tell 
the sorrowful news, and the body of one was soon found, 
the other on the Wednesday following, having then risen to 
the surface. Charles Sidensberger, from Waldoboro', who 
had settled on the farm now owned by Wm. Jordan, was 
drowned in the river, Nov. 23, 1804. On the 2d of April, 
1805, Lewis, a son of John O'Brien, 17 years old, was 
instantly killed by the accidental discharge of a musket. 
A funeral discourse was preached at the house, in August 


following, by Bishop Cheverus, probably the first Catholic 
sermon ever heard in the place. In May, 1806, Barnabas 
Simmons, of Union, was killed, near Bradbury Boggs's, by a 
cart wheel passing over his head. 

In the autumn of the same year, the community were 
called to mourn the death of Gen. Henry Knox, a hero of 
the Revolution, the companion of Washington, the first 
Secretary of War under the Federal Constitution, the pro- 
prietor of the W^aldo patent, the liberal promoter of every 
laudable enterprize, and the generous contributor to the 
prosperity of this and the neighboring towns. He died Oct. 
25th, at the age of fifty-six. On the 28th, his funeral was 
celebrated with military honors, a eulogy pronounced by the 
Hon. S. Thatcher, and a large procession accompanied his 
remains to the tomb, prepared beneath the favorite oak, 
where he, in his contemplative moods, loved to linger while 


FROM 1807 TO IS 12; a period of commehctal embarsassment and 


1807 to 1812. W^e now enter upon a period as remarka- 
ble for the embarrassments and depression of commerce, 
as the preceding had been for its prosperity. The hostilities 
between England and France, so fiercely waged, created in 
those nations a jealousy of this country, which was reaping 
so liberal a harvest from their necessities ; and each, in turn, 
accused us of favoring her antagonist. Many perplexing 
questions grew out of this state of things ; and the various 
decrees and orders issued by the belligerent powers, fell 
heavily upon neutral commerce, and rendered it ditTicult for 
American vessels to sail to any part of the world without 
being exposed to capture on one side or the other. Many 
were taken ; and among them the brig Sumner, Capt. A. 
Malcolm, belonging to Col. Head of this tovvn^ which, in 
1811, was sunk with a cargo of wheat bound to Spain. 
The government of this country vainly remonstrated against 
these acts of aggression, prohibited the importation of various 
British manufactures, and, as early as Dec. 22, 1807, im- 


posed an embargo of indefinite duration upon all American 
vessels. Tiiis last measure completely prostrated the com- 
mence of the country, and was viewed by the mercantile 
community as a greater injury than any inflicted by the con- 
tending nations abroad. Vessels were confined in port ; 
seamen were thrown out of employment ; lumber found no 
sale ; timber designed for exportation remained upon the 
shores, landings, or in the holds of vessels ; and a general 
embarrassment and stagnation of business ensued. . The 
only resource of merchants, was, to keep their vessels which 
were already abroad, from returning ; and some even ven- 
tured to get them abroad in violation of the embargo. The 
conduct of the administration was severely censured by the 
federal party, who believed that strict impartiality and a 
seasonable resistance to the pretensions of France, would 
have rendered easy the settlement of all difficulties with 
England ; and they imputed to a secret partiality for France, 
.and to a jealousy in the south of the prosperity of the north- 
ern States, a measure, which, under the pretence of arresting 
foreign aggressions, only injured ourselves. The other party 
on the contrary, justified the measure as a means of co- 
ercing England into an abandonment of her pretensions, by 
depriving her of the supply of provisions, which, it was 
alleged, she could obtain only from this country. It was 
advocated, also, as a means of encouraging domestic manu- 
factures, rendering us independent of England, and destroy- 
ing the influence which she exercised by the credit she 
afforded our merchants. To this influence, they imputed 
the opposition of the federalists, and were liberal in bestow- 
ing upon them the epithets of " British partizans," " British 
merchants," " tories and royalists." Parly spirit acquired 
a new virulence ; the community was thrown into a ferment; 
meetings were held, resolutions and pethions adopted, and 
other measures expressive of the public feeling, resorted to. 

The people of this town shared in the common distress, 
and partook of the general indignation. On the 3d of Sept. 
1808, at a meeting called for the purpose, a petition was 
adopted, requesting the President to remove the embargo, or 
in case of any doubt as to his authority to do so, to convoke 
Congress immediately, for that purpose. On the 23d of Jan. 
following, the town petitioned the State Legislature, to adopt 
some measures for the relief of the embarrassed state of the 
country. On the committee who drafted this petition, we 
find the name of M. Smith, Esq., who was considered as 
belonging to the democratic party ; but such was the public 


indignation at the time, that nothing was move common i\mu 
to find the more moderate adherents of that party, unhing 
with the other in opposition to the odious measure. Others, 
again, increased in asperity with the increasing distress, and 
became extremely sensitive on poUtical subjects, and prone 
to imagine some disrespectful allusion in every remark. The 
Rev. Mr. Huse, in bis Fast day sermon, April 7th, 1808, in 
discoursing upon " the cause that the former days were bet- 
ter than these," expressed himself with his usual caution ; 
but his language proved so offensive to one of his warmest 
adherents, that he more than once rose to leave the house, 
and declared his intention of never hearing him again. 

The embargo producing no effect on the powers at war, 
Congress, March 1st, 1809, substituted for it an act of non- 
intercourse, between this country and the ports of France 
and England. This gave a partial relief, by opening the 
coasting trade, and, likewise, some of that to foreign coun- 
tries ; but the British continued to impress our seamen ; the 
French condemned our vessels ; and party animosity prevail- 
ed in this country, till Mr. Jefferson was, in 1809, succeeded 
by Mr. Madison, as president. 

James Sullivan, who had been twice elected Governor by 
the democratic party, died Dec. 10, 1808. Among the salu- 
tary measures of his administration, the most important to 
the people of this region, was the hetterment act ; by which, 
when a person was ejected from lands of which he had been 
in possession six years, a jury might be called upon to esti- 
mate the value of the improvements he had made upon the 
same, and the value of the land in case no such improve- 
ments had been made ; and the proprietor had his option to 
abandon the land to the tenant, at the price fixed by the jury, 
or, retaining the land, to pay the tenant the value of his im- 
provements. This measure was rendered necessary by the 
unhappy system that had prevailed, of settling on lands with- 
out a title, trusting to the promise, express or implied, that 
deeds should be given on the performance of certain condi- 
tions. Great inconvenience was also felt, in many places, 
particularly on the Pemaquid patent, from the conflicting 
claims of different proprietors ; and many in that region, 
after paying for their lands several times, to one claimant 
after another, determined to resist all demands of the kind, 
and formed combinations to frustrate any attempt to survey 
the lands or execute any process for their recovery. Col. 
Thatcher, attorney to one of these claimants, having, accord-, 
ing to the statute then in force, moved the Court to order a 


detachment, of militia for the purpose of enforcing the sur- 
vey, was himself ordered to detail the requisite number from 
his regiment, and atTord the assistance demanded. The 
whole number called for, was 500, who were drafted from 
the several companies in the fall of 1810. The quota of the 
eastern company in Warren was 1 ensign, 1 sergeant, and 
18 privates ; and the draft was made Oct. 20th. A strong 
sympathy for the settlers was felt in various quarters ; and 
some doubts were entertained as to the part the militia would 
act when called out to perform this service. By the timely 
interference of the Governor, however, all action was post- 
poned, and the subject referred to the Legislature, which, by 
the aid of commissioners, in 1811 and '12, succeeded in 
quieting the settlers, and making a compromise with the pro- 

The betterment act was rendered very acceptable to many 
inhabitants of this town ; inasmuch as Samuel Parkman, Esq. 
of Boston, to whom Knox liad mortgaged his proprietary 
rights, had now come into possession, and was looking up 
his claims with all the astuteness of a money-lender. Suits 
were brought by him for the recovery, among others, of 
lands which had been sold for the payment of taxes ; and 
some of the purchasers compounded with him on the best 
terms they could get. Others combined to try the effect of a 
lawsuit ; and the case of Lore Alford was prosecuted to a 
final decision. While this suit was pending, the town. May 
16th, 1812, petitioned the Legislature to confirm the doings 
of the assessors and constables of said town in relation to 
the assessment of taxes and the sale of lands for non- pay- 
ment of the same, prior to 1786. Without a direct refusal, 
the Legislature delayed acting upon this petition till too late 
to affect the impending suit, when it was abandoned. The 
suit was decided in favor of the proprietor against the settler ; 
less from any irregularity in the proceedings of the town au- 
thorities, than from want of evidence on the part of the 
defendant to substantiate their regularity, copies of the 
assessors' and constable's doings not having been duly pre- 

It was during Sullivan's administration, also, tliat an attempt 
was made to procure by impeachment, or address of the Leg- 
islature, the removal of Moses Copeland, Esq. from his office 
of a justice of the peace and the quorum. A petition for that 
purpose, signed by George Wellington of Union, and others, 
influenced probably by a mixture of personal and party con- 
siderations, was presented at the June session, 1807, charging 

284 'annals of warren. 

that magistrate with official misconduct. The petitioners so 
far prevailed upon the House of Representatives, that, on 
the i5th of June, it adopted an address to the Governor, pray- 
ing him to remove said Copeland from office. This address 
not being agreed to by the Senate, on the 20th of the same 
month, the House sent up to that body, articles of impeach- 
ment against said Moses Copeland, charging him, 1st, with 
bringing, in the name of Samuel Kingsbury of Balltown, a 
fictitious endorsee, an action to recover a note which Samuel 
Kelloch sold to the said Copeland and endorsed in blank, and 
thereupon entering judgment, when in fact the said note was 
the property of said Copeland ; 2d, with entering a default 
on two processes issued against Wm. Peabody and John KiefF 
before the time therein appointed for trial, and refusing to 
take off the same when the defendants appeared and request- 
ed it ; and 3d, with receiving from Daniel Randall $1,50 
as a bribe to bias his judgment in favor of said Randall, in an 
action depending between him, as defendant, and Benjamin 
Hastings, plaintiff. Upon these articles, Mr. Copeland was 
put on trial before the Senate in January, 1808, and was ulti- 
mately acquitted. Tlie cost of this affair to the State, was 
$171,75. Mr. Copeland, having thus at some expense and 
vexation got rid of this affair, on his return commenced a suit 
for defamation against the petitioners. The action was con- 
tinued from term to term, and when it finally came to trial, 
the jury not being able to agree on a verdict, the parties 
mutually consented to drop the matter, paying their own 

During this period, the old question of dividing the Com- 
monwealth and erecting Maine into a separate State, was 
again agitated ; and on the 6th April, 1807, the town gave a 
unanimous vote of 161 against the measure. 

In 1809, C. Gore was chosen Governor, and the State gov- 
ernment was again in the hands of the federalists. In 1810, 
E. Gerry, the democratic candidate, was chosen Governor. 
The following year, 1811, both branches of the Legislature 
were of the same party ; and political exasperation reached 
its acme. In that year, courts were re-organized, a new 
State bank incorporated with a capital of $10,000,000, a re- 
newal of the charters of existing banks refused, and the then 
novel scheme adopted of forming Senatorial districts in arbi- 
trary and grotesque forms, for which the name Gerrymander 
was then first invented. But a re-action followed ; Gov. 
Strong was elected in 1812 ; and most of these measures 
were either abolished or counteracted. Among the subscri- 


bers for the stock of the State bank were H. Libbey, W. 
Lermond, E. Buxton, and perhaps others, of this town. 

Among the semi-political measures resorted to in 1811, was 
a strong effort made by sundry persons in Thomaston and 
Camden, for the repeal of the law providing a general inspec- 
tor of lime for the towns of Warren, Thomaston, and Cam- 
den, on the ground that the office was a sinecure, and imposed 
a needless burden on the manufacturers. Capti Ebenezer 
Thatcher, who then filled the office of inspector, and derived 
a handsome income from it, spared no pains to prevent its 
abolition. E. Buxton and 102 others of this town, signed a 
remonstrance against its repeal. Other remonstrances from 
lime-burners in Thomaston, and the masters of coasting ves- 
sels, were presented ; and a compromise was at last effected 
by a relinquishment on the part of the inspector, of one half 
his fees. 

Another of these measures was a petition sent to the 
Legislature from sundry inhabitants of Cushing and St. 
George, praying for a repeal of the law, giving to the town 
of Warren the exclusive right of taking the shad and ale- 
wives within its limits. But in consequence of an error of 
the press in the order of notice, the whole matter was re- 
ferred to the next Legislature ; and, partly perhaps from the 
political change which that body underwent in 1812, no 
strenuous effort was made in support of the petition ; and 
the matter was dismissed. The fishery had been for some 
years unusually productive, and was regarded by the town 
as a matter of great importance. 

The wolves having, of late, been on the increase and 
become troublesome, particularly in the woody tract between 
this town, Waldoboro', and Cushing, the selectmen were, in 
March, 1808, appointed a committee to concert with the 
neighboring towns for their destruction. A plan was adopted 
in consequence, and a sufficient force raised to sweep the 
whole tract, who marched within hailing distance of each 
other, from Warren down to the extremity of Friendship ; 
where a few wolves were seen and shot at, but none killed. 
One was shortly after caught in a trap by J. Anderson ; and 
they were so harrassed during the winter as to quit the 
premises, and not appear again in that quarter till 1815. 

The threatening aspect of our foreign relations at this 
time, having led to a more vigilant inspection of the military 
stores which towns were obliged to keep, and a complaint 
having been made against this town for a deficiency of pow- 
der, E. Thatcher, Esq., was, in Nov, 1810, appointed agent 


to answer to it. This gentleman, brother of S. Thatcher, 
after residing a few years in Thomaston and marrying a 
daughter of Gen Knox, removed to Warren, about 1807, 
and occupied, for several years, the Knox house at the upper 
falls. From the office of Capt. of the Artillery, he 
rose to that of Brig. General, and was subsequently appoint- 
ed a Judge of the Court of Common Pleas. He removed 
again to Thomaston, and after some years to Somerset 

Among other names first appearing during this period, are 
those of Silas Hoar, who was chosen sexton in 1807 ; John 
Thomas, who built and settled on the farm near Rokes's, 
which he afterwards sold to J. Vinal ; John Harrington, who 
settled the farm now owned by Patrick Mehan ; Josiah Max- 
ey, who came from Union, and Rufus Russel from Waldo- 
boro', the first settlers near Mt. Pleasant ; Daniel Vaughan 
from Carver, who succeeded I. Davis, on the farm now own- 
ed by Robert Creighton ; Wm. Lamson, who married the 
widow, and took the farm, of Charles Sidensberger ; Wm. 
Watton, who lived some years on one of the lots sold for the 
support of schools, and then returned to Friendship ; Jonathan 
G. Benson, who lived some years in the S. W. part of the 
town, and removed to Hebron ; Samuel French, who settled 
and still lives on a part of the Hall farm ; Matthias Isley, a 
sea-captain in the coasting and foreign trade, who removed 
from Thomaston to the house built by L. Andrews, and long 
known as the ' Isley house,' where he kept tavern some years, 
and absconded ; Seth Lawrence, a stone-cutter from Mass., 
who lived in a small house, not now standing, near Dr. Ken- 
nedy's ; Robert C. Starr, who worked at the joiner's trade, 
taught singing-school, built the house subsequently owned by 
P. Coburn, was ordained as an evangelist by the Warren Bap- 
tist church in 1816, and has been a preacher of that denom- 
ination in Friendship, Woolwich and other places ; Theodore 
Wilson, a cabinet-maker, who built the house afterwards own- 
ed by T. Hodgman, and still remains at the village ; Stephen 
C. Burgess, who succeeded Mr. Gates in the saddler's business, 
afterwards engaged in trade, built the house now owned by 
Dea. Starrett, was Captain in the militia, and from 1830 to 
1845, held the office of town clerk ; and John Miller, who, in 
1811, opened a tavern in partnership with Seth Bryant, at 
the house built by Col. Thatcher and now owned by S. B. 
Wetherbee. Bryant did not long remain in town ; but Miller, 
besides his trade as a joiner, engaged in merchandise, com- 
menced the tanning business in company with Col. Thatcher 


on the east side of the river above the bridge, built the dvvel- 
lingliouse now occupied by his son, A. Miller, has been deacon 
of the Baptist church, filled various offices in town and coun- 
ty, and is still in active life. Wm. McLellan came from 
Thomaston in 1811 ; opened a stock of goods in the Bracket 
& Davis store ; purchased the estate of R. Crane, who built 
and removed to the present Seiders house ; acquired an ex- 
tensive run of business by giving credit during the war that 
ensued, when it was withheld by most of the other traders ; 
engaged in ship-building at a fortunate time after the war; 
amassed wealth ; was twice chosen a member of the State 
Senate ; and, for the want of sufficient scope for his large 
capital here, in 1837 removed to Boston ; but in consequence 
of entering into the land speculations of that period, and the 
extraordinary revulsion which followed, became embarrassed 
and soon returned to this town. From the difficulty experienc- 
ed in settling his affiiirs, his health declined, his mind became 
disordered, and he ended his days in the Asylum at Augusta, 
in 1842. About 1812, Simeon and Daniel P. Noyce, Warren 
Knowlton, Allen Young, and Job Caswell, all from the town of 
Minot, took up their lots and settled on the road east of 
Crawford's Pond. The three first afterwards left the town. 
Notwithstanding the embarrassments of commerce and the 
asperity of parties, some progress was made, during the period 
embraced in this chapter, in the cause of education, and 
other improvements. Warren Academy was incorporated 
February 25th, 1808, a fund having been raised by subscrip- 
tion to the amount of $3680, and half a township of land 
granted by the Legislature. It was opened for instruction on 
the 9th of October, 1809, by Elijah Morse of Medway, a 
popular and efficient preceptor, who on the occasion delivered 
a public address at the meeting-house. Mr. Morse first 
introduced Walker's pronunciation here. Prior to that time 
Perry's dictionary had been mostly used in schools, and, 
being considered a standard, had done much to deteriorate 
the old English pronunciation. The school was first taught, 
for a short time, in Col. Thatcher's, now S. B. Wetherbee's, 
hall, and afterwards in the upper story of the Court-House ; 
but in 1829 the present structure of brick was erected near 
the Baptist meeting-house. The half township of land was 
advantageously sold ; but some losses have been sustained by 
insolvency, negligence, and the statute of limitation. In 
1828, before the Academy building was erected, the nominal 
amount of funds in real and personal estate was $6010,41, 


of which, in the judgment of the trustees, $1000 was una- 
vailable. The funds now produce an annual income of 8125. 
The average number of students, at present, does not exceed 
30 ; as, from the establishment of similar schools in the 
neighborhood, a much fewer number than formerly are sent 
here from other towns. The following is a list of the precep- 
tors in this institution from its commencement to the present 
time. Elijah Morse, 1809-'10 ; Josiah J. Fiske, 1811 ; Arnold 
Gray, 1812; Amos Whiting, 18 13-' 14 ; Benjamin Dudley 
Emerson, 1815 ; Chandler Robbins, 1816 ; John S. Tenney, 
1817 ; Phinehas Pratt, 1818; Georo;e Starrett, from Septem- 
ber, 1818, to December, 1821 ; Darnel Clarke, 1822 ; Otis L. 
Bridges, 1823; Hiram H. Hobbs, 1824; William Henry 
Codman, 1825; Hezekiah Packard, 1825-'6; Nat'l Havnes, 
1826 ; Jonathan Cilley, 1826 ; William Tyng Hilliard, 1827 ; 
James T. Leavitt, from September, 1827, to August, 1839 ; 
A. Rogers Green, 1830 ; Cyrus Eaton, from December, 1830, 
to April, 1843 ; Calvin Bickford, from 1843 to 1846 ; Donatus 
Merrill, 1847 ; and C. Bickford again, from 1848.* 

A new impulse was also given, at this period, to the culti- 
vation of sacred music, by the example and instruction of 
Mr. Starr. 

During the commercial difficulties of the time and 
the war that ensued, attention began to be turned to improve- 
ments in agriculture and manufactures. Lands from which 
the timber and wood had been cut, were now cleared up for 
grain and grass; and the valuation of 1810 exhibits in the 
quantity of wheat raised in the town, an increase nearly four 
fold since that of 1800. The raising of apples began to be 
more attended to ; several young orchards were just coming 
into bearing ; and many more were planted about this time. 
A tree possessed by Dr. Buxton, called by him " the Demo- 
crat," remarkably hardy and prolific, was, in the unpropitious 
seasons that followed, extensively propagated by suckers, 
which, since the disuse of cider, have been grafted with fruit 
of a superior quality. Merino sheep were introduced by 
Capt. Toby, who brought a number from Cadiz in one of Mr. 
Cobb's vessels, and by Col. Thatcher, Mr. Paine, and others. 
These, by crossing with the native breeds, greatly improved 
the quality of wool. With the sheep, however, was imported 
a contagious disease called " the scab," which spread from 
flock to flock, greatly injuring the fleece as well as sheep. 

* Kec. of Warren Academy. S. E. Smith, Esq. 


From absolute inability to purchase foreign fabrics, domestic 
manufactures of wool and cotton were prosecuted with new 
skill and industry. The high price of cloth, wool, grain, 
and other agricultural products, together with the disuse of 
many of their wonted comforts, enabled the farmers gradual- 
ly to reduce their indebtedness to the merchants ; and many 
who were unable to do so, sold their farms and purchased 
cheaper ones farther in the interior. Great hardship was 
endured by the poorer class of laborers and mariners, 
who were deprived of employment, and at the same time 
compelled to give a high price for every article of consump- 
tion, foreign or domestic. In 1811 and '12, retail prices 
were as follows; flour, SH per barrel; corn, 81.17 to 
fl,28; coffee, 20cts. per lb.; tea, 75cts. to ^1,33; brown 
sugar, Is. ; pearlash, 25cts. ; starch, 50cts. ; ginger, 33cts. ; 
raisins, 37cts. ; boots $7 a pair ; and calico and American 
gingham, 42cts. per yard. In consequence of these high 
prices, substitutes were found for many articles of consump- 
tion. Coffee was made of pease, rye, or acorns ; pumpkins 
supplied the place of sugar, potatoes that of bread ; and 
chocolate was made from the root of the Water Avens. The 
hardship of the times was aggravated by political bickering 
and ill-nature. On one occasion, Mr. Paine, applying to the 
town of Thomaston for approbation to obtain a permit to 
import corn from the Southern States, was refused, and re- 
taliated in his turn, by refusing to sell that article to any 
inhabitant of that town. Ship-building declined with the 
decline of commerce ; but among the few vessels built in 
this period, was the ship Gen. Knox, owned by J. Paine, 
which was launched at Robinson's shore, by Thomas Spear, 
Sept. 15, 1810, being the second ship built in town. The 
multiplication of pleasure carriages going on at the com- 
mencement of this period, was checked by the hardness of 
the times ; but a substitute was found in the one horse wagons, 
first introduced to this town by Wm. H. Webb. Though 
heavy at first and clumsily made, their convenience gradually 
brought them into general use. 

On Sunday, the 18th of Aug. 1811, a contribution for the 
sufferers by a recent destructive fire in Newburyport was 
had at the Congregational meeting, and 880 collected, which 
was farther augmented by a similar contribution from the 
Baptist society. 

Among the casualties of this period, may be noted the 
death by drowning, of William, son of Ebenezer Wells, 
April 21, 1808, aged 3.1 years; a child of Isaac Spear, ono 


year old, scalded to death, June 21, 1808 ; and a son of 
Aaron Davis, nine years old, drowned in the river, nearly 
opposite his house, May 29, 1811. Aug. 5, 1809, the barn 
of Capt. N. Williams was struck by lightning, and consumed 
with all its contents. On the 7th of March, 1812, the dwelling- 
house built by Thomas Kirkpatrick, and then occupied by 
Mrs. L. Wilson, near the Court-house, took fire, as was sup- 
posed from ashes, and was entirely consumed, together with 
two of her children, sleeping in an upper chamber, whence 
they could not be rescued. The fire was discovered about 
2 o'clock, A. M. and it was with difficulty that the Court- 
house was saved. Later in the season, a new dwellinghouse, 
nearly finished, belonging to Samuel Libbey, was totally con- 
sumed in the night-time, from some cause not ascertained. 

Some physical appearances during this period, may be 
worthy of notice. On Sunday, the 22d of Feb. 1807, soon 
after the commencement of divine service in the afternoon, 
a shock of an earthquake was sensibly perceived, which 
shook the house and produced a noise like the rattling of a 
carriage on frozen ground. 

On the 2d of May following, in consequence of high 
freshets which prevailed, the old saw-mill at the village, with 
the adjacent dam, was carried away. 

In Sept. of the same year, a small comet was visible in 
the west at evening, appeared to be approaching the sun, 
and disappeared about the first week of December. 

On the 10th of October, 1808, the atmosphere, during the 
day, was very smoky, with a S. W. wind. At night, the 
wind shifted to the N. E. and produced rain, with the most 
profound darkness. Neither man nor beast could discern 
the way, and many accidents happened. January 19th, 1810, 
after a long spell of moderate weather, a storm of snow com- 
menced from the N. W. with a tremendous gale and the 
most intense cold. The next day was clear, but still colder. 
The change of temperature was so sudden as to occasion 
many deaths both at sea and land. Among the latter, was 
that of Patrick Pebbles, Esq. who died suddenly from the 
chill received in going out to feed his cattle. In the winter 
and spring of that year, the measles prevailed very exten- 
sively and with great severity, attacking many adult persons 
who had escaped former visits of the disease. On the 2d 
November, a snow-storm commenced and continued for three 
days. Though there was no frost in the ground, the snow 
was sufficiently deep to affiDrd good sledding for a week or 
two, after which it dissolved, and many finished housing pota- 


toes and other vegetables. The month of March, 1811, was 
distinguished for its remarkably warm, dry, and pleasant 
weather. On the 8th, the snow was chiefly gone ; on the 
15th, it was so warm as to make it necessary to open the 
windows of school and dwelling houses ; and robins, black- 
birds, and bluebirds appeared about the same time. Before 
the month was out, the roads were settled and dusty ; but the 
latter part of April and the most of May, were cold and un- 
propitious, especially to grass, and the crop of hay turned 
out exceedingly small. There was, consequently, a great 
scarcity of that article in the spring of 1812, and, as the 
weather was cold and backward, before the grass started in 
May, numbers of cattle died, or were sustained only by 
browsing in the woods. 

During the whole autumn of 1811, a splendid comet was 
observed in the north-western part of the sky in the evening, 
and after a time, as its declination increased, was visible also 
in ihe morning in the N, E. It was noted by the author 
as early as the 5th of September. Its train, which appeared 
to the common observer two or three yards in length, was 
estimated by the scientific at 40,000,000 of miles, and the 
time of its periodical revolution round the sun at 3000 years. 
For weeks and months it continued to glare down terror to 
the superstitious, who thought it the precursor of evil, and 
still, perhaps, consider it the harbinger of the war that ensued. 

On the 4th of April, 1812, an embargo was again imposed 
upon all American shipping ; and this, on the 18th of June, 
was followed by a declaration of war against Great Britain. 
Deeper gloom was thrown over the maritime parts of the 
country, and new bitterness added to political contests. Town 
and county conventions were held by one party to express 
their disapprobation of the war, and by the other to denounce 
such proceedings as treasonable, and to sustain the govern- 
ment. In this county, in consequence of a circular issued by 
the selectmen of Bath, a convention was held, August 3d, at 
Wiscasset, and passed resolutions condemning the policy of 
the general government in the most pointed manner. The 
delegates to attend this convention from Warren, chosen at a 
legal meeting on the 27th of July, were S. Thatcher, C. 
Eaton, J. W. Head and J. Page. In November, the Presi- 
dential electors were chosen by districts throughout the State, 
and unanimously gave their votes for DeWilt Clinton of New 
York for president. Mr. Clinton was a member of the dem- 
ocratic party, but nominated in opposition to Mr. Madison, as 
in favor of peace, if it could be honorably obtained, or other- 


wise, of a more energetic prosecution of the war ; and re- 
ceived the votes of the federal party. The nomination was-, 
however, unsuccessful, and Mr. Madison was re-elected. 



1813 to 1820. The first two years of this period were 
filled with the incidents, difficulties, and privations, attendant 
on a state of war. Many of the poorer classes, now thrown 
out of employment, enlisted into the army. Others enlisted 
as volunteers to act as " coast guards," for a period of one 
year. Navigation, confined in port as it was, yielded no 
income, and became of little value. Yet a precarious busi- 
ness was carried on by the old and least valuable coasting 
vessels. During the first year of the war, these had expe- 
rienced little molestation. They were boarded and examined 
by British cruisers, and, when either vessel or cargo was 
deemed of sufficient value, seized as prizes; though in gen- 
eral they were allowed to proceed. When captured, the 
crews were generally well treated, and sent ashore the first 
opportunity. Capt. Thomas Morison of this town, taken in 
this manner, was some time on board the " Africa," a ship 
of the line, and had the satisfaction of witnessing Capt. 
Hull's celebrated escape from the British fleet. 

To protect this remnant of trade, the town, March 1st, 
1813, voted " to choose a committee to instruct the represen- 
tatives to the General Court to use their influence to furnish 
some armed vessel to protect the coasting trade, and to confer 
with other towns on the subject ;" and R. C. Starr, J. W. 
Head, and W. Lcrrnond, were chosen a committee accord- 
ingly. The subject was discussed before a committee of the 
Legislature ; but it was thought that,xonsidering the superior 
force of the enemy, such a vessel would only invite an 
attack, and expose the trade it was intended to protect. 

Such was the scarcity of money, the high price of pro- 
visions and clothing, and the difficulty of obtaining employ- 
ment, that the town voted, May 29th, 1813, to distribute 
$20 worth of alewives gratuitously, to such applicants as the 


committee chosen for the purpose should deem to be in the most 
necessitous circumstances, and an additional 880 worth, on 
credit, to any applicants therefor. Some idea of the difficulty 
of procuring provisions, may be formed from the following 
quotation from a Boston price current of May 14th of that 
year; viz: — corn, $1,70, rye, $2,30, oats, 75cts., beans, 
$2,20, per bushel, and flour, $17 to $17^ per barrel. When 
freight, risk, and profits, were added to these prices, bringing 
corn up to $2, and flour to $20, it is not wonderful that 
many in this and the neighboring towns were unable to sup- 
ply themselves with bread, and some that were able restricted 
its use to one meal a day, for the sake of others. 

On the 5th of Sept. of the same year, many persons on 
Stahl's hill, in this town, had a distinct view of the action oflT 
Pemaquid Point between the British brig Boxer, Capt. Blythe, 
and the U. S. brig Enterprise, Capt. Burrows ; in which, after 
a brisk contest of 35 minutes and the death of both command- 
ers, the Boxer surrendered and was carried into Portland. 

Before the close of 1813, a less lenient policy was adopted 
by the British cruisers towards vessels and seamen employed 
in the coasting trade. Many were deterred from putting to 
sea, and others captured and sent to Halifax. Among the 
latter was the sloop Peggy, of this place, which sailed in 
October, under the command of Capt. W. O. Fuller, with D. 
Lermond and A. Wyllie, hands, and Z. Bosworth, passenger. 
Whilst wind-bound in Townshend harbor, Bosworth, in con- 
sequence of a dream which he thought ominous, left the 
vessel and returned home by land. The vessel proceeded 
cautiously, running from point to point near shore. On the 
3d of November, when within two hours sail of Portsmouth, 
she was captured by two gun-brigs, the Epervier and the 
La Fontaine, and, with all on board, taken to Halifax. 
They were there imprisoned, and the Captain, after an 
illness of five days, died on the 21st, of the typhus fever. 
The others remained at Halifax till the following August, 
when Lermond, with 400 others, was put in the 74 gun ship, 
Le Hogue, Capt. Keplar, sent to England, and confined in 
Dartmoor prison. Wyllie was at that time out of prison, 
employed in the family of the commander, and, not long 
after, returned in a cartel. Lermond remained at Dartmoor, 
till the close of the war, was present at the bloody tragedy 
enacted by Capt. Shortland, and finally returned in a gov- 
ernment vessel, reaching home on the 1st of July, 1815, 
after an absence of one year and nine months. 

At the time war was declared, William Lermond was 


building a schooner at Oyster river, called the Kuhicon, 
which he at first concluded not to risk at sea, and let her re- 
main on the stocks. But so little injury was received by the 
coasters during the summer, that he yielded to the Captain's 
importunity, and had her rigged and launched. On her first 
trip to Boston, a short time after the Peggy, she too was cap- 
tured, and her commander, Capt. Laizdell, and crew, sent to 
Halifax. The danger to which vessels were now exposed at 
sea, their deterioration from exposure to the weather, and 
the expense required to preserve them, together with appre- 
hensions of their being seized or burnt by the enemy, in- 
duced Mr. Counce, ever fertile in expedients, to remove the 
new brig Alexander to Oyster river, where he sunk and kept 
her submerged till the war was over ; on the principle that 
" though there is trouble on the waves, beneath them there is 

In April, 1814, the town voted to furnish the militia soldiers 
with ball cartridges in lieu of the blank ones then required by 
law at each regimental muster. On the 2d of July, a 
meeting was held for the express purpose of taking measures 
for the public defence. At this meeting, J. W. Head, John 
Libbey, M. Smith, R. Crane, and Gilbert Hall, were appointed 
a committee of safety to confer with similar committees in 
the neighboring towns as to the mode of spreading alarms and 
repelling invasions, if any should be made ; to make up from 
the town stock 251 bs. of powder into cartridges, with balls 
and a sufficient supply of flints, to be used only in cases of 
invasion ; and deposit the same in suitable places, to be made 
known to the militia officers only. This committee issued 
circulars to those of the neighboring towns, to meet at Mrs. 
Trowbridge's in Waldoboro' on the 11th of the same month, 
to consult upon measures proper to be adopted for the general 
safety. The result of this movement was the placing of 
guards at McCobb's narrows, and other suitable places for 
observation, and the adoption of a mode of spreading the 
alarm, in case of any hostile movement. At a meeting on 
the 8th of August, the town voted to make up the wages of 
any soldier of this town called into the public service to $V3 
a month, including what should be received from the gov- 

During the season of 1814. though beef, pork, and W. I. 
goods, remained high, the scarcity of bread was greatly miti- 
gated by an abundant crop of wheat, rye, and other English 
grain, which from the high prices of the preceding years and 
low rate of wages, had been extensive^ sown on lands lately 


cleared up. But the collection of a direct tax of $3,000,000, 
levied the preceding year on real estate, detracted somewhat 
from the otherwise ample returns of the farmer ; and the in- 
ternal duties bore hard upon other classes of the community. 
The amount of this latter class of duties collected in this town 
in 1815, was as follows : viz. — Lore Alford, $25,58 ; S. C. 
Burgess, $15,13 ; Burgess & Copeland, $22,50 ; Dr. E. Bux- 
ton, $2; I. Brakely, $11,67; R. B. Copeland, $1; John 
Counce, $2; M. Copeland, $1; William Crane, 77cts. ; 
Samuel Davis, $2 ; William Hovey, $21,87 ; Alfred Hovev, 
$22,50 ; Ivory Hovey, $5,44 ; J. W. Head, $24,50 ; Hatevil 
Libbey, Jr. $4 ; John Libbey, $2 ; J. Leeds, 38cts. ; W. 
McLellan, $21,87 ; J. Miller, $21,87 ; Jesse Page, $34,94 ; T. 
Rawson, $22,50 ; and J. Wetherbee, $2,47 ; making a total 
of $296,49. These sums were paid for retailer''s licenses, 
carriages, the manufacture of hats, boots, saddles, bridles, 
and leather, and were exclusive of those paid on furniture, 
stamps, and watches.* 

In July, a body of men, despatched in barges from two 
armed ships lying at the mouth of our river, entered, in the 
night-time, the fort in St. C4eorge where they found only one 
man, spiked the guns, destroyed the munitions of war and 
buildings, set fire to one vessel, and towed away two others. 
They then proceeded up the river towards Thomaston, but, 
at the dawn of day, deceived by Curtis, a young man whom 
they compelled to act as pilot, and who represented the dis- 
tance much greater than it was, they abandoned farther 
operations and returned, "without molestation. So bold was 
this adventure, that it excited alarm in other places ; and Col. 
Foote called out the most of his regiment for the defence of 
Camden and vicinity. 

On the 1st of Sept. a British force took possession of Cas- 
tine and Belfast, and proceeded up the Penobscot. Orders 
having been issued by General Payson to the militia of his 
brigade, to defend the country wherever invaded, without 
waiting for farther orders, Col. Thatcher ordered out his 
regiment, which on the 5th Was mustered in this town. At 
night, the first battalion, under Major Reed, advanced to 
Thomaston, and encamped. The next day, an express arriv- 
ed with the news that an attack was expected on Camden 
from several ships of war, which had anchored there in a 
menacing position. Upon this, the other battalion under 

* Statement of E. Thompson, Collector. 


Major Hawes, made a rapid march, and arrived at that place 

in the evening. Reed's battalion, and the artillery company- 
had arrived before them ; and Col. Foote had his regiment 
under arms. A company of volunteers, organized in this 
town from those who were by law exempt from military duty, 
to whom had been committed this town's quota of the arms 
furnished by government, also mounted their horses, rode 
over, and reported themselves to Col. Thatcher, about 10 
o'clock in the evening. Some of them had seen service in 
the army ; others had held commissions in the militia ; and 
yet others* had scarcely done duty a1 a militia training in 
their whole lives. The officers of this company were W. 
Blake, Captain ; A. Davis, Lieut. ; and N. Buckland, Jr., 
Ensign ; two of whom had been soldiers of the revolution, 
and all, Captains in the militia. John Miller, orderly 
sergeant, and most of the subordinate officers, had also held 
commissions. During the night, an alarm was raised that the 
enemy were preparing to land. The different corps were 
paraded, loaded their muskets, and stood prepared for action. 
Col. Thatcher held a consultation with his subordinates, and 
for a time all were in breathless expectation of an immediate 
skirmish. It proved a false alarm, however, and the troops 
returned to their repose. They were reviewed the next day 
by Major Gen. King, and, as the hostile fleet got under way 
and put to sea, the regiment commenced its return, and on 
the 8th were discharged at Thomaston. Rations were fur- 
nished on this excursion by the selectmen ; and the expenj-e 
incurred, as well as the soldiers' wages, with the exception of 
the volunteers, was afterwards paid by the State. 

On Sunday, Sept. 11th, an express arrived at the village, 
from McCobb's Narrows, with the intelligence that the British 
were coming up the river. Guns were immediately fired, 
the court-house bell rung, the people generally turned out 
with their muskets, and the artillery promptly took its station 
on the wharf at Thomaston. After waiting till daylight, 
however, it was ascertained that the alarm was without found- 

On the 2d of Nov. a demand was made upon the town of 
Camden, by the British brig of war Furieuse, Capt. Mount- 
joy, despatched from Castine, to surrender a prize which had 
been taken and brought in there the preceding day by Major 
Noah Miller and four or five men in a barge from Lincoln- 

* <« Quorum pars magna fui." 


ville. This prize had a cargo of bale goods valued at 
$40,000 ; and in case of a refusal to surrender it, the de- 
struction of Camden and Lincolnville was threatened. The 
selectmen of Camden, representing that an immediate com- 
pliance was impossible, as the cargo was already removed to 
Warren and Waldoboro', and the vessel sent round to 
George's river, obtained a delay of three days to consider 
the matter, two of their number remaining on board as 
hostages. In the mean time, a request for aid was sent on, 
and on the 3d the militia here partially assembled at Thom- 
aston, but returned at night. On the 4th they again assem- 
bled, and were joined by the Waldoboro' companies. The 
same day, the company of exempts in this town had a meet- 
ing, and agreed to repair to Thomaston for the protection of 
this river, as soon as the other troops should march on to 
Camden. On the 5th, the troops, organized into a battalioa 
under Major Reed, advanced to Camden. In the neighbor- 
hood of Clam Cove, observing several British vessels in 
sight. Major Reed threw his force into an open column, with 
long intervals between the sections, so as to make as great 
a display as possible ; but on arriving at Camden, he learnt 
that the danger was over, the brig having sailed for Castine 
with the two hostages on board. On the next day, therefore, 
the battalion was dismissed. 

So dependent were the people along this eastern coast, on 
the profits of trade and navigation, that many contrived, by 
one means or another, to participate in them during the war. 
Whilst the British kept possession of Castine, a brisk trade 
was kept up betw^een that and the neighboring ports on the 
Penobscot, in Swedish neutral vessels. But in this, as in the 
various other modes of trading with the enemy, such as by 
British licenses at one time freely granted, a Swedish flag 
and neutral papers easily obtained, or by the purchase of 
British goods by a partner abroad, to be captured at a given 
place and signal by a partner at home, the citizens of this 
town, it was believed, had little or no connexion. A brig of 
Col. Head's, G. Hall commander, having cleared for St. Bar- 
tholomew's, was complained of for having touched at a British 
port; but on trial, was cleared by the jury. Some few, pro- 
bably, visited Castine from curiosity, and might have made 
use of the opportunity to obtain a suit of clothes, or make a 
few purchases on speculation. All the world was engaged 
in doing the same thing, and it required no great sophistry to 
excuse the doing directly, what the government openly allow- 
ed to be done indirectly, under color of a neutral flag. But 


though not engaged to any considerable extent in the trade 
thus carried on, the people of this town largely participated 
in the benefits indirectly flowing from it. Farmers found 
ample employment and high remuneration for all the teams 
they could muster, in transporting goods from the Penobscot 
to Portland, Boston, and other places ; laborers were sought 
for to supply their places on the farms; the price of cattle 
rose ; money became abundant ; and preparations were mak- 
ing to engage still more extensively in the business. 

But whilst gleams of prosperity were thus dawning upon 
some, and others were filled with anxiety and mourning, for 
husbands, sons, and brothers, exposed in the army, detained 
in distant prisons, or fallen in the battle-field, on the 14th of 
Feb. 1815, the joyful news arrived that a treaty of peace had 
been signed at Ghent, on the 24th of Dec. The tidings, 
brought to this place by the driver of the western mail stage, 
were heralded by the sound of trumpets ; crowds followed 
with shouts of joy to the village, guns were fired, the bell 
sounded, instruments of music were put in requisition, houses 
were illuminated, bonfires were kindled, and general demon- 
strations of joy were exhibited. The General Court appoint- 
ed the 22d of Feb. as a day of thanksgiving for ihe joyful 

Though the war was now over, it was but slowly that the 
country recovered from its eflTects ; and such is the conse- 
quence of sudden changes, that even peace was not without 
its disappointments. Such of the shipping as had escaped 
capture, was now refitted and sent to sea ; commerce revived, 
and an extensive importation of European fabrics reduced 
prices so low as to check domestic manufactures and impair 
the value of wool, sheep, factories and manufacturing stock ; 
capital had disappeared, and the country, as well as individ- 
uals, was in debt. A great deterioration of morals, insepara- 
ble from a state of war, and still less so from the fluctuations 
of fortune incident to privateering, gambling speculation, and 
illicit trade, was now sensibly felt through the community. 
To counteract this, moral societies were formed, discourses 
delivered, and measures adopted to prevent violations of the 
Sabbath, and repress intemperance, profanity, gambling, and 
other immoralities. Such a society was formed in this town, 
held numerous meetings, and exercised a salutary influence 
for some time. By its recommendation, such tithingmen, in 
all parts of the town, were chosen as could be depended upon 
for a faithful and judicious discharge of their duty. In a dis- 
course delivered in 1815 before this society, by Rev. Mr. 


Mitchell of Waldoboro', the doctrine of total abstinence from 
all intoxicating liquor, was, for the first time at this place, 
openly advocated, and the maxim laid down that whoever 
was in the habit of daily drinking a glass of spirit at regular 
hours, would, unless prevented by death, inevitably become a 
drunkard. This sounded strange at that time, and was not 
generally admitted till some twenty or more years later. 

As calamities seldom come single, so the late commercial 
embarrassments and the war that succeeded, were accom- 
panied by a series of unpropitious seasons for agriculture. 
It was a common remark with farmers, that the seasons had 
never been as they used to be, since the great eclipse. 
Some were too cold and wet for Indian corn, and others too 
dry for grass and potatoes. In 1813, a drought prevailed 
from June till September, and in some places there was less 
than half an ordinary crop of hay. The spring of 1815 
was backward. On the 19th of May, it commenced snowing 
in the forenoon, and continued through the day, with such 
violence as to compel persons who were plowing the ground 
for corn, to break off their labor. But the coldest and most 
disastrous seasoir on record, was that of 1816, in which frost 
occurred with more or less severity in every month in the 
year. On the 12th of April, there was a storm of snow, 
which lay for nearly a week, and made good sleighing. In 
the latter part of the month, there was a spell of fine, dry, 
warm weather, which was followed by cold again in May ; 
the rain-drops on the 24th being congealed to ice on the fruit 
trees, then nearly ready to blossom. On the 5th or 6th of 
June, a spell of wintry weather suddenly commenced with 
squalls of wind, snow, and hail, from the N. W., which chill- 
ed and destroyed martins and other birds, froze the ground, 
cut down the corn and potatoes, and compelled workmen to 
put on their great coats and mittens. This continued for 
many days ; and the whole month was so cold that the apple- 
trees, which began to bloom at its commencement, were not 
out of blossom at its close. This gloomy spell commenced 
about the usual time for the yellow cucumber-bug to make 
its appearance ; and that insect was so effectually destroyed 
as not to be again seen here for ten years. On the 8th and 
9th of July, when corn was being hoed the first time, there 
was frost and cold sufficient to kill it down a second time. 
Such as deemed it worth while, hoed it again about the end 
of the month, when it was not spindled out. Haying, in 
general, began the first week in August, and the crop was 
everywhere light. There were slight frosts in that month, 


followed by a more severe one on the 11th of Sept. The 
corn crop was nearly a total failure ; some favored spots 
only, producing a little for seed, which commanded a great 
price the following year. Wheat and potatoes were better ; 
but, from the previous unfavorable fall and spring, there was 
but little grain sown. The gloom of this disastrous season 
was greatly enhanced by the appearance of dark spots on 
the disk of the sun, which were seen by the naked eye, and 
for the first time, attracted the attention of the common peo- 
ple. In the spring of 1816, potatoes were worth 40cts. per 
bushel, and in the spring following, 75cts. The prices of 
W. I. goods, which reached their acme about the time the 
news of peace arrived, when molasses was selling here at 
$l,12^cts. a gallon, had, in 1816, considerably declined. 
From that time, the seasons began to ameliorate, and fine 
crops of Indian corn were raised for many years. 

These disastrous seasons succeeding to the calamities of 
war, with the accounts received of the great fertility of the 
Western States, induced many families in this and the neigh- 
boring towns, as well as throughout the State, to emigrate 
thither during this period. Deacon Thomas Robinson and 
family, Robert Porterfield and family, both of this town, Mr. 
March of Union, and Dr. Benjamin Webb thenof Thomaston, 
with their families, besides many others, removed in 1817 to 
Ohio ; and more, perhaps, would have gone, if they could 
have found a satisfactory sale for their possessions here. 

To avoid confusion, we have followed the events of the 
war and the seasons as far as 1816. We now go back to note 
a few other particulars. In January, 1812, a petition of Seth 
Andrews, Moses Robinson, and others, was presented to the 
General Court, for a free draw-bridge at Andrews's Point ; 
and at the June session one from E. Killeran and others, for 
a similar toll-bridge, near the ferry way in Thomaston. Both 
these petitions were prosecuted with earnestness, and with 
a var3ang prospect of success, for some time. But so great 
was the influence of business men at the village, that, 
although Messrs. Robinson and Andrews offered to make 
themselves liable with ample security for all damages occa- 
sioned by their bridge, and the town in April, 1813, voted 83 
to 65 in favor of the measure, its friends were compelled to 
yield to that influence, combined as it was with the zealous 
exertions of the friends of the bridge below, which was 
granted in 1817, and built the following year. 

In May, 1815, the depredations of human foes having 
ceased, attention was again directed to those of the wolves. 


In consequence of a conference held by the selectmen of this 
town with those of Gushing, Friendship, and Waldoboro', in 
March, 1816, it was voted that the town should make up the 
bounty to any inhabitant destroying a wolf, to 840. This was 
the last compliment paid by the town to these animals, which 
have since wholly disappeared. Besides these, and other 
specimens of natural history afforded by our own woods and 
waters, the town was, June 20, 1816, favored with the sight 
of a small elephant, which, being the first ever exhibited here, 
attracted as much attention as the largest caravan does now. 

In 1817, on his retirement from office, it was voted unani- 
mously " that the thanks of the town be presented to Mr. 
Alexander Lermond, for his long and faithful services in the 
office of town clerk for 38 years past." For these services, 
Mr. Lermond's compensation, we believe, never exceeded 
85 a year. He was of an amiable disposition, possessed a 
taste and voice for music, was long chorister in the 1st Con- 
gregational church, and from native ingenuity, without any 
apprenticeship, became a good framer, house and ship joiner, 
and was much employed in the construction of all domestic 
utensils. Prosperous in the earlier part of his life, in the 
later, he met with many reverses, losing his portion of three 
vessels in the course of as many months, and suffering many 
domestic afflictions. He died in 1826, 

The liberal policy the town had hitherto adopted, of sup- 
porting the poor by furnishing supplies at their own houses, 
together with the calamities and privations of the war, had 
greatly swelled the number of town paupers, and given rise 
to a large expenditure in their maintenance. A like liberality 
towards towns on the part of the Commonwealth, had caused 
a similar increase in the class of State paupers. The sup- 
plies requisite for all these, to be paid for in cash without 
any risk, made no undesirable addition to a trader's custom, 
and this, combined with a disposition to check the growing 
expenditure, induced the town, in 1817, to choose overseers 
of the poor, distinct from the selectmen. This measure, 
which was continued the three succeeding years, produced 
little effect, however, except to transfer the patronage from 
one merchant to another. 

The price of labor on the highways, which had, heretofore, 
been so much per day throughout the year, was, in 1817, 
jfixed at 12^cts. an hour until the 15th of July, and lOcts. 
an hour after that time ; which rates have been adhered to 
ever since. Many alterations were, the same year, made by 
order of the Court of Sessions in the road, which they de- 


scribed and laid out anew, from the meeting-house in War- 
ren to Camden ; and, in 1818, 160 rods of the newest part of 
this road were made by contract, and paid for in money. 
In April, 1818, the town voted " to rebuild the bridge at the 
head of the tide to the extent of four piers from the eastern 
abutment ;" which was done in a substantial manner by 
Capt. M. Wilbur. At the same time the town voted " not 
to accept the road across the river at the upper falls, after 
the bridge should be put in repair at private expense." This 
vote passed, we believe, in consequence of an application of 
Capt. L. Andrews, who was then doing business at the 
present stand of P. Boggs, and burning considerable quantities 
of lime, the rock for which he transported by land from Star- 
rett's quarries. To facilitate this transportation, he, with 
some aid from others, was repairing this bridge ; but a jeal- 
ousy of any attempt to divert business from the village, pre- 
vented its acceptance. 

In July, 1819, the last remaining pew in the meeting-house 
was sold at auction for the sum of $60. The proceeds of 
this, and one before sold to Wm. Hovey for $80, were 
ordered to be expended in repairing the meeting-house. 
At this time, the outside of the house was painted with 
yellow ochre; but no stove being yet introduced, the meet- 
ings in winter for several years, were held in the Court- 

During this period, the subject of a separation of the 
State was twice agitated. In 1816, May 20th, a vote of the 
District was taken, and a majority found in its favor. In 
this town, the vote stood 36 yeas, 139 nays. An act was 
passed prescribing the terms upon which a separation might 
take place, requiring another vote to be taken in September, 
and authorizing a convention of delegates to meet at Bruns- 
wick to examine the returns, and, if a majority of five to 
four were in favor of separation, to form a constitution. At 
the time appointed, the people of this town gave in 27 
votes in favor of the separation, and 144 against the same. 
Col. Thatcher was chosen to attend the convention, which, 
on examination, found 11,969 votes in favor of, and 10,347 
against the measure. This, by a construction of the law, 
termed in ridicule the Brunstvick arithmetic, the convention 
determined to be a majority of five to four, and adjourned 
to the third Tuesday in December. But the construction 
meeting with no favor from the Legislature, it never met 
again. In 1819, the subject was again brought up, an act 
pas-ed for taking the sense of the people on the question, 


and in case there were a majority of 1,500 in its favor, 
authorizing a convention of delegates at Portland the 2d 
Monday of Oct. to propose a constitution and apply for 
admission into the Union. The vote was taken July 26th, 
and in this town was yeas 24, nays 127. In the District at 
large, there was a great majority in favor of a separation ; 
and a convention of delegates accordingly met, Oct. 11th, 
to form a constitution. Those elected in this town were 
John Miller and Cyrus Eaton, who, though in the progress of 
its formation voting against some of its provisions, returned 
decided advocates for its adoption. Many objections were 
made by some of their constituents, some to one, and some 
to another of its provisions ; but when the vote was taken 
Dec. 6th, seven only, voted against its adoption, and 35 in 
its favor. It received, also, a large majority of the aggregate 
vote of the District, and on the 15th of March, 1820, Maine 
was admitted into the Union and became an independent 

In the course of this period, party-spirit lost much of its 
asperity. One party had found their opponents, though 
violently opposed to the war, as ready as themselves to repel 
an invasion, and too many of their own party, as well as the 
other, willing to profit by illicit trade with the enemy. The 
privations and hardships in which all had shared, the gloomy 
seasons and threatened famine, together with the remc^val of 
many causes of dispute, gave rise to more friendly feelings ; 
and the readiness with which Massachusetts yielded to the 
wishes of Maine for a separation, contributed to the mutual 
conciliation of parties. 

A few casualties, natural phenomena, and other occurrences 
during this period, remain to be noted. In March, 1813, 
John Crawford, 3d, was lost overboard at sea, and Andrew 
Bird in the same manner, Dec. 26, 1814. On the 23d of 
May, 1814, Benjamin Killeran of Cushing, came up to the 
village mills, for fish, and, having loaded his boat, left it near 
the dam. In the evening, as soon as the tide suited, he 
went down to it, and was supposed to have returned home. 
Next morning, however, his body was found in the river, 
having been drowned in the eddy, as was supposed, near the 
place of starting. The same year John Mclntyre, 2d, who 
had for some time been in a melancholy, desponding con- 
dition, amounting to insanity, committed suicide by hanging. 
In August, 1816, Capt. A. Malcolm, in the brig Poacher, 
came home from Wilmington, N. C, where he had been 
wahing for a freight, till himself and crew were nearly all 


taken down with the bilious fever. This, on the voyage 
home, carried off two of the hands, and prostrated the rest 
so completely, that it was with great difficulty tljey succeed- 
ed in navigating the vessel to the mouth of the river ; and 
one of them, Charles Lermond, died after reaching home. 
On the 12th Sept. 1817, John, son of James F. Paskiel, met 
his death by striking a pointed stake, when jumping upon a 
load of hay. On the 26th of the same month, a child of 
Samuel Counce, throe years of age, was scalded to death. 

On the 28th of Nov. 1814, about 7 o'clock in the evening, 
a considerable shock of an earthquake was felt. 

On the 30th of June, 1815, a most violent thunder-shower 
from the N. W. arose between nine and ten o'clock, A. M. 
and the lightning struck in not less than ten or twelve places 
in the town and its borders. In Union, James Lermond was 
instantaneously killed as he entered his house, which was also 
much injured by the shock. In the evening of the following 
day, another shower, with thunder and lightning from all the 
northern portion of the sky, rose slowly and passed off to the 
S. E. From eight till after twelve or one o'clock, the light- 
ning, in one part or other of the heavens, was incessant 
with no perceptible intervals, enabling people to see almost as 
far as in the day-time, without however doing any damage. 

April 29th, 1816, the shop of Dea. Webb took fire in the 
afternoon, and was totally consumed. Through the smoke 
caused by this fire, a spot, apparently as large as a musket 
ball, was observed upon the disk of the declining sun, and 
many others were, at different times, seen during the season. 
These, with the coldness of the summer, threw a deep gloom 
over the minds of many, and strengthened the notion that the 
order of nature was deranged, and the source of light and 
heat about to fail. 

The winter that succeeded the gloomy season of 1816, was 
unusually severe, and the spring of 1817 was equally cold, 
backward, and disheartening. At the end of April, there 
were a few warm days; and on the 30th, the air was filled 
with immense flocks of the common wild pigeon, some of 
them more than a mile in length, succeeding each other for 
hours, and directing their flight to the westward. Frost con- 
tinued in the ground through May, but in July an amelioration 
took place ; and the genial warmth and showers revived the 
liopcs of the husbandman. The wet weather of July and 
August greatly augmented the hay crop, which was not en- 
tirely secured till October. The season of 1818 was warm 
and propitious ; and the succeeding winter remarkable for 


the absence of snow, till February 26th, 1819, after which it 
was deep and drifted till April 5th. The summer of 1819 
was remarkably forward and warm ; Indian corn showed the 
spindles before the 4th of July ; and now corn was ground 
at the mill before the end of August. Thunder-showers were 
frequent and destructive, coming from the S. W. without a 
change of wind. On the 11th of July, the barn of Ephraim 
Boggs was struck by lightning and consumed ; and in August, 
Capt. N. Rice's and several other barns were destroyed in 
Union and Hope. 

Some accessions from abroad were made to the population 
during this period ; among whom were, George Kimball from 
Harvard, Mass., who in 1814 succeeded Col. Thatcher in the 
practice of the law, but removed to Bermuda ; Thompson 
E-awson, who opened a tavern at first in the Wetherbee house 
and afterwards in that now of S. B. Wetherbee ; Amos H. 
Hodgman, who in 1814 succeeded Stacy in the clothing 
business, and has since, besides holding many civil and mili- 
tary offices, greatly contributed to the business and activity 
of the place ; Thomas Howard, also a successful mechanic, 
who took the stand of J. Mero in the blacksmith business ; 
Samuel Hinkley, who in 1819 commenced the tin-plate busi- 
ness ; and Robert W. Jarvis, who, in November of the same 
year, began the shoemaking business ; all of whom, except 
the two first, are still more or less engaged in their several 
occupations at the principal village. In other parts of the 
town, Calvin Howland, whose father had sustained the minis- 
terial office in Carver, Mass., for more than 58 years, pur- 
chased, about 1817, the farm of Dea. Robinson, on which he 
lived till his death in 1851 ; Ezekiel Parker, at the same time, 
took the farm of R. Porterfield, and, after many years, re- 
moved to Hope ; Jonathan Parker settled on the lot which 
he purchased of Rev. J. Huse, and still occupies ; Nathaniel 
Carriel settled near the line of Camden, to which town he 
was aflerwards set off; John Whitney settled at Mt. Pleasant 
about 1819; Henry Hilt, about 1815, purchased land and 
the mill erected by Marble Alford, deceased, on Crawford's 
Meadow brook, where he resided till his recent removal to his 
farm at the upper falls ; Richard Robinson, a native of Wales, 
was apprenticed to M. Cobb and became commander of one 
of his brigs, bought the farm formerly owned by B. Webb 
which he carried on for some years, and removed to Thomas- 
ton, the present place of his residence ; Robert Waterman 
purchased and improved, till his death, the farm now owned 
by his son-in-law, J. Haskell ; Luke Jones took the farm of 


P. Sechrist, to which his son, T. Jones, has since succeeded ; 
John Leeds, in the early part of this period, set up the shoe- 
making business near the upper falls, and subsequently pur- 
chased his present residence ; Francis Joachin, from Portugal, 
after an apprenticeship to L. Lincoln, began his trade as a 
mason, and bought the place he is still improving ; Jacob 
Stetson, a ship-carpenter, settled on the Joseph Robbins place, 
now possessed by M. Stetson ; and Ezra Sawin set up, and 
for some years carried on, the shoemaker's trade, where Col. 
Richmond now lives. 

Some changes, also, took place among men of business. 
Capt. Burgess commenced trade in the Wilson store, at first 
in connexion with O. Copeland, who soon after went into 
partnership with M. Cobb, in the new store which the latter 
built at the corner east of the bridge. When Copeland sub- 
sequently went into the tanning business, this store was pur- 
chased in 1815, by John Thompson of Hope, who traded 
there, and in the one story building which he erected near it, 
over the water, till his death in 1826. Pie had a good faculty 
for accumulating property; gave liberally to others whilst he 
lived, and at his death left what goods he had on hand, $800 
or $1000 worth, to be distributed to the needy and destitute of 
the town. Messrs. Page and McLellan erected, the double 
store at the western end of the bridge, one part of which 
was occupied by said McLellan, and the other, at first, by 
James Head. John Burton, from Friendship, for a time sold 
goods in one of Thompson's stores, and afterwards purchased 
where Mrs. W. L. Starrett now resides. Joseph Boggs com- 
menced trading in the building which he erected opposite the 
present factory, and Lemuel Andrews at the present dwel- 
ling of P. Boggs. 

Some advance towards the present state of things, was 
made in other respects. The first dancing school in town 
was taught in the Wetherbee house, by Lot Lincoln, in 1812- 
'13. This measure was looked upon with some disfavor by 
the graver part of the inhabitants, as inconsistent with the 
state of the country, threatened as it was with war and fam- 
ine. In the more useful branches of education, improve- 
ment was also discernible. Grammar and Geography. were 
introduced to most of the common schools ; and the study of 
the latter, greatly facilitated by the use of maps, lessons on 
which were now first introduced. In the academy, by the 
efforts of the preceptor, A. Whiting, in 1814, a globe was 
procured by subscription, the only apparatus the institution 
could yet boast ; and Murray's grammar succeeded to the 


Ny crude work of Caleb Alexander. In agriculture, great pro- 
gress was made, particularly in the cultivation of wheat, and 
other English grain ; for the cleansing of which, winnowing 
machines were now first brought into use here. The culture 
of potatoes was greatly extended, wool improved in quantity 
and quality, and greater attention paid to its manufacture. 
New machinery for dressing cloth was introduced, and small 
cotton factories established in the vicinity. For one of these 
in Union, a company was incorporated in 1813, in which Col. 
Head was a large proprietor. Less cord-wood was cut for 
market, the dead and falling spruce and hemlock gleaned up 
for kiln-wood and lime-casks, and the ground cleared for 
grain and grass. Farmers, taught by necessity, began to de- 
pend upon their own resources, were cautious of contracting 
debts, and every year becoming more independent. Sup- 
planted by the cheapness of cotton, and partially by the in- 
vention of pegged shoes, which made their appearance here 
about 1816, flax was fast disappearing from the land. Re- 
lieved from its laborious manufacture, women devoted more 
time to the comforts and elegancies of life. Floors were 
painted, walls papered ; and carpets began to make their ap- 
pearance. Out door improvements corresponded. Sheds, 
wood-houses, carriage-houses, and other buildings, were added 
to the heretofore solitary house and barn, which used to stand 
at a respectful distance, often ogling each other from opposite 
sides of the road. The swine, until that timfe allowed the 
use of all public highways, were now deprived of their an- 
cient privilege, and confined to their styes. A neater hus- 
bandry prevailed; stumps were removed from the fields; 
better fences were made ; and some of the more dilapidated 
buildings disappeared.* 

* Among these, the old stone garrison-house in Gushing, belonging 
to the Burton family, was taken down about this time, to the regret 
of at least one lover of antiquity ; as expressed in 


Forbear, and pull not down that pile ! 

Though in it lurks the reptile vile ; 

Though lizards creep along the floor, 

And pole-cats centinel the door. 

In hall and larder bats are prowling. 

And night winds through the casement howling ; 

Though owls are hooting from the roof, 

No longer light or water proof; 

And nightly from the window sill 

Croaks the ill boding whip-poor-will ; 

Though moss has covered every stone, 


And thistles round the threshold grown ; 
Though adders crawl from out the wall 
Ah-eady tottering to its fall ; 
Yet spare, for my sake, spare awhile, 
And pull not down the aged pile. 

To shield our sires from savage foes. 
In early times the structure rose ; 
And fancy calls from every stone 
Some tragic deed of ages flo^^^l ; 
And stalwart forms are here contending, 
And beauty's shriek to heaven ascending ; 
The tomahawk and falchion clash, 
And through the darkness muskets flash, 
While the deep woods afar repeat 
The shout of onset or retreat, 
And dpng groans without, within, 
Bring up the rear of battle's din. 
And mothers' sighs and orphans' cries 
Go up in concert to the skies. 
Then spare, Oh spare a little while, 
And pull not down the wizard pile. 

The tribes that fought have passed away ; 

Felled are the woods that owned their sway ; 

Their power is gone, their bow is broke, 

Their smothered fires no longer smoke ; 

Or if, at times, a feeble few 

In light canoes their way pursue. 

They find the river choked and dammed. 

With wharves, and mills, and factories crammed ; 

Ai?d meet, instead of bears and beavers. 

Whole troops of spinners, smiths, and weavers, 

While lime-kilns gleam along the shore 

Where baleful camp iires gleamed before. 

And vessels bold the waters hold. 

Numerous as birch canoes of old. 

Then spare, for their sakes, spare awhile, 

And pull not down the crumbling pile. 

For when he sees this ancient wall 
Which flattened many a vengeful ball, 
The Indian feels himseK again — 
The owner of this broad domain — 
Son of the mighty Tarratine, 
Whom Madockwando and Castine 
Led forth to many a bloody field 
And forced his proudest foe to yield. 
Strong was his arm, his heart w\as great, 
His stroke was death, his anger fate ; 
And his descendant here forgets 
His present wrongs, his past regrets ; 
And hears once more the cataract's roar 
And moose's hoof-clink as of yore. 
Then spare, for his sake, spare awhile, 
And pull not down the ponderous pile. 




The erection of Maine into a separate State, took place at 
a very auspicious period. The old causes of contention 
between the parties, had been removed ; the able administra- 
tion and conciliatory policy of President Munroe, had re- 
pressed the flames of party-spirit ; the well known demo- 
cratic majority in the new State, and the readiness evinced 
by many of the most influential of the other party, both 
before and after the separation, cordially to unite with them 
in effecting the most salutary reforms and giving to the new 
government the undivided support of the whole people, pro- 
duced such a state of harmony and good feeling that at the 
first annual election of State oflicers, which took place 
in April, 1820, the unanimous vote of this town was given to 
the Hon. Wm. King for Governor. There was more divis- 
ion in regard to senators and town representative, arising 
from a disposition to some extent felt here, and more strongly 
in other parts of the State, to substitute town courts for the 
Court of Common Pleas. This measure, with difficulty 
defeated at that time, was revived in 1844, when the people 
of this town gave 129 votes against, and one only in its 

Many important laws and some salutary changes were 
adopted by the new government, some of which required 
corresponding changes in doing town business ; particularly 
in choosing school agents and school committee ; in the 
amount of school tax raised ; and in the assessment of school- 
house taxes on real estate. To effect the last of these, it 
became necessary to have the territorial limits of each 
school district exactly defined ; and accordingly, in Sept. 
1822, on the report of C. Eaton, J. Creighton, and S. C. 
Burgess, 15 school districts were established, numbered 
alternately along the river from south to north, the odd 
numbers on the east and even on the west, to Union line, 
with a second tier east and west of these, numbered in the 
same way, except that the odd numbers were on the western 
side. To these were afterwards added, district No. 16, of 
colored people, in 1823, No. 17 in 1832, No. 18 in 1840, 
Nos. 19 and 20 in 1845, and No. 21, first set off" in 1835; 


all of which were territorially defined by A. Lermond, Esq., 
and established by a vote of the town, April 5, 1847. 

Under Massachusetts, ministers of the Gospel had always 
been exempt from taxation ; they were now required to be 
taxed. Partly on this account, and partly to benefit Mr. 
Whiting, who was now in years and without much income, it 
was voted, March 3, 1823," that there be allowed to the Rev. 
Messrs. Huse, Whiting, and Wakefield, respectively, a sum 
equal to their several taxes the past year, in full compensation 
for their services on the school committee." Hitherto, this 
service had been performed gratuitously. In 1825, it was 
voted " that the selectmen should make the members of said 
committee a suitable compensation ; which was done from 
year to year till 1834, when their fees were established by 
law. At or before the commencement of the period em- 
braced in this chapter, the American Preceptor and Alexan- 
der's Grammar were displaced in most of the schools by 
Murray's English Reader and Grammar; and Hawes's Spel- 
ling book succeeded Webster's about 1825. About 1830, 
Pierpont's reading books were introduced ; after which, such 
a variety of books in the different departments, came into 
use, that for'tho convenience of instructers, the town voted, 
April 4, 1836, to establish the list then reported by the super- 
intending committee, to be used in schools without variation 
for the ensuing five years. Since the expiration of that time, 
many new school books have been introduced, and there is 
now again a great want of uniformity. According to the re- 
port of the Board of Education for 1850, this town, in the 
ratio of mean average attendance, compared with the whole 
number of scholars, ranks as the 15th in the county. For 
the present state of the schools in the several districts, the 
reader is referred to table X. 

The law abandoning the State pauper system, and throwing 
the support of foreign paupers upon towns where they became 
chargeable, in exchange for the duties on retailing and tavern 
licenses thenceforward to be received by towns instead of 
counties, fell heavy upon the town of Warren, which had 
then on its hands, not less than seven foreign paupers, for 
whose support it had been receiving $364 a year, whilst the 
sum then paid for licenses was only $42. This temporary 
inconvenience was allowed, in the minds of many, to outweigh 
the far more lasting and general benefits likely to flow from 
that law. Accordingly, in 1822, the town strongly remon- 
strated against it, and petitioned for its repeal or modifica- 
tion. Col. Thatcher being elected representative, exerted 


himself in favor of the petition, but was able to effect noth- 
ing. In the meantime, the town had, in 1821, by letting out 
the whole pauper expenditure and risk, adopted a more effect- 
ual means of relief. This system of supporting the poor by 
contract, though violently opposed, was, by the steady efforts 
of its supporters, persevered in, till, together with the temper- 
ance reform and other causes, it reduced this item of ex- 
pense, from $700 a year, the rate at which it was proceeding 
at the commencement of 1821, to $300 in 1824, and $172 
in 1844. For the last five years, the poor have been sup- 
ported at their own homes, and the expenditure has been 
again on the increase. 

Of the new pauper act, one of the provisions, probably 
adopted in haste, and intended to prevent lawsuits, but having 
a directly contrary effect, was, that any person having his 
residence in any town on the day the act passed should 
thereby gain a settlement in said town. This provision 
gave rise to a lawsuit between the towns of Warren and 
Hope respecting the maintenance of a family, who, having 
had a settlement in the former, resided a time in the latter, 
and returned thence not far from the day in question. 
Where their home was on that day, was the point to be 
decided. Each tow-n produced sufficient testimony, if un- 
controverted, to make out its own case. In the Court of 
Common Pleas, Warren prevailed ; but. on an appeal to the 
Supreme Court, so equally strong and ample was the testi- 
mony on each side, that it could hardly fail to leave a doubt 
on the mind', and, as every doubt, on account of the pauper's 
former settlement in Warren, weighed against that town, 
the jury on the first trial disagreed, and on the second, in 
1829, gave a verdict in favor of Hope. That town recov- 
ered $32,73 damages, and $428 cost, so that with its own 
expenses, the whole loss to Warren must have been over 

Rev. Mr. Huse's salary, which for 19 years had been paid 
out of the proceeds of the fishery, was, on account of the 
small amount of such proceeds in 1821, raised thenceforth 
by a tax on those persons only who had not withdrawn from 
the religious society which the town had originally consti- 
tuted. The number of persons so taxed, in 1822, was 226, 
out of 391, the whole number in town ; and the sum as- 
sessed on each poll was 31 cents. 

The town's military stores, kept in the meeting-house loft 
ever since its completion, having given considerable uneasiness 
to people living near, a brick powder-house was erected in 1822 


on land of J. Andrews ; but as, in 1827, towns were exempted 
from keeping such stores, it was but little used. At the 
close of the late war and for some years after, a fine military 
spirit pervaded the militia ; and some corps made great ad- 
vances in skill and discipline. Farther to encourage this 
spirit or to check its incipient decline, a law was passed in 
1824, requiring towns to furnish rations to each militia soldier 
at every regimental muster, or, in lieu thereof, 20 cents in 
cash. The latter was voted by this town, and, increased in 
amount as it subsequently was, continued to be paid, until 
these military gatherings became obsolete. In 1828, an inde- 
pendent company of riflemen was organized in the town ; the 
fine discipline and elegant uniform of which, attracted' much 
admiration. Notwithstanding the emulation of this and simi- 
lar corps in other places, a growing conviction prevailed that 
these military services were useless in time of peace, unequal 
in their operation, and only to be submitted to in cases of war 
and other emergencies ; and when, in 1844, such services were 
dispensed with, the people of this town, it is believed, gladly 
acquiesced. The second gun-house, erected about 1840 on 
land of I. Dinsmore for the accommodation of the artillery 
company, was sold in 1850, and the cannon removed to the 
State arsenal. 

In 1822, a hearse, pall, and two biers, were obtained for the 
use of the town, with a building to deposit them in. In 1839, 
Daniel Newcomb, who had for more than 20 years performed 
the duties of sexton, died, and his place has since been filled 
by E. Weston, R. Montgomery, J. G. Hoffsis, and others. 
At that time, the burying-ground near the 1st Congregation- 
al meeting-house, was becoming somewhat crowded, and, 
as the adjatent land was unsuitable for its enlargement, at- 
tention was turned to the procuring a new one. Several 
localities were proposed ; but, as private grave-yards, in the 
more distant parts of the town, had been procured, or were 
in contemplation, it was voted, Sept. 21, 1840, that the pres- 
ent one belonging to the town should be enlarged by taking 
in a part of the common. This was accordingly done, a 
new fence constructed, and some ornamental trees set out. 
Private burying-grounds were laid out near Edward Spear's, 
about 1839; M. Crane's, 1840; D. Starrett's, 1842; and E. 
Cushing's, W. Blake's, N. Cushman's, and W. Bisbee's, in 
1844 or later. In 1847, the old, first grave-yard near the 
river, was fenced and divested of the trees which had over- 
grown it. In 1833, a new pall, and in 1848 — '9, four new 
hearses were ordered. At the meeting in March, 1849, it was 


voted, that the friends of John H. Coiince be permitted to 
build a tomb in the town burying-ground ; but before this 
purpose was exe^cuted, a new grave-yard was procured by E. 
Counce and D. McCallum, near the Baptist meeting-house, 
where the said tomb was constructed, and lots since sold to 
other individuals. 

The bridge near Isaac Starrett's was rebuilt in 1822 ; as 
was that at the head of the tide in 1823, to the extent of 
130 feet from the western end, by S. Peabody for the sum 
of $75. Tiie bridge at the upper falls, so long maintained 
at private expense, was, after a refusal in 1825, finally ac- 
cepted by the town, March 6, 1826 ; and was rebuilt by R. 
Hall, E. O'Brien, and P. Montgomery, in 1831, with two 
substantial stone abutments, which in 1847 were made higher 
by agreement with the Georges Canal Company, and still 
remain. Oyster river bridge having been carried away by 
the great freshets of 1831, was rebuilt by J. L. Patterson for 
the sura of $297. That at the village was carried away in 
the following spring, and rebuilt with a stone abutment at the 
eastern end, under the direction of A. Crawford and E. 
Weston. John Creighton and others having petitioned for 
liberty to erect a toll-bridge in the lower part of the town, 
a meeting was called Jan. 31, 1835, and the selectmen and 
representative instructed to remonstrate against and oppose 
the same. This opposition proved ineffectual, a grant was 
obtained, and in the summer of 1836 the bridge built, and 
the roads leading to it laid out and made by contract. The 
income of this bridge, besides paying to the toll-keeper, A. 
W. Gay, $85 in addition to his rent, yielded in 1849, $450 
to the stockholders. The bridge at Oyster river being again 
out of repair, it was determined, June 8, 1839, to rebuild 
it in a more permanent manner ; and J. L. Patterson, Am- 
brose Lermond, and P. Coburn, were appointed a committee 
to issue proposals and contract for the work. Under their 
direction, in concert with the authorities of Thomaston, the 
bridge was built with stone piers and abutments of stone and 
earth, which still remain. It cost on the part of this town 
$2892, and the treasurer was authorized to borrow that sum 
for the term of one and tv/o years. In 1846, the town in- 
structed the selectmen to repair the bridge at the head of 
the tide ; but as the Canal Company were preparing to build 
the locks, the work was delayed till the following year, when 
the bridge was rebuilt under the supervision of Dr. B. F. 
Buxton, upon stone piers, the rock for which was blown 
from the unsightly cliff near its eastern end. 


In 1823 and after, the labor expended in keeping the roads 
open in winter, before that time voluntarily contributed, was 
ordered to be allowed out of the highway taxes. To save 
the loss occasioned by drafting labor from the more central to 
distant parts of the town, part of which was absorbed in travel, 
and the rest performed by persons not much interested, 600 
rods of the Camden road between Farrington's and Thom- 
aston line, were, in 1823, let out to the lowest bidder in lots 
of 40 rods each, to be well rounded up, cleared of stumps 
and rocks, and kept in repair for two years. The whole ex- 
pense amounted to $410. Subsequently, portions of road 
near N. Cushman's, J. Fuller's, H. M. Watts's, Samuel 
Spear's, and other places, were made by contract on such ad- 
vantageous terms, that in April, 1828, the town voted that the 
selectmen should let out to the highest bidder, the repair of 
all such roads through the town as might otherwise need 
drafted labor. To defray this expense, an additional highway 
tax of 8200 was voted to be collected in money, to which 
was subsequently added $100 more for a new road as altered 
near H. Hilt's. In the following year, $100 was raised to 
be expended in the same way. The average annual expen- 
diture in this and the neighboring towns for the support of 
roads and bridges during the five years ending with 1828, 
was as follows ; Warren 82583, Waldoboro' ^83720, Cam- 
den 83163, Thomaston 82810, Union 82151, St. George 
81370, and Cushing 8619. In 1833, the selectmen, together 
with four others, were appointed surveyors of highways with 
power to appoint deputies, their expenditures to be paid from 
the aggregate money tax of 82000. The same year, a piece 
of road near Mero Kel loch's was made by contract for 
8272,14. The following year, the town returned to the old 
mode of choosing surveyors for the different districts, raising 
a tax in labor, and repairing the more difficult portions of 
the road by contract in money. The roads from N. Cobb's 
to Thomaston line and from W. Wyllie's to E. V. Lermond's 
were made in the latter mode ; as was that between H. Hilt's 
and A. Young's, in 1835. A petition for the laying out of a 
road from Waldoboro' to Union, through the N. W. part of 
this town, having in 1826 been rejected by the Court of Ses- 
sions, a similar road, after delay and much opposition, was 
finally established by the Supreme Court at Belfast, and this 
town's portion, 571 rods, made by contract in 1832-'3, at the 
cost of 8568,40. In 1836, A. Lermond was appointed agent 
to straighten and widen the roads where necessary, agreeably 
to the laying out thereof; and in cases where the record or 


plans were defective, the selectmen were directed to lay them 
out anew. After many attempts to make a passable road 
over the hill by A. Crawford's, and many ineffectual move- 
ments in favor of shifting the same, a substitute was at length 
permanently located by the county commissioners to the east- 
ward of Mr. Crawford's house, and made by contract in 1836, 
at the cost of $291,72. The road between M. Crane's and 
J. Parker's was also made by contract for $195, as also the 
following, in 1837, laid out, some of them by the town, and 
some by the county commissioners, viz : — from C. Crane's 
to Waldoboro' line at a cost of $2082,11 ; near J. Payson's 
at a cost of $208,53 ; from M. Crane's to N. Cobb's, at a 
cost of $301,05 ; and from R. B. Copeland's to Cushing line 
at a cost of $10,22. An attempt having been made by the 
surveyor of highways at the village, to improve its condition 
by making side-walks of plank through the principal street, 
some jealousy of this innovation was felt in other portions of 
the town, and after sundry propositions were made connecting 
this subject with that of temperance, it was voted. May 8, 
1843, that '' the surveyors of highways are requested to ex- 
pend no work on side-walks, until they have first put the main 
traveled part of the road in good repair." The jealousy has 
since subsided, and side-walks have been farther extended. In 
consequence of damages done by the freshets, the town in 
April, 1846, voted to raise $3000 for the repair of highways, 
with the additional sum of $1000 in cash to be taken from 
the town stock for the same purpose. At the same time it 
was voted to oppose the laying out, by the county commission- 
ers, of two roads in the upper part of the town, leading to 
Camden. In April, 1849, on the report of a committee, the 
town committed the repair of its highways to three commis- 
sioners chosen by ballot, instead of the many surveyors here- 
tofore appointed, but in the following year returned to the old 
method of choosing a surveyor for each district. 

An additional fish act was passed in 1824, exempting the 
towns of Union and Hope from the obligation of annually 
opening their dams for the passage of the shad and alewives, 
and granting to the town of Warren four instead of three 
days for taking the same ; and another in 1844, giving the 
whole control of the river, so far as relates to the free pas- 
sage of the shad and alewives up and down the same, the 
execution of the law, and the prosecution of all offences 
against the same, to wardens chosen by the towns of Warren, 
Cushing, Thomaston, and St. George ; who were to hold 


meetings, prescribe the kind of fishways to be built^ and cause 
all obstructions to be removed. 

In the last named year, Providence sent such an unparal- 
leled supply of fish, that, after $1975,25 were paid into the 
town treasury, the agents desisted from taking them. In 
consequence of the large sum thus received, the selectmen 
called a town meeting, June 22d, 1844. to see if the town 
would reconsider a vote, passed the preceding April, for rais- 
ing a town tax of $1400. Qn inquiry, it was found that in 
1838 a vote had been passed that the proceeds of the fishery 
be equally divided among the polls, and this vote, though 
strangely unattended to, was still in force ; so that the town, 
instead of having a surplus, was really indebted to its chizens 
for the proceeds of the fishery in the six preceding years. 
By an apparent concert of action, however, on the part of 
the heavier tax-payers, the former vote for raising a tax was 
reconsidered, and, notwithstanding the want of any thing in 
the warrant to authorise it, a vote was passed that the pro- 
ceeds of the shad and alewive fishery be appropriated in 
defraying the expenses of the town. In consequence of the 
funds thus secured and remaining on hand, the town, April 
7, 1845, voted to pay $900 for the support of schools from 
moneys in the treasury ; to appropriate $75 to assist the in- 
habitants of school district No. 16, in erecting a school-house, 
of which they had before been destitute ; and to dispense 
with any town tax — an event which had not before occurred 
for 48 years. Since that period, the fishery has yielded but 
little income ; and a prosecution commenced by the town's 
committee was resisted, and, being carried up to the Supreme 
Court, was decided against the town in 1850, at a cost of 
$500 or more. 

Prior to 1840, the management of the fishery Imd been 
disposed of at auction or entrusted to an agent with little or 
no restriction. But since 1840, to save time and avoid dis- 
putes, the order of precedence for each citizen to obtain his 
prescribed quantity of fish has been determined by lot, and 
tickets numbered and issued accordingly. This measure has 
contributed much to the order and quiet of the fishing season, 
and appears to give general satisfaction. 

The manufacture of lime having so far increased as to 
render the office of Inspector General a lucrative one, a 
project was formed, about 1827, for giving to the several 
towns where lime is manufactured, the powers, emoluments, 
and responsibilities of Inspectoi-s General within their several 
limits, appointing deputy inspectors like other town officers. 


and being accountable for their conduct. This town approv- 
ed of the measure, and, Jan. 5, 1828, a petition for the same 
was ordered to be signed by the selectmen in behalf of the 
town, and presented to the Legislature ; but it did not pre- 

Pursuant to a vote of the town, intended to correct a 
practice coeval with its incorporation, of taxing some kinds 
of property higher in proportion to its actual value than 
others, two of the assessors, during the indisposition of the 
third, in 1829 visited every farm, and made the first, and, 
it is believed, the only, cash valuation of the whole property 
of the town. But as this was sent by their successors the 
following year to the Legislature instead of a copy, and the 
author has not succeeded in obtaining it, its amount cannot 
now be stated. 

In early times, and during the first quarter of the present 
century, it was customary for the Selectmen or Treasurer 
to present at the March meeting an annual statement of re- 
ceipts and expenditures for the preceding year, that the town 
might be made acquainted with the state of the treasury, 
and the uses to which its money had been applied. But 
this practice having for some years been pretermitted, and 
some people becoming uneasy at the great increase of taxa- 
tion, it was, in 1835, voted '' that the selectmen should cause 
an 'account of expenditures during the preceding year, with 
such explanations as they thought proper, to be printed in a 
pamphlet form, to be furnished to each voter in town." This 
not having been complied with, it was, the following year, 
ordered '* that the selectmen draw off their accounts in a fair 
and legible hand, with their vouchers and books, to be read at 
the next meeting." It does not appear that this order was 
complied with, nor that the town took any farther action 
upon the subject till March, 1844, when a similar request was 
made, with regard to the expenditures of the three preceding 
years. This vote, like the former, seems to have resulted 
in nothing, and has not been reiterated. 

A portion of the revenue of the U. S. having been depos- 
ited with the several States on condition of its being refunded 
when called for, and the Legislature of Maine having passed 
an act for depositing its portion of the same with the several 
towns in proportion to the number of their inhabitants, on 
condition of its being refunded in the same way, this town, 
at a meeting called for the purpose, March 28, 1837, voted 
to receive its proportion thereof agreeably to the provisions 
of said act, and empowered E. O'Brien to receive the same, 


and sign receipts. In pursuance of this vote, the town re- 
ceived throuf^h said agent, three instalments, making an 
aggregate of $i266. This money, was, in that year, appro- 
priated to the use of primary schools, and loaned out to 
individuals. The measure, however, was disrehshed by many 
at the time, and when in the following year an act was 
passed legalizing the distribution of the money among the 
inhabitants, per capita, the town, April 2, 1838, voted in 
favor of such distribution by a large majority. Accordingly, 
in July following, a census of the inhabitants, amounting to 
2143, was taken by Jabez Kirkpatrick, and the money, $2 
to each person, delivered to the several families, by T. Star- 
rett, treasurer. Thus a fund, which, if wisely improved 
by the States for purposes of education and internal 
improvement, might have adorned and blessed the country 
for ages, was, so far as this town's share was concerned, 
dissipated at once, affording indeed a transient delight to 
the poor and destitute, but lost to the rich like a drop in a 
bucket, and seen no more forever. 

Since 1800, town meetings had, for the most part, been 
held in the court-house, but some objections having been made 
by the county authorities, the town, after many reports and 
plans had been offered, voted, April 6, 1840, that the present 
town-house, 44 by 36 feet, should be built by the lowest bid- 
der, which was done by S. B. Wetherbee for $1175. *A 
basement was added at his own risk, for which the town sub- 
sequently voted to give him $75. 

The state of political feelings and parties in this period, 
may be judged of from the following list of votes thrown at 
the different presidential elections. 

1824. For William H. Crawford, 16 votes. 

'' John Q. Adams, 35 ''- 

1828. " Andrew Jackson, 64 " 

" John Q. Adams, 73 '^ 

1832. " Andrew Jackson, 279 '' 

'^ Henry Clay, 110 '^ 

1836, " Martin Van Buren, 124 '' 

" Henry Clay, 58 " 

1840. " Martin Van Buren, 297 " 

" William H. Harrison, 178 " 
1844. " James K. Polk, 226 *' 

" Henry Clay, 128 " 

" James Birnev, 9 " 

1848. " Lewis Cass," 194 " 

" Zachary Taylor, . 121 " 

" Martin Van Buren, 25 '• 


In 1830, for the first time in the onnals of the town, the 
election of its officers was decided on party grounds, and con- 
fined to the partizans of Gen. Jackson. 

On the amendments of the Constitution, the votes in this 
town were, on that relating to elections in cities, September 
8, 1834, yes 16, no 18 ; on that respecting bail, September 11, 
1837, yes 41, no 19 ; on that of limiting the tenure of Judi- 
cial offices to the term of seven years, September 9, 1839, 
yes 91, no 75 ; on making the election of Governor and other 
officers biennial, September 13, 1841, yes 10, no 57 ; and on 
establishing the number of Representatives at 151, yes 57, 
no 4 ; on changing the Legislative session from January to 
May, in 1844, no 149, yes 12 ; on pledging the State's credit, 
&c., in 1847, yes 14, no 10; on electing the Governor, Sena- 
tors, and Representatives by a plurality of votes, yes 9, no 
23 ; and on changing the Legislative session back from May 
to January, in 1849, yes 152, no 9. 

On the question of increasing or diminishing the number of 
Representatives, September 13, 1841, this town gave 47 votes 
for a diminution and none for an increase. At the reduction 
of the number of Representatives in 1842, Warren and 
Friendship were classed together, and entitled to elect one. 
The two towns thus united, elected Amos H. Hodgman their 
first Representative. 



At the period of the separation of the State, the 1st Con- 
gregational Society of this town, vi^hich had now been for a 
quarter of a century under the care of the Rev. Mr. Huse, 
had already been somewhat weakened, not only by the in- 
crease and activity of the Baptist Society, but by the influ- 
ence of what was then called " Hopkinsianism," which, un- 
der the auspices of the Kennebec Association of ministers, 
was beginning to show itself in this region, and producing 
dissatisfaction and divisions among both ministers and people. 
Some individuals had embraced it in this town, and meetings 
were occasionally held by Rev. Jotham Sewall and others for 
its propagation. Mr. Huse experienced great discouragement 


from the obstacles thrown in his way by ministers of the stricter 
faith in some of the neighboring towns, who, abstaining from 
clerical intercourse with him, frequently preached and made 
converts in his parish. The number of these gradually in- 
creased, and on the 5th February, 1828, an ecclesiastical 
council, at their request, assembled at the house of William 
McLellan to consider the expediency of forming a second 
Congregational church in the place. A committee being sent 
to apprise the Rev. Mr. Huse of the measure proposed, and 
inquire if he had any objections, received an answer in writing, 
as follows ; " Gentlemen, in answer," &c. " I would observe 
1st. that I think the formation of such a church would be 
productive of evil consequences, which you are capable of 
anticipating. 2d. I conceive it possible, that, in process of 
time, such arrangements may be made as shall be satisfactory 
to those professors of religion who have requested advice of 
council, without the formation of such a church." 

Upon this, the council voted to adjourn for three weeks, to 
see if any such arrangements could be made, and expressed 
their unanimous opinion that, in case they could not, a new 
church ought to be formed. Mr. Huse had been led to believe 
some plan of union might be agreed upon, from an offer, 
which Mr. McLellan was said to have made, to give him 
f 1000 if he would resign his pastoral charge and leave the 
pulpit to a successor. Thinking the offer a liberal one, he 
proposed, through a friend, that, on receiving conditional secu- 
rity for that sum, he would, with the consent of his church 
and society, accept the offer. In answer, on the 12th, a writ- 
ten communication was made to Mr. Huse, in behalf of Mr. 
M. and his associates, stating in substance " that if you will 
resign the pastoral office, and your society will unite with us 
in settling such a minister as the Lincoln Association shall ap- 
prove, then w^e will unite with them in giving you $1000." 
This proposition met with no favor, as, though many were 
disposed to sacrifice much for the sake of a prosperous and 
harmonious society, they could not think of voluntarily sub- 
jecting themselves to the spiritual guardianship of any body 
of men, whatever. On the re-assembling of the council, 
therefore, a communication was received from Mr. Huse, 
stating the evils which he apprehended from the formation of 
another church, and that, in view of the proposition which 
had been made, he, and those whom he had consulted, thought 
that nothing farther need be done. The council declared 
their regret that no arrangement had been entered into, and 
that a different proposition had not been submitted to Mr. 


Huse ; but were " persuaded that no proposition wliich could 
have been conscientiously made, would have secured that 
union in the establishment of an evangelical ministry, which 
we devoutly and ardently desire." The council therefore 
proceeded on the 27th of February, to organize a church 
consisting of thirteen male, and ten female members. Oo 
the 15th March, Jesse Page was chosen the first deacon, and 
John Cutting, clerk ; and on the 20th of the same month it 
was voted " by divine assistance to maintain public worship 
the ensuing year, by getting what assistance we can from 
others and supplying the deficiency by a tax on ourselves." 
On the 17th May, 1828, the articles of faith and covenant 
then generally used in the Kennebec churches, with the ex- 
ception of the 8th article, for which the 10th in the Waldo- 
boro' creed was substituted, were adopted, and have since 
been printed. 

On the 3d of May, a committee was chosen to confer with 
Rev. J. Huse, his church and society, respecting a reunion. 
This overture led to a large meeting of persons from both 
societies at the house of Dr. E. Buxton, to consider the sub- 
ject. The meeting was cord iaf and harmonious in favor of a 
union, and agreed that the best mode of effecting it, was, for 
all to become members of the old society, and, under its or- 
ganization as a town parish, to take such measures for sup- 
plying the pulpit as the united society should think proper. 
Some weeks after, informal information was communicated, 
that the new church did not think it safe to adopt the measure 
recommended, and had determined to form a separate relig- 
ious society. Accordingly, a meeting, called at the request 
of 29 persons, was held on the 4th Sept. 1828, when the per- 
sons present formed themselves into a religious society, to be 
known by the name of the 2d Congregational Parish in War- 
ren. A call to the Rev. Nathaniel Chapman of Bristol, to 
become their pastor for five years, having been declined, a 
similar one was given, Aug. 22d, 1829, to Rev. Samuel Stone 
of N. Yarmouth, who was installed Dec. 2d, with a salary of 

The formation of a second Congreg. parish and the pros- 
perous condition of the Baptist society, with its new meeting- 
house and bell, occasioned many withdrawals from the town 
parish ; and an apprehension began to be entertained by the 
remainder, that, reduced by farther secessions, they would 
soon find the payment of their minister's salary, small as it 
was, a burden too great for their reduced numbers. Lest 
this apprehension should hasten such an event, it was, April 


5, 1830, voted, " that A. H. Hodgman, S. Thatcher, and C. 
Eaton, be a committee to investigate the subject of the Rev. 
J. Huse's settlement, and put such articles in the warrant for 
a meeting at the time to which this shall be adjourned, as 
shall bring the whole subject before the town." At a subse- 
quent meeting, April 17th, a letter was received from Rev. 
Mr. Huse, which, after recounting the terms of his settle- 
ment, concluded as follows : — 

'' As it is apprehended by some, that the whole town col- 
lectively may be liable to be called upon to fulfil this con- 
tract, and as some of the first Cong. Society may fear that in 
consequence of the reduction of their number and the pres- 
sure of the times, the payment of ray full salary will be 
burdensome to them — 1 hereby declare my consent that the 
original contract should be rescinded ; provided said society 
shall deem it expedient under existing circumstances, and 
will make such provision for me as they shall consider them- 
selves able and disposed to grant. 

" You are sensible. Gentlemen and Friends, that my nominal 
salary has always been comparatively small, and it would for 
many years, under the depreciated value of money, have 
been quite inadequate to my support, without the strictest 
economy on my part, the many gratuities of your now de- 
ceased parents (of grateful memory,) and the kind assistance 
from many of you. 

" You will readily perceive that in my consenting to the ab- 
rogation of the original contract, I repose much confidence 
in you as inheriting the virtues of your fathers. The Master 
whom I serve has told me, the laborer is worthy of his hire, 
yet I would^not be greedy of filthy lucre, nor be burdensome 
unto you, lest I should hinder the Gospel of Christ. 

" Although I may lawfully desire and seek a comfortable 
support for myself and family, I would always wish my 
preaching and my practice should correspond by guarding 
against extreme anxiety for the morrow, fully believing that 
the same God who provideth for the raven and the sparrow, 
will care for me and mine. 

" Having resided in town for a long time, and labored with 
you and with your fathers in the work of the ministry for 
more than thirty-four years, — Having been with you in 
circumstances of prosperity and adversity, and participated 
in your joys and sorrows, — Having had daily remembrance of 
you in my prayers to God, and received your kind attention 
in seasons of affliction, you will readily conclude I must 
naturally care for you. And believe me sincere when I 


commend you all unto God and the word of his grace, who 
is able to build you up, and give you an inheritance among 
them who are sanctified. 

" Your sincere friend and servant in the Lord, 

" Warren, April 17, 1830." " Jonathan Huse." 

It was thereupon voted " to accept the Rev. J. Huse's 
proposition to rescind the contract of the town with him as 
their minister, and in consideration thereof, to raise the sum 
of $250 for his support and incidental charges the coming 
year," at the same time allowing of his absence, if wished, 
for a time proportionate to the difference between that and 
his former salary. 

On the 16th of Oct. 1830, in consequence of Mr. Stone's 
ill health, the contract between him and his society was also 
dissolved by mutual consent ; and the following spring, re- 
newed attempts were made to unite the two societies for the 
purpose of religious worship. Committees of conference 
were chosen, various propositions made, and some of them 
temporarily agreed to, but, from mutual jealousy, all finally 
failed. On the 23d of April a committee was appointed to 
settle and pay up all arrearages doe Mr. Huse ; and the sum 
of $166,66 was voted to be raised for that purpose. A 
farther sum of $250 was voted for the support of the gospel 
that year, and a committee appointed to confer with the other 
parish and report a plan for expending the same. This 
referred to a proposition of a committee of conference, that, 
as an experiment to see how far the two societies could 
unite, both should, for one year, worship in one house, and 
each supply the pulpit during one half of that time. This 
plan having been rejected by the second society, the vote for 
raising the last named sum was, May 14th, reconsidered, the 
sum of $125 voted to retain Mr. Huso's services for six 
months, and a committee appointed to report at a future 
meeting a plan for supplying the pulpit after that time. Rev. 
Jacob C. Gqss was invited. May 28th, 1831, to become the 
minister of the 2d Society on a salary of $450, but declined 
the offer, though continuing to preach for a time. 

There being now no pjx)spect of a union, it became a 
serious question in the old society what was to be done in 
the present posture of affairs. The church in general, and 
a portion of the society, were willing to acquiesce in the 
present state of things, provided it could continue. Some 
were inclined to join the new society, either on the ground 
of expediency, or from the predilections of a portion of their 
families. Others were of opinion that a bolder style of 


preaching, addressed alike to the iindestanding and the heart, 
graced by the taste and eloquence of a young and accom- 
plished preaclier, might attract hearers from its novelty, 
awaken the attention of the young, and give a new impulse 
to the society. To aid in an experiment of this kind, a sum 
was raised by subscription, and placed in the hands of the 
parish committee, who, after consulting with Kev. Mr. Huse, 
obtained the services of the Rev. Wm. L. Wiswall. This 
gentleman's discourses, Unitarian in doctrine, but insisting 
more on purity of life than correctness of creed, were taste- 
ful and powerful, awakening a new religious interest, and 
greatly increasing the number of worshippers. But it was 
still the old society, worshipping in the old meeting-house, and 
connected with old associations ; laboring, moreover, under 
an apparent want of cordiality on the part of the church and 
its pastor, and doubtful of its ability to sustain its new posi- 
tion. Having now become a small minority of the town, 
and finding it difficult to manage its atiairs, mixed up as they 
necessarily were with those of the town, it was voted, April 
9th, 183'2, *' that the first or town parish will take the form 
of, and organize themselves into, a poll parish, provided, by 
so doing they shall retain the rights and immunities which 
said first or town parish has been heretofore or is now en- 
titled to, and provided said poll parish so formed shall take 
the name of the 1st Congregational Society in the town of 
Warren." Under the new organization, 8150 was mised by 
assessment, and, with the exception of a few dollars, paid to 
the Eev. JNiessrs. Wiswall and Goldsborough, who preached 
daring the summer and autumn of ISSxi. Eev. ^Ir. Huse, 
who was for a time employed as a missionary" in destitute 
places, continued for some time to hold occasional meetings, 
particularly at Oyster river. In 1S33 and '34, no other 
preacher being employed, few meetings were held, many 
woi-shippiiig in the other society, and others contracting liabits 
of dispensing wiih public worship. In the fall of 1834, a 
new impulse was given, by encouragement informally re- 
ceived, of obtaining aid from the Mass. Missionary Society, 
and 8*200 was promptly subscribed in the hope of sustaining 
public worship through the year ; but this hope was blighted 
by an unfortunate mistake in the employment of a clergy- 
man erroneously supposed to have been sent from that 
society : tlie expected assistance was refused : and no farther 
etlbrts were made. 

Mr. Huse occasionally preached, and administered the sac- 
rament to the church, of which he is still the nominal pastor. 



His last meeting on record was held June 16, 1839, when 
two new members were admitted. Of all the members of 
the Association to which he belonged, Mr. Huse was the last 
to retire from the ministry, and is the oldest surviving mem- 
ber. His Church nominally subsists; though its numbers 
are diminishing by death and removals. Since its formation, 
47 have owned the covenant, 58 been admitted to full com- 
munion, besides the branch in Union, which consisted of 
Rev. Mr. True and eight others, who were received from the 
church in that town in 1823 and 4. The whole number of 
baptisms during his ministry is 306 ; the number of ordina- 
tions at which he was called to assist, 8 ; councils for the 
dismission of ministers, 3 ; and marriages solemnized by 
him, 195. His first baptism was that of William, son of 
Ichabod Frost; the first funeral he attended, that of Boice 
Cooper; the first marriage he performed, that of Alexander 
Lermond and Mary Andrews ; and the first ordination he 
assisted in, was that of Rev. Mr. Riddel of Bristol. The 
house, prepared with so much alacrity at his advent, like the 
pastor, changed not with the changing fashion, and saw, un- 
moved, the more ambitious structures rising in its neighbor- 
hood. At length, deserted and dilapidated, its windows 
broken by unruly urchins and affording free passage to the bat 
and the swallow, it was sold to J. L. Mallett, and removed to 
the present Rockland, where, converted to other uses, it is 
scarcely recognized. 

We now return to the 2d society. This had hitherto held 
its meetings, chiefly, in the Court-house, but measures were 
now taken to build a meeting-house. After different sites and 
plans were examined, it was decided in June, 1831, to locate 
the house where it now stands, and to give Wm. Hovey $200 
for half an acre of land for that purpose. The house, which 
seems to have cost $350 more than the pews sold for, was 
dedicated Jan. 16, 1833, when a sermon was preached bv 
Rev. D. M. Mitchell of Waldoboro'. On the 9th of March, 
1833, by a united vote of the church and society. Rev. 
Edward F. Cutter of Portland was invited to become their 
pastor with a salary of $500. This invitation was accepted ; 
and. May 8th, the ordination took place. On this occasion, 
the sermon was preached by Rev. Bennet Tyler, D. D. then 
of Portland. In consequence of ill health, Mr. Cutter was 
absent through the summer and autumn of 1834, and his 
place supplied by Rev. Messrs. Powers and Jackson. On 
his return, his popularity and usefulness increased with the 
increased prosperity of the church and society for some years. 


He was particularly active in the cause of temperance, which 
had now made such progress, that the church voted, Nov. 6, 
1837, " that every person hecoming connected with this church 
will be expected to sign the temperance pledge, and its violation 
regarded as a subject of discipline." The pledge adopted, 
extended to strong beer and wine as well as distilled spirits. 

But the pastor's zeal in this cause, perhaps, with 
other trivial circumstances, was, after a time, allowed to 
mar the harmony which had thus far prevailed. After 
witnessing the efforts of Rev. Mr. Ilsley for the Baptists 
about the same time, and of the Methodists, who a 
little later held stirring meetings in different parts of the town, 
several members of Mr. Cutter's church, charmed by the en- 
thusiasm manifested, and recollecting their own success on 
former occasions, encouraged, at their protracted meetings, ex- 
hortations by females and other means of excitement, which 
Mr. Cutter discountenanced as irregular and contrary to Con- 
gregational usage. A want of cordiality upon these and per- 
haps other points, seems to have arisen between a few mem- 
bers of the church and the pastor, with whom the remainder 
coincided. Some private scandal and ill feeling were mixed 
up with these matters, which finally induced Mr. Cutter, 
March 26, 1844, to tender his resignation, and request the 
church to unite with him in calling a council for advice in the 
present situation of aflairs. Upon this, the church voted, 22 
to 3, not to accept the resignation, and, 26 to 2, to refer the 
matter to a council, the number of members present being 
29. The council, chosen one half by the church and the 
other by the pastor, assembled April 11, 1844, and, after read- 
ing a statement from Mr. C. of his labors, successes, and dis- 
couragements, his own views of present difficulties, and cer- 
tain letters formerly communicated by him to the church, 
concerning his own and their duties, called upon the disaffect- 
ed members to state the causes of their dissatisfaction with 
their pastor. Three brethren expressed their views at length, 
" that their pastor had been wanting as to the amount of his 
pastoral labor, that he had pursued a course suited to discour- 
age meetings for prayer, and that he had been accustomed to 
make remarks in church meetings calculated to grieve the 
Spirh." These views the counsel considered limited to a few, 
and wholly unfounded. It also decided that a pastor must 
exercise his own judgment in respect to pastoral visiting and 
extra meetings, and in church meetings resist all irregularities 
in manner, and correct all mis-statements in doctrine and 
exhortation ; that no member can rightfully dictate to him in 


these respects, nor consistently meet with other denominations, 
nor engraft upon Congregationalism, usages and modes for- 
eign to its spirit. This result, sustaining the pastor in all his 
positions, was publicly read the ensuing Sabbath, by Rev. R. 
Woodhull of Thomaston, who earnestly exhorted all parties to 
acquiesce, and cordially unite as formerly in promoting the 
cause of religion in the place. 

But the wound was not to be so easily healed ; the cool- 
ness of the disaffected continued, and April 5th, 1845, Mr. 
Cutter presented a request for his dismission, and the calling 
of a council for the purpose. On the 14th of the same 
month, he communicated to the society his intention of re- 
signing his pastoral charge, and requested that the contract 
between him and the society be dissolved at the end of the 
parochial year. Upon this, a large committee was appointed 
to see if, by leave of absence for recruiting his health or 
other arrangement, Mr. C. could be induced to change his 
determination. In consequence of this conference, it was 
agreed, " that the Rev. Mr. Cutter should continue his ser- 
vices, with liberty of being absent for recovery of his health 
three months that year and four Sabbaths each subsequent 
year, with a salary of $600, the conditions to cease at the 
option of either party. The year having passed away, April 
13, 1846, the question of raising a salary of $600, was put 
and decided in the negative, 1 1 to one. It was then voted to 
raise the sum of $500, provided Mr. Cutter would accept the 
same. This offer was kindly but decidedly declined, not 
indeed on account of the insufficient sum, but because he 
saw little encouragement to hope that his longer continuance 
would be advantageous to the society, and because, by the 
sale of the house* in which he had resided, he had been 
obliged to break up his family and had no prospect of ob- 
taining suitable accommodation for them here. The follow- 
ing vote was then passed ; " voted that, however much this 
society regret to have said contract rescinded, they do not 
feel at liberty to refuse a request so decidedly made, and 
hereby agree that said contract be ended at the expiration of 
the parochial year, according to the request contained in said 
letter." The church acquiesced in this decision, and united 
with Mr. C. in calling a council for advice in the matter. 
This council, May 12, 1846, decided that under the circum- 
stances, it was advisable that the relation between Mr. C. and 

* This belonged to Dea. Page, and was unexpectedly sold to 
J. Payson. 


the church be dissolved ; at the same time, they expressed 
their " entire confidence in Rev. Mr. Cutter as an able and 
faithful minister, and hoped the church and society might 
soon obtain another pastor who should preach the Gospel as 
ably, plainly, affectionately, and successfully." 

In April, 1847, after an interval in which there had been 
but occasional preaching, it was voted to raise $500 for the 
support of the Gospel, and have the pulpit constantly sup- 
plied. The Rev. Franklin Davis was employed, and, being 
unwilling longer to continue in an unsettled state, was, by a 
united vote of the church and society, ordained Oct. 6, 1847 ; 
when a sermon was preached by Rev. Dr. Pond of Bangor. 
Mr. Davis, not having been sufficiently encouraged, in March, 
1849, requested a dismission, which was obtained by the 
intervention of a council. At the annual meeting in April, 
it was voted to raise $500 by subscription, and authorize the 
committee chosen for that purpose, to contract with the Rev. 
Nathaniel Chapman to supply the pulpit six months or a 
year, as they could best agree. This was done, and his 
ministry still continues. 

In this church, down to 1849, the whole number of mem- 
bers had been 171, of whom 18 had died, 29 been dismissed 
to other churches, and one excommunicated for misconduct, 
leaving the number at that time in the church, 123.* 

Within the last ten or fifteen years, additions have been 
made to the Methodist denomination, and, once or twice, a 
preacher of that order has been assigned for a portion of the 
year to this town ; but, as we are not aware that any separate 
church or society has been organized, we are unable to give 

* Bee. of 1st and 2d Cong. Ch.. and Societies. Town Records, &c. 



TERS, FROM 1820 TO 1850. 

Among the benevolent and other societies formed in the 
place between 1820 and 1850, one for the relief of the 
Greeks was constituted February 10th, 1827, and contributed 
between 8100 and $200 for the purchase of provisions sent 
from Boston under the care of Dr. Howe. The first Bible 
Society in the town was organized August 31st, 1825, and its 
claims frequently presented, particularly by Rev. J. Huse, as 
one in which all sects and parties could unite. At a still ear- 
lier period, under the auspices of the same clergyman in con- 
nexion with Messrs. Fuller and Whiting, a Sunday school 
society subsisted several years ; but about 1831 separate 
schools were formed in each denomination. The first lyceum 
or debating society was established in 1827 or '8, and, embrac- 
ing most of the liberally educated, professional, and other in- 
quiring men, continued to flourish for some years, and occa- 
sionally attract large audiences. The interest in this having 
subsided, another was got up in 1840, for the purpose, in addi- 
tion to its other advantages, of furnishing its members with 
the principal periodicals of the day. The young men's 
lyceum was formed about the same time, and the mechanics' 
association in 1842. Among the subjects discussed by these 
societies, or by itinerant lecturers, phrenology early, and mes- 
merism more recently, attracted attention ; whilst the spirit- 
ual knockings so rife in some places now, have not yet come 
to disturb our quiet population. 

The first temperance society in this town was organized in 
1828. From the preceding pages, and the table of licenses 
appended, it will be seen that the use of ardent spirits has 
been coeval with the settlement of this river. For many 
years, however, they were used only on extraordinary occa- 
sions either of fatigue or conviviality. Regarded as a mark 
of hospitality, their use extended with the increase of pros- 
perity, and, at the close of the last century, had become al- 
most universal. The evils of intemperance were seen and 
deprecated ; excessive drinking was denounced from the pul- 
pit ; but moderate drinking was everywhere practised, and 
everywhere commended. A tavern, or store of goods, with- 
out ardent spirits, would have been ridiculed as an absurdity. 


In 1827, after a careful examination, it was estimated that 
12,700 gallons, at the average cost of $1, were consumed in 
this town alone. A society for the suppression of intemper- 
ance in Massachusetts, began to call attention to the subject as 
early as 1812. The earliest society of the kind in this vicin- 
ity, was formed in Thomaston (Rockland) in December, 
1823. The beneficial effects of this, and the growing evils 
of the vice, induced the town, April 3, 1826, to adopt strin- 
gent measures, for suppressing the illegal practices of retail- 
ers and innholders. But the acknowledged impotency of the 
law in reforming popular abuses, led to the formation of the 
Warren Temperance Society, as mentioned above. This, at 
first, consisted of Rev. Mr. Sheldon of the 2d Congregational, 
and Rev. Mr. Bartlett of the Baptist, society, Oliver Cope- 
land, Thomas Burton, John Burton, William H. Webb, and 
Hector Copeland. Its pledge went no farther than to abstain 
from the use and sale of ardent spirits as a beverage. This 
was then called total abstinence ; and many who believed 
themselves friends of temperance, hesitated to subscribe to it, 
considering it an abridgment of personal freedom, and a stig- 
ma upon one of the creatures of God. It was not till the 
disuse of ardent spirits had shown how needless such stimu- 
lants were, that the society, some years after its formation, 
passed a vote disapproving the use of wine. The society had 
to encounter the dead weight of long established custom ; 
the habits and appetites engendered, and the love of merri- 
ment and hilarity excited by stimulating drink ; and the con- 
tempt of self-complacency, which regarded the movement as 
a relic of asceticism. It steadily persevered, however, in- 
creased in numbers and in favor, and, by the aid of the Rev. 
Mr. Bartlett at first, and Rev. Mr. Cutter afterwards, who 
both entered into the cause with spirit and efficiency, made a 
sensible, though unequal, progress in extending the principles 
of total abstinence, in lessening the number of retailers, and 
banishing the use of spirituous liquors. The revenue received 
from licenses, fell off from nearly $80 in 1828, to $24 in 
1830, $18 in 1831, and in the two succeeding years. 

In 1841, a new impulse was given to the cause of temper- 
ance by the society of Washingtonians, then formed ; that of 
the Temperance Pioneers which sprang up partly in rivalship, 
but soon effectively co-operated ; the Ladies' Temperance 
Union, which embraced nearly every woman in town ; and 
the Cold Water Army, a juvenile association, animated by 
the same spirit as their seniors. By the united efforts of 
these different societies, the last blow seemed to be given to 


the power of intemperance, and, September 6, 1841, the 
town voted " that the selectmen be requested to grant no licen- 
ses, except for medicinal purposes, and under such rules and 
regulations as they may think proper." On the 3d of April, 
1843, the town voted that the selectmen be requested to grant 
license to one person only, to sell spirituous liquors at one 
place only, and for medicinal purposes only, the person to 
be selected at their discretion. To this measure some oppo- 
siton was manifested, and the vote ordered to be taken by 
polling the house. On marching out, however, for the pur- 
pose of being counted, so great and manifest was the majority 
in favor, that the count was given up, and, we believe, no at- 
tempt has since been made to obtain license for selling, for 
any other than medicinal purposes. The last stock of liquors 
at the village, that of E. W. Hawk, was purchased and 
destroyed ; the last sticklers for a moderate use of alcohol and 
individuality of action, gave up their opposition ; and, in 1842 
and '43, cordially united with every body else on the 4th 
July in celebrating the double triumph of freedom and 
temperance by public addresses and processions, and by pic- 
nics elegantly furnished by the ladies and freely offered to all. 
For a few years past, these Societies have remitted their 
efforts ; and the more secret not to say selfish ones of Free 
Masons and Odd Fellows, whose " shine, like lamps in sepul- 
chres, illumines but themselves," have taken their place. 
The Scgotchet Division of the Sons of Temperance was 
organized in the town, subsisted some years, and celebrated 
the 1st of May, 1850, by a pic-nic given by the ladies, 
enlivened with appropriate songs and sentiments. 

The anniversary of independence has been frequently 
celebrated here during this period, by public dinners, pic-nics, 
and other demonstrations of joy ; and orations were delivered 
by M. H. Smith, Esq. in 1827, by J. T. Leavitt in 1829, by 
Rev. R. Woodhull in 1842, and by E. Reed, Esq. in 1843. 
Exhibitions of sacred music have at different times been 
given by the vocalists of the place, and public discourses 
delivered on the subject by Rev. D. M. Mitchel of Waldo- 
boro', by Dr. Daiken of Hope, and others. 

Of the wild animals which in early times were the cause 
of so much excitement among the people, the present period 
furnishes little to be related. A solitary bear, probably a 
young one, first seen in Thomaston, was, Aug. 8th, 1828, 
pursued to a hollow under a shelving rock on S. Andrews's 
land below Warren village, and shot by Geo. Andrews and 
others. In March, 1833, a wild-cat or loup-cervier was 


Started in the woods by B. Andrews when on the point of 
treading upon it, and killed by a blow from his musket. 
From the account of bounties paid, $1 each, it appears that 
another was killed the same year, four the year following, 
and five in 1835, since which we know not that any have 
been destroyed, though they and their tracks are often dis- 
covered near Mt. Pleasant and the Rocky hills. During the 
deep and drifted snows of March, 1829, a stray deer, weigh- 
ing about 200lbs,, was killed in Thomaston by Lincoln 
Levensaler. This was the last of these beautiful tenants of 
the forest, slain in our vicinity ; though, a few years later, two 
carabous made their appearance and were shot at in Warren 
and its vicinity. In the summer of 1849, also, a common 
deer was seen by Arthur Andrews at the Rocky hills ; and, 
June 19th, 1850, two such were observed early in the morn- 
ing feeding in G. Andrews's field. They soon bounded off 
to the woods, but were afterwards once or twice fallen in 
with during the summer. Seals, formerly so abundant, are 
still met with in the lower river, and sometimes above the 
Narrows and even the ripplings in Warren. In Oct. 1826, one 
was observed in the river near T. Spear's ship-yard, driven 
ashore, and killed, yielding three gallons of oil. Several 
were seen at Andrews's point in 1849, and one was observed 
the day after the bark Wm. Henry was launched, sunning 
himself on the launching ways. 

Whilst a bounty of eight cents each for the destruction of 
crows was paid by the State, this town received in 1831, 
$33,68 for 421; in 1832, $11,68 for 146; in 1833, $6,64 
for 83 ; and in 1834, $6,56 for 82 of these birds. 

With regard to losses by fire, this town has, thus far, 
been highly favored ; the following being all, it is 
believed, that have happened in this period of 30 years. 
On the 28th July, 1825, the dwcllinghouse of James Hall 
took fire, as was supposed, by a spark from the chimney, and, 
before the men could be called from the field, was too far 
consumed to be saved ; though most of the furniture was 
preserved. On the night of March 22, 1827, the dwelling- 
house occupied by Nat'l Gardner was burnt with its contents, 
in consequence of ashes placed in a wooden vessel. The 
family barely escaped as they rose from their beds, with the 
loss of all their clothing. A school-house standing near Dr. 
Buxton's, in which C. A. McLellan was employed as teacher, 
was consumed in the night of Feb. 1, 1832, by fire kindled, 
as some thought, by design. In 1831 or '2, the saw-mill at 
D. Patterson's took fire in the night, probably from friction. 


and was destroyed. On the evening of Dec. 21, 1833, the 
barn of Joshua Spear caught fire from a candle taken there 
by the children at milking, and was burned. On the 18th 
Dec. 1835, the dwellinghouse of Wm. Spear, deceased, oc- 
cupied by his family, was burnt to the ground by means of 
ashes, and most of its contents, including a large quantity of 
wheat and other grain, destroyed. A barn, belonging to the 
family of Isaac Libbey deceased, was, Aug. 23, 1840, struck 
by lightning and consumed, as elsewhere noted. The store of 
Joshua L. Patterson, with his stock of goods, was destroyed on 
the night of Jan. 30, 1843, by fire supposed to have been 
communicated from the stove. The dwellinghouse of Asa 
and Jesse C. Dunbar, with most of its contents, was consum- 
ed June 5, 1844, by fire supposed to have been dropped by a 
lad when carrying coals to the smoke-house. It was discov- 
ered early in the night, when the family were so sound 
asleep that it was with difficulty they were awakened by 
some teamsters, and all, ten in number, providentially res- 
cued. In Aug. 1847, a small, unfinished building designed 
for a dwellinghouse, belonging to John Copeland, took fire in 
the night from some unknown cause and was consumed. On 
the 19th Nov. 1849, the Knox house at the upper falls, then in 
a state of decay and used only as a shelter for a cow, took fire 
in a rainy night and burnt down. From the fact that a wan- 
ton injury was done the same night to the locks near by, it 
was supposed to be the work of an incendiary. On the 16th 
Aug. 1850, the barn of Allen Young, Jr. was struck by light- 
ning and consumed, with all his hay and most valuable farm- 
ing tools. Voluntary contributions were for a long time re- 
lied upon to make up the losses sustained by fire ; and i'ew 
except the more costly buildings and stores were insured. 
But in 1828, the Thomaston Mutual Fire Insurance Company 
was organized ; the facilities it offered induced many of our 
citizens to join it ; and the practice of insuring has now be- 
come general. 

The deaths by casualty and exposure in sickly places 
abroad, during this period, will be found in their proper pla- 
ces among the genealogies at the end of the volume, and are 
, in number as follows : — lost at sea 10 ; died at sea or in dis- 
tant ports, 24* ; accidentally drowned in our own waters, 9 ; 

* Among the deaths in foreign ports, may be mentioned that of 
Capt. Lawrence Crawford, at Guadaloupe in February, 1821, which 
was preceded by one of those mysterious occurrences so common in 
the popular belief of all nations and sometimes attended with so 


Other accidental and sudden deaths, 20 ; suicides, 6 ; besides 
many others, probably, whose deaths were either not heard 
of or not recorded. 

The casuahies during the first year of this period were, 
in the opinion of some, augmented in number by the mal- 
practice of Dr. John G. Lambright, a German, ignorant and 
unprincipled, but possessed of some shrewdness, who came 
here about 1819, and remained three or four years, first at 
Oyster river and afterwards at the Isley house. By marvel- 
lous stories of his own great cures, and the consequent per- 
secution he had incurred from the regular physicians, by the 
gravity with which he inspected urine instead of feeling the 
pulse, and the oracular manner in which he pronounced one 
complaint to be a maggot in the spinal marrow, another a 
hair accidentally twisted around the neck of the bladder, and 
a third an injury in the spleen from a fall on the ice some 
thirty years before ; by the display of his medical hbrary 
consisting of a number of odd volumes of English and Ger- 
man novels, histories, and travels ; and the marvellous powers 
he laid claim to of stopping blood at any distance from the 
patient, of arresting a musket ball in its flight, and trans- 
ferring pain from one person to another, (a power he did not 
feel justified in exercising, except now and then, from an 
amiable woman to her brutal husband ; ) by these, together 
with some real cures eflected in part by means of the vapor 
bath, the use of which he first introduced to the place, he so 
wrought upon the imaginations of the afflicted and their 
friends, that his house was soon filled with a multitude of 
impotent folk, impatiently waiting their turn to be healed of 
diseases which had hitherto baffled the powers of medical 
skill. A transient success, either from the power of hope, a 
change of diet, or the novelty of his treatment, often encour- 
aged his patients to remain under his care ; and a pretended 
necessity of sending to New York, Philadelphia, or Ger- 
many, for some drug of extraordinary power, was a conve- 

much appearance of reality, at least to the persons who witness them, 
as not to be altogether unworthy of notice. On three several occa- 
sions, once whilst reading in Ms cabin at an Irish port, again in a 
twilight wallv at home, and lastly on the deck of his vessel beneath 
the light of the midnight moon, he saw, or beheved he saw, the form 
of a lovely and accomplished girl to whom he had become attached 
in England, and whom, it is said, nothing but regard for her prevented 
his brmging home to share liis humble fortune here. These appear- 
ances had a strong effect upon his mind, particularly the last, wliich, 
whether as cause or effect, was immediately followed by the disease 
wliich terminated in his death. 


nient excuse for extorting money, or postponing a cure. At 
length, the shrewd, disgusted at his artifices, began to forsake 
hinn ; the feeble, on the arrival of the powerful medicines, to 
die off; and those whose constitutions maintained a longer 
contest with disease, to postpone payment for board and 
medicine till some result should be arrived at. From January 
to May, 1820, seven deaths occurred at his house, including 
those of some already pronounced cured. To get rid of 
others whom by his bargain he could not discharge uncured 
without forfeiting his claim to remuneration, and who would 
not render themselves liable by departing without his consent, 
he resorted to various expedients. The house, which had 
before some reputation for being haunted, was soon annoyed 
by strange nocturnal sounds like the falling of bags of meal 
on the chamber floors ; the outer door opened spontaneously 
in the night-time even when hasped and buttoned ; unobliter- 
ated marks of bloody hands were thought to be discernible 
on some of the inner doors ; and conjecture leaped at once 
to the conclusion that in former times, when the house was 
occupied as a tavern, some traveler must have been mur- 
dered for his money, whose unappeased ghost was still haunt- 
ing the scene of the outrage. This conjecture was further 
confirmed by a transient old gentleman picked up by the 
Doctor, who possessed the fliculty, as he affirmed, of using 
mineral rods, that is, of determining, by the motion of a 
forked witch-hazel twig, the place where a dead body had 
been buried, where water might be found by digging, or 
where silver was concealed. His skill was put in requisition ; 
the rods inclined to the arch under the chimneys, with such 
force as to astonish credulous believers, and leave no doubt 
in their minds that the bones of the victim were slumbering 
beneath it. Marvellous reports were put in circulation, and 
such an excitement was getting up, that several of the neigh- 
bors, to allay it, went in, and, by experiments in presence of 
the old gentleman, demonstrated the action of the rods to be 
wholly fortuitous, and, by examining the cellar bottom with 
a crowbar, satisfied themselves that no bones larger than that 
of a goose's thigh were to be found there. Having in this 
way induced some of his patients to leave, and settling with 
others as advantageously as he could, the Doctor removed, to 
commence practice at Orrington and other places. 

Ten years after the coming of Lambright, the community 
was thrown into a ferment by the fame of Dr. Thonias Don- 
aldson Raeburn, who in two branches, those of pharmacy 
and surgery, had served a regular apprenticeship and obtained 


a thorough education, in his native England. On his arrival 
in Gushing, his story was received with increduHty ; but his 
reputation soon spread ; and after removing to this town, his 
house (now that of F. Seiders,) was thronged with patients 
from all quarters, and his boldness and skill in the most diffi- 
cult surgical operations acknowledged by the neighboring 
faculty. Yet his usefulness was impaired by caprice and 
irregularhy, and, after a residence of a few years, he remov- 
ed to Bath, where he died some years after. 

No meteorological register having been kept in the place, 
we can only give such facts relating to the weather and 
atmospherical phenomena as were of sufficient interest to be 
recorded in private diary, or public newspaper. 

On the 7th August, 1823, towards evening, a meteoric ex- 
plosion was heard in the air, preceded, according to the 
observations of some persons, by a flash of light. At this 
place, it appeared to begin in the N. W. some 15^ or 20^ 
above the horizon, ascended in a southerly direction, declined 
and was lost in the S. W. It successively resembled strokes 
on the base drum, the firing of musketry, the sound of a 
wagon passing violently over a rocky road, and ended like 
the rumbling of distant thunder. In the borders of Jefferson, 
Nobleboro', and Waldoboro', stones were at the same time 
seen to descend to the ground, were found, and presented the 
usual dark, scoriacious appearance of aerolites. This hap- 
pened in the midst of a severe drought, which continued 
through the whole summer, and gave rise to numerous fires 
in the woods, threatening to desolate the country in every 
direction. Much damage was done, particularly at Wiseasset 
and Alna, where a tract ten miles long and three broad, was 
overrun, and property destroyed estimated at more than 
$72,000 ; one woman being burnt to death, and another 
saving herself and children by descending into a well. Great 
fears were entertained and damage done in other places, till 
September 18th, when the fires were checked by a rainy 
night, which affi^rded temporary relief to the thirsty cattle. 
It continued dry, however, and on the 21st, became so cold 
as to produce frost and ice, and September 29th, a shower of 
rain was succeeded by snow during the whole night. The 
sufferers at Wiseasset and Alna were generously aided ; and 
the inhabitants of this town, at a meeting called for the pur- 
pose October 6th, voted to grant them $300 from the pro- 
ceeds of the fishery in the two succeeding years ; but before 
this was executed, on a representation that the donations re- 


ceived were already equal to the losses, the vote was 

In 1824, the deep snow which covered the earth till Feb- 
ruary having been dissolved by warm rains, the season 
advanced so rapidly, that on the 5th of March, half-grown 
grasshoppers of the larger species appeared in large 
numbers on sunny dechvities. Yet, May 26th, when the 
wild pear was in blossom and apple buds reddening, the 
ground was frozen in the morning, and ice appeared on the 
water. From the cold and dry weather in the early part of 
the season, the grass yielded less than two-thirds of an 
ordinary crop ; but, as no frosts hapj)ened till Oct. 14th, the 
corn crop was good. In 1825, after a warm and mild win- 
ter, during which an extensive influenza carried off many 
elderly people, the air in March was bland as May, and on 
the 18th the song-sparrow was trilling his summer strain. 
May 5th, there was a storm of hail, rain, and snow, lasting 
all day. July 12th, the mercury stood at 98*^ ; and the next 
day a shower commenced in this town, attended with hail 
and violent wind, and increasing as it proceeded southerly, 
in Gushing demolished four or five barns, and did much 
other damage, the hailstones being half as large as hen's 
eggs. The dysentery extensively prevailed, and carried off 
great numbers of children. The weather continued hot and 
dry, grasshoppers abundant, and at the beginning of Septem- 
ber fires began to rage in the woods. In the course of a week, 
these fires spread extensively in the borders of this town, 
Waldoboro', and Gushing, endangering houses and barns, 
and consuming fences, corn, and other articles. The people 
near Mr. Hoffsls's and Winchenbach's having become ex- 
hausted in watching and fighting the flames, numbers went 
from the village and elsewhere, to aid in defending their 
houses from the devouring element. In Waldoboro', several 
houses were deserted by their occupants and preserved with 
great difficulty. Dec. 12th, in consequence of an application 
from the towns of Ripley and Harmony, and the plantation 
of Bridgestown, a town meeting was held here, and a com- 
mittee appointed to obtain subscriptions and contributions in 
aid of the sufferers by fire in those places. 

On the 31st of Jan. 1826, during a driving storm of snow 
which lasted through the day and part of the night, the tem- 
perature sank from at sunrise to 20*^ below at six P. M. 
and 24*^ ditto the next morning. At Union, the mercury 
was 28*^ below 0. In February, the influenza prevailed in all 
parts of the country ; in the latter part of the month, robins 


were seen in the woods, and grasshoppers made their appear- 
ance. The 15th, 16th, and 17th days of May were uncom- 
monly hot; the mercury in different places varying from 96*^ 
to 100*^. An early drought prevailed until July 28th, which, 
with innumerable legions of grasshoppers, greatly injured the 
crops ; though the latter part of the season was fine. The 
measles in the spring, and the dysentery in the fall, were 
prevalent here, and fatal to several children. 

In 1827, the early promise of spring was broken by an 
extraordinary fall of rain on the 24th and 25th of April, which 
carried away bridges and saw-mills, and so flooded the roads, 
that parties and witnesses found it difficult to get to the Court 
of Common Pleas then sitting in this town. It continued 
stormy and cold, with some lightning and snow, for nearly 
three weeks. In the fall of 1828, no frost occurred till Oct. 
12th, when ice was formed within doors, the ground frozen 
for some days, and apples and potatoes considerably injured ; 
but this was compensated by the warm and summer-like 
weather of December. In Jan. and February, 1829, the 
whooping cough was very severe, and several children in the 
town died of it. A severe drought prevailed in July and 
August, during which some 400 acres of wood and un- 
cleared land were burnt over in the eastern part of this 
town and in Thomaston. On the 27th of August, there was 
an earthquake, just before ten o'clock P. M., sufficient to jar 
doors and windows. The 30th of March, 1831, was distin- 
guished by a remarkable storm of rain, inundating low 
grounds, overflowing wharves, entering lime-kilns, carrying 
away wood and other property on the banks of the river, 
together with Stirling and Oyster River bridges, and inter- 
rupting the mail for a day or two. The summer, windy and 
cool, is notable for the deep pea-green color which, the sun and 
every object it shone upon, assumed on the 16th and 17th of 
August. On the 22d of November, much damage was done 
by a remarkably high tide, said by E,. Montgomery, who 
scored its elevation on Burgess's limestone, to have been 2 
feet higher than was ever observed at any other time. The 
autumn was so mild, no frost occurring till October 28th, 
and winter set in with such sudden severity November 28th, 
as greatly to injure the fruit trees, particularly the succulent 
scions of the apple, then recently grafted for the first, time 
to any great extent in this town. On the 30th of December, 
and for several days in succession, there was the greatest 
run of frost-fish ever remembered. They were hauled away 
by ox-loads, and large quantities stacked on the shore till 


disposed of for the feeding of swine. The weather contin- 
ued in its severity till the last of February, 1832, affording 
three months of uninterrupted sleighing. March was warm ; 
but heavy rains in May carried away the bridge at the village 
on the 24th ; and the cold produced ice in the brooks on the 
23d, and destroyed martins and other birds. 

On the 8th of May, 1833, the day of Rev. Mr. Cutter's 
ordination, after a warm forenoon, a heavy shower occurred, 
accompanied with thunder and lightning, which struck in 
many places in town. A poplar tree in front of Rev. Mr. 
Huse's house was shivered, as were a small apple-tree near 
C. Copeland's and a forest tree near P. Oliver's, together 
with a mast of Capt. J. Robinson's vessel at Andrews's Point, 
in the cabin of which were several persons who received no 
injury. The 13th of November was distinguished for one 
of the most remarkable phenomena ever witnessed in this 
part of the country. From three o'clock until daylight, a 
shower of meteors, or shooting stars, appeared in all parts of 
the heavens, falling like snow flakes. Some observing them 
through the windows, sprang from their beds supposing their 
houses on fire. They were of various magnitudes, some 
not larger in appearance than the smallest of the fixed stars ; 
others far exceeding the largest. They seemed to move in 
all directions, continued till daylight rendered them invisible, 
and were witnessed all over the country as far south as Balti- 
more. Similar phenomena have been witnessed in other 
parts of the world, and the writer of this recollects, when a 
boy, going out on a clear, calm evening, when it was impos- 
sible to look at any part of the sky without observing one 
or more of these meteors, but all extremely minute. The 
origin of these and of meteoric stones is but imperfectly 

The winter of 1834-'5 was marked by great variations of 
temperature. About the 9th of October, 1835, Halley's 
comet, whose periodical revolution had been calculated at 
75 years, made its appearance for the third time ; but was 
visible here for a few nights only, on account of a dense fog, 
which overspread the country, almost without interruption, 
through October and a part of November. During this time, 
the weather was calm and mild, without wind enough to shake 
the leaves from the trees, which, particularly on the oaks, re- 
mained with all their brilliant tints till the very commence- 
ment of winter. This began November 20th, by a sudden 
transition from good wheeling to good sleighing, and, with a 
slight relaxation in January, when robins were heard singing 


their vernal notes, continued with great severity to the end of 
March, 1836. The spring of 1836 was late, with a scarcity 
of hay ; ice was observed June 3d, when apple-trees were in 
blossom; the crop of potatoes was small, and that of maize 
greatly injured by frost. January and February of 1837, 
were remarkable for extreme cold weather, furious storms, 
and deep and drifted snows. The roads here were frequently 
impassable, especially January 22d, and February 17th and 
24th, from immense drifts said to be fifteen feet in depth. 
Triangular machines, then first required by law, were used in 
opening the roads. Snow-shoes were resorted to by Dr. 
Buxton, who, by their aid, February 25th, visited J. Rokcs's 
neighborhood. During this severe winter, many birds usually 
confined to the arctic regions, made their appearance here, 
especially the beautiful pine grosbeak, or bulfinch, (Pyrrhula 
enucleator) which came in large flocks about the woodpiles 
and barn-yards; and several specimens of the snowy owl, 
(Stryx nyctea) were shot in the vicinity. Masses of snow 
long remained in the woods and gullies, some of them till 
June. Spots were plainly observed on the sun April 28th, 
and again in July. January 26, 1839, a tremendous S. E. 
storm of wind and rain overturned many sheds here, and, in 
some parts of the country, dwellinghouses and churches. 
On the 12th of July, the house of E, V. Lermond was struck 
and somewhat injured by lightning ; but the family all escaped 
unhurt. From August to October, the dysentery raged in 
the town with great mortality, carrying away not less than 
sixteen persons of all ages. 

The winter of 1839-''40 was a perpetual fluctuation be- 
tween extreme warmth and cold, whh destructive storms in- 
tervening at intervals of about two weeks, the most notable 
of which were December 16th and 28th, and January 23d. 
August 23d, a severe thunder shower from the S. W. did 
considerable damage, burning the barn on the Isaac Libbey 
farm, and in Waldoboro' one or two more. Two days after- 
wards, some damage was done in Hope, and R. Rokes killed. 
In 1841, a summer drought, together with caterpillars and 
grasshoppers, seriously injured the crops, except winter rye ; 
and many wells which never failed before, were dry. This 
was broken Sept. 4th, by the most copious shower of rain ever 
remembered in so short a time, the brooks overleaping their 
banks, covering their bridges, and carrying along stones of 
many pounds weight. The winter of 1841-'2 was, with 
short intervals, warm and mild. A violent storm from the S. 
W., February 17th, blew over some chimneys, sheds, and old 


buildings ; and cast up quantities of fish on the islands and 
coast. On the 11th June, a storm of rain ending with snow, 
destroyed some sheep by the sudden chill. On the 14th, a 
remarkable change of weather from cold to heat, took place 
suddenly about nine in the evening. The year is distinguish- 
ed in this town as presenting the greatest mortality of any 
since its incorporation. The scarlet fever prevailed in the 
winter and spring ; and in autumn the dysentery, with other 
diseases, swelled the number of deaths to threescore. 

On the 28th February, 1843, a comet in the day-time was 
observed by a few persons near the S. E. limb of the sun, 
with a train, as described by them, about two feet long in ap- 
pearance. It soon became too faint for observation by day ; 
but on the 7th March, its splendid train, in spite of the bright 
moonlight, was seen extending for more than 20^ above the 
horizon, beneath which its nucleus had sunk before the dark- 
ness rendered it visible. On the 22d, its train was estimated 
at 30 degrees, with no apparent nucleus. It was a brilliant 
and beautiful phenomenon. With the exception of a fortnight 
of warm weather and bare, unfrozen ground in January, the 
winter was cold, and abounded whh deep snows till April 
8th ; when spring birds arrived, though there was little bare 
ground till the 23d of that month. On the day of the annual 
fast, April 6th, and the preceding night, there fell about two 
feet of moist snow blown into drifts in some places as high 
as the houses, rendering the roads impassable till cleared out 
by the shovel. The mail stage went on runners as late as 
April 16th, at which time the average depth of snow was 
judged to be about 3 feet, and that of the drifts from 5 to 8 
feet. Sleighs continued to run on some roads till into May. 
In that month, the season made good progress ; but there 
was frost and frozen ground again June 1st, when fruit trees 
were beginning to blossom. The crop of hay was abundant, 
and the season propitious till Sept. 9th, when white frost 
occurred every night till the 15th. The following winter 
was also cold and snowy. The mercury at sunrise, January 
26, 1844, stood at 13^ below 0, the 27th 9^ below 0, the 28th 
150 below 0, the 29th 3^ below 0, the 30th IP below 0, and 
the 31st 7^ below 0. The spring was an early one, with 
some remarkably hot weather on April 13th and 14th, when 
the mercury was up to 78*^ in the shade. This year, 1844, 
was distinguished for the first appearance of the potato 
disease ; though the crop here was abundant and remarkably 
fine. In 1845, this disease destroyed nearly the whole crop 
in the town ; since which a much smaller quantity of this 


root has been raised. The month of April, 1845, was 
remarkably dry and windy, producing great losses by fire ; 
the village of Damariscotta being entirely consumed, and 
other places in our neighborhood suffering considerably. 
The winter of 1845 — 6 was somewhat peculiar, and in many 
places disastrous. It began after the heavy rains of Novem- 
ber, with warm weather succeeded by thunder, moderate 
snows, and continued cold weather ; frost penetrated the 
ground to a great depth ; and springs never before known to 
fail, became dry. Anchor-ice was abundant, producing at 
Bangor, in connexion with the spring freshets, a memorable 
inundation. The spring of 1846 was early and delightful ; 
the crops of English grain fine ; but the unusual heat, com- 
bined with an unprecedented drought which lasted into Octo- 
ber, injured the crop of maize and prevented the growth of 
potatoes ; so that, although not diseased, they were as scarce 
as in the preceding year. In July, August, and September, 
the mercury frequently reached 88^, 90*^, 94^ and 96^ in the 
shade. At Rockland, water was carried through the streets 
and sold by the gallon. The George's Canal Company 
availed themselves of the low state of the water during this 
season, to build locks, and open the navigation of the river 
as far as Senebec Pond. During this drought, a calamitous 
fire occurred at Waldoboro', Oct. 10th, which raged that and 
the following day, and reduced nearly the whole business 
section of the village to ashes. 

On the 22d of March, 1848, there was a slight, but very 
perceptible, shock of an earthquake about 7 o'clock P. M. 
On Friday, June 23d, a little after 10 o'clock A. M. a rare 
and brilliant phenomenon was observed in the heavens. The 
morning had been hot, and the sky at first clear, but soon 
pervaded by a thin hazy cloud, which came over from the 
west. The wind, which had been N. W., was, at the time 
mentioned, fresh from the S. W. As the haze passed over 
the sun, it slightly obscured its radiance, and, when attention 
was directed that way, two bright concentric circles were 
observed surrounding that luminary ; the one, at a rough 
estimate, about 15^ distant from it, and the other 30*^ or 
more. They presented, especially the outer one, all the 
prismatic colors, well defined as in an ordinary rainbow. In 
the inner circle, these colors seemed mixed with the common 
sunlight, and, though more luminous, were less distinct. 
These were intersected by a third circle, whose centre was 
situated to the north of the other two, and whose circumfer- 
ence passed between the inner circle and the sun. This 


soon faded and disappeared ; but the others continued some 
time longer, the inner one apparently drawing nearer the 
sun, and the outer one appearing less regular and concentric. 
As the haze passed off southerly, the outer circle became 
broken and then disappeared ; but the inner one remained 
visible till noon. 

The weather of 1849 was remarkable for its sudden alter- 
nations of heat and cold. On June 22d, the mercury rose to 
96^ in the shade, and July 13th to 98*^ at this place, whilst 
at Rockland and at Newcastle it rose to 102^ in the shade. 
Both these days, especially the latter, were followed by a 
sudden depression of temperature, rendering fires and great 
coats desirable. Such changes, during this and the preced- 
ing year, proved fatal to many elderly people ; besides which, 
in 1849, the dysentery and typhoid fever were prevalent, 
and at Thomaston and Waldoboro' very mortal. May 6th, 
1850, an easterly storm terminated in showers from the 
S. W. attended with much lightning, which struck a tree 
near I. Spear's, and splintered telegraph posts, in some 
places 10 or 12 continuously, in the borders of this town 
and Waldoboro'. Freshets were high ; and on the 15th a 
loaded canal-boat, missing the lock at the upper falls, was 
precipitated over the dam, the crew escaping with slight in- 
jury. On the 10th and 11th of June, a violent storm de- 
stroyed some newly shorn sheep ; and the consequent freshet 
carried away the shingle and stave-mill at N. Cobb's. After 
eight successive days of wet weather, Sunday, July 21st, was 
so fine, and so much hay was in danger of spoiling, that 
most farmers felt justified in working to save it. The dysen- 
ter}^ and cholera prevailed in summer and autumn. 

During the present period, an evident, though not very 
sudden or striking, improvement has taken place in the 
physical, moral, and social condition of the town. In regard 
to the population, for which the reader is referred to Table 
in, and which exhibits an increase of 600 during the period, 
or 200 every census, Warren now, as in 1840, ranks as the 
8th town in the County of Lincoln ; while, according to the 
State valuation of 1850 it ranks in point of property as 
the 5th.* Wealth has evidently increased ; pauperism, 
especially since the temperance movement, diminished ; 
schools are better provided with books, and the amount of 
reading, particularly of newspapers and periodicals, greatly 

* The City of Bath, being reckoned as one. 


extended. But as education has been too much regarded as 
a mere preparation for business and the great art of money- 
making, rather than a means of perpetual satisfaction and 
mental improvement, it is not wonderful that the higher 
walks of literature and science should find fewer votaries 
here than in many more retired and less wealthy places, 
where education, with less facility, has a stronger prestige. 
The college graduates which this town has thus far furnished, 
are the following ; viz. David and George Starrett in 1818, 
Benjamin B. Thatcher and Manasseh H. Smith in 1826, all 
at Bowdoin College, Lucius H. Chandler in 1831 at Water- 
ville College, Samuel E. Smith in 1839, G. Snow Newcomb 
in 1848, and Samuel L. Hodgman in 1850, also at Bowdoin. 
The degree of M. D. was conferred at the last named college 
upon Benjamin F. Buxton in 1830, Jonathan Huse in 1832, 
and Joseph Huse, 1833. Sunday schools are now better 
patronized, and more generally attended. Gambling, if not 
wholly suppressed, has been confined to secret and disreput- 
able places. One species of it, that of lotteries, the more 
pernicious for being sanctioned by law and openly advertised 
in all the newspapers and post offices of the country, has, 
since the sale of tickets was prohibited in 1826, ceased to 
tempt the young and simple to venture their hard earnings 
upon an ocean of blanks in hope of gaining the prize at the 
bottom. Dwellings are more comfortably, not to say luxu- 
riously, finished, furnished, and arranged ; and supplied with 
convenient out-buildings. Cooking stoves found their way 
here not much after 1820 ; friction matches succeeded, and 
soon displaced the old tinder box and steel. Windlasses and 
pumps have banished the unsightly well-sweeps that formerly 
stood at every dwelling. Agriculture has advanced as well 
in the quantity of land cultivated, as also in the skill and 
implements with which the labor is performed. Threshing 
machines were introduced about 1837 ; horse-rakes, a little 
earlier. The use of compost, lime, gypsum, and other 
manures, has greatly increased the crops. Hay has become 
an article of exportation, as potatoes also were, until checked 
by the prevailing disease. A machine for compressing hay 
was first obtained here by J. L. Patterson and others about 
1842, and one or more have since been added. The agri- 
cultural bounties paid to this town by the State, amounted in 
1838 to 8159,98, on 1882 bushels of wheat; in 1839 to 
8226,20, on 2370 bushels of wheat, and to 8280,00, on 6035 
bushels of Indian corn. These bounties, being offered at a 
time when the high prices of provisions, the sudden revulsion 


of credit, and consequent embarrassments of trade and all 
kinds of business, rendered it difficult to procure the usual 
supplies from the south, gave a very opportune impulse to 
agriculture both here and throughout the State. The crop of 
wool has fluctuated, both in quantity and value, with the pro- 
tection afforded or withheld by the National government. 
The erection of a woolen factory, raised April 16th, 1842, 
by A. H. Hodgman, I. G. Allen, and others, has to a consid- 
erable degree, silenced the music of the domestic loom and 
spinning wheel. There were at the old clothing mill, as 
estimated in 1828, about 10,000 yards of cloth annually 
dressed, and about as many pounds of wool carded. The 
present factory, in 1843, manufactured 18,000 yards of cloth, 
besides dressing 2400 yards more, and carding 5000 pounds 
of wool for customers. This is about the amount still man- 
ufactured ; but an addition to the factory building has been 
recently made, with a view, we presume, to an increase of busi- 
ness. It now employs 8 male and 9 female operatives. Other 
manufactures, particularly those of brass, tin, and leather, 
have somewhat declined of late ; partly perhaps from want 
of governmental protection, and partly in consequence of 
other improvements, such as the use of stoves, glass lamps, 
and the new modes of dressing leather. For many years, 
about 1828 or '30, Dea. Webb and son manufactured be- 
tween 81000 and 82000 worth of brass lamps, fire-sets, 
&c., for the Boston market ; and more recently large quan- 
tities of copper spikes and other fastenings have been 
furnished by them for ship-builders, amounting on the part of 
the younger of them, according to the census of 1850, to 
8770. As near as can be gathered from the census, there 
were, in the year ending June 1, 1850, not less than 66 or 
70 tons of iron worked up by the different blacksmiths in 
town, into ship-irons and other articles, including 8700 worth 
of edge tools by J. Mallett. An iron foundry was established 
at the village about 1842, but has since been removed to 
Thomaston. Besides nearly 8500 worth by J. Leeds, R. W. 
Jarvis and sons manufacture annually about 81800 worth of 
shoes and boots ; and their labor, as well as that of Mr. 
Hinkley in the tin plate business, has been greatly facilitated 
within the last five years, by the use of machinery. M. 
Huse, an ingenious machinist, produces looms and other 
articles to the amount of 8800 ; C. N. Page, horse wagons 
8550 ; J. Grafton, harnesses and saddlery, 8590 ; Crawford & 
Kirkpatrick, bricks, 8800 ; James Libbey, leather, 8550 ; J. 
W. Smith, 82222, and S. B. Dockham, 82025 worth of 


clothing ; besides other wheelwrights, tanners, and saddlers, 
whose business falling a little short of $500 was not enumer- 
ated. The annual product of the six saw-mills included in 
the census, amounts to $14,808 worth, besides many others 
omitted as producing less than 8500 worth. In the manufac- 
ture of lime, there has of late years been an apparent de- 
cline ; partly from the fact that those most extensively 
engaged in it have found it for their advantage to carry on 
the work at Thomaston, where the rock is easily obtained 
and the lime shipped, and where the many new roads and 
bridges render it easier than formerly to collect wood and 
other materials. There were burnt in this town, 4200 casks 
in 1821, 7,527 in 1822, 13,326 in 1823, 17,260 in 1824, 
24,120 in J825, 28,211 in 1826, 35,812 in 1827, and 37,421 
in 1828. For a number of years past, no accurate account 
has been kept ; but the quantity at present manufactured is 
not far from 10,000 casks, besides 12,000 or more, burnt at 
Thomaston. Ship-building has steadily advanced not only in 
the number, but the size and quality of the vessels built ; 
and, being the only branch of industry from which foreign 
competition is excluded, its success would seem to afford a 
strong argument in favor of extending protection to other 
mechanical and agricultural productions, for which the coun- 
try is equally well adapted. There were built here in the 
year 1849, 2 ships, 5 barks, and 3 brigs, measuring 3708 
tons, and valued without the sails and rigging at $138,436. 
The present year, 1850, the number of vessels has been 
less ; yet, as three of them were large ships, one of which 
exceeded 1100 tons, it is believed that the aggregate tonnage 
is nearly equal to that of the preceding year. 

The coasting trade between this place and Boston, which 
in the early part of this century employed some half dozen 
or more sloops and schooners in transporting wood, lumber, 
and lime, has, after a gradual decline, at length entirely 
ceased ; and these vessels have been succeeded by those of 
a larger class, mostly employed in the freighting business 
from soutliern ports to the northern States, Europe, and the 
W. Indies. The hay, lime, and other articles which these 
vessels carry out southward, are generally taken on board at 
Thomaston ; and vessels are now rarely seen at Warren, 
except those newly built. The earnings remitted by these 
vessels from abroad, have, for some years past, not only been 
the principal means of restoring the money drained off in the 
purchase of W. I., European, and domestic goods in Boston, 
but have greatly added to the capital of the place ; which is 


now more than sufficient for the business done, and is forced to 
seek employment elsewhere, or investment in public stocks. 
Prior to the present period, a great want of capital was felt 
in this and the neighboring towns, manifested by the high 
rate of interest, the great profits of trade, and the extensive 
credit everywhere in use. People, prior to the war of 1812, 
frequently resorted to Messrs. Bryant or Borland at Damaris- 
cotta for loans at twelve per cent. ; and it was a common 
practice to have demands sued, and continued from court to 
court, merely for the use of the money in the interim. At 
a later period, cargoes were purchased on credit, and lumber- 
men and lime-burners forced to wait payment from three to 
six months, take their pay in good^, or dispose of their notes 
at an extravagant discount. But on the incorporation of the 
Thomaston Bank, Feb. 22, 1825, all this floating credit was 
made available as currency by discounting securities there, in 
exchange for the bills of the bank. Several citizens of this 
town became stockholders in that bank, and one of them has 
been for a considerable portion of the time its president. 

The mercantile business has, from different causes, been 
subject to some fluctuation. The temperance reformation 
brought with it in 1830, and at subsequent periods, a great 
diminution of the trade in ardent spirits, particularly at the 
village ; and this, together with the increase of business in 
Thomaston and Waldoboro', has 'diverted to those towns 
much of the trade which formerly centered here. The com- 
mercial embarrassments following the land speculations which 
terminated in 1836, operated as disastrously upon traders of 
small means here as elsewhere. It was pardy for increas- 
ing the trade of the place, and partly perhaps with a view to 
the superior water power it would afford, as well as from 
regard to the general prosperity, that many of the public 
spirited citizens of the town were induced to take shares in 
the George's Canal Company, which was incorporated in July, 
1846, for the purpose of opening the navigation of the river 
to its sources. Shares in this corporation were taken by 
citizens of this town to a large amount ; and the whole 
cost of the work was not far from $80,000. The locks in 
this town and Union were completed in the summer and fall 
of 1847 ; and on the 25th December of that year the first 
canal boat, the " Gen. Knox," which had come down from 
Appleton, passed through the lower lock on its way to 
Thomaston, where its arrival on the following day was hailed 
with ringing of bells and other demonstrations of joy. A 
steamboat was added, and the upper locks completed, in 


1848. The works have since been attached and sold for the 
debts of the company, and, we believe, purchased by a 
second company formed for the purpose. 

On the 1st December, 1848, the Telegraph wire on the line 
between Portland and Eastport, was put up through this town, 
and the same day went into operation between Thomaston 
and Bangor, though its connexion with Portland was not 
completed till a short time after. 

To the Mexican war which followed the annexation of 
Texas in 1846, this town contributed nothing in the way of 
soldiers ; although Edward B. Leeds, Albert G. and James 
Burton, former residents here, enlisted in the service, and 
shared in the operations directed by Gen. Scott. The first 
was killed at Hualmantla by a musket shot ; the other two 
returned. The profits of the war had more attraction ; and 
the marine of this place participated largely in the transport- 
ation of men, provisions, and munitions of war. 

The gold vainly sought in Mexico having been found at 
California, several from this place, in 1848, joined the general 
rush of adventurers to that country. These were followed 
by others in 1849 and 1850 ; and the whole number of our 
townsmen who have visited that country is not less than thirty 
or thirty-one, including the principal, and at that time only, 
physician in the place. These have met with various suc- 
cess, and have begun to return, some in precarious health, 
same satisfied whh the amount of their gains, and some in 
the regular course of their business as seamen. Others still 
remain to complete their fortunes ; and two promising young 
men, Spofford Leeds and William Mathews, have fallen vic- 
tims to the diseases, dangers and discouragements of a 
miner's life. To these may be added, as one of the town's 
most gifted sons, though not a resident, the Rev. Amariah 
Kelloch, who died at San Francisco in the summer of 1850. 

During this period of thirty years, many of our highly 
valued and distinguished citizens have been called away by 
death. Besides many already mentioned, Col. Benjamin 
Burton, whose name has often appeared in these pages, died 
in 1835 at his residence in this town, now that of P. Fuller, 
where and in that of F. Seiders he spent a few of the last 
years of his life. He was distinguished for a quickness of 
invention and a promptness of action which fitted him for 
any emergency, and for that independent conscientious- 
ness which led to the performance of what he conceived to 
be his duty, whether so regarded by others or not. As a 
Baptist, his course was unwavering, and his services in Cush- 


ing, where he resided till about 1797, and in Friendship, 
whither he removed about that time, were eminently useful 
to the churches in those places. Of several children who 
came before him to this town, one, recently deceased, has 
left valuable donations for missionary and other purposes, in 
the sect to which he belonged, 

John H. Gounce, who died March 10, 1848, deserves a 
passing notice as an example of what industry, frugality, 
and perseverance, with no uncommon advantages, are capa- 
ble of effecting. Brought up on a farm, with but a limited 
education, he turned his attention to ship-building, as before 
noted, and became master workman when about 28 years of 
age. In the course of his business, he superintended the 
building of 2 sloops, 24 schooners, 19 brigs, 1 bark, and 12 
ships ; of which the following were built in Thomaston and 
Rockland, viz. — sch. Mary Spear in 1815, schs. Jane Spear 
and Katherine in 1816, sch. Dodge Healy in 1817, schs. 
Thomas and Halsey in 1818, sch. Ann and brig John in 
1819, brig Sylvester Healy and sch. George in 1820, brig 
Iddo in 1822, brig Montpelier in 1823, ship Georges and 
brig Dodge Healy in 1824, and ship Hevves in 1827 ; whilst 
the remaining 34, exhibited in Table XIII, were built in War- 
ren, making in all a fleet of 58 sail. With a prudence 
equal to his judgment, it is not strange that he became the 
wealthiest man, so far as known, and paid the highest tax, in 
town. His estate at his death was estimated at #100,000, 
and paid a tax of $310,38, besides a highway tax in labor of 
perhaps an equal amount. His success in business he attri- 
buted in a great measure, under Providence, to a rule which 
he early formed, of taking no more property than he had the 
means to pay for and have enough left to carry on his busi- 
ness ; so as to pay no extra interest and lose no time in bor- 
rowing money. Honored by his townsmen, whom he thrice 
represented in the Legislature, esteemed as a valuable mem- 
ber of the Baptist communion, he bequeathed his estate to 
his family and his example to the community. 

Benjamin B. Thatcher, remembered as a studious youth, 
but less known whilst here than he afterwards became to many 
of us by his writings, after graduating at Bowdoin College in 
1826 and reading law at Bangor, went into practice in Bos- 
ton, became editor of a newspaper there, visited Europe, 
and, besides contributing to the North American Review 
and other periodicals, published several volumes on Indian 
history and biography. He died in 1840, at the age of 
thirty years. 



Others less prominent, but equally deserving, might be 
particularized did our limits permit, — distinguished civil and 
militia officers, sea-captains, farmers, mechanics, and traders, 
whose disappearance reminds us that another generation has 
passed away. With them necessarily closes our narrative. 
For the additions made to our population from abroad, during 
the period, many of whom have contributed so much to the 
business and wealth of the place and of whom our limits do 
not allow to speak, the reader is referred to the genealogical 
table at the end of the volume. We have aimed to give a 
plain, unvarnished account of the progress of the town from 
a feeble frontier settlement to a community first of hunts- 
men and woodcutters, then of lumbermen and coasters, and 
lastly of farmers, ship-builders, and artizans. What phasis 
shall the place next assume ? What mark will the present 
and rising generation stamp upon it ? What will be its con- 
dition fifty, a hundred, a thousand years hence ? Shall new 
methods of agriculture, new branches of industry,- new adap- 
tations of our natural privileges, and new investments of capi- 
tal, retain the natural increase of our population ; or shall it 
be driven hence to cultivate the prairies of Missouri, or 
search the sands of California ? Shall temperance, which 
has well nigh banished the bloated face and reeling form, be 
suffered to perfect its work ; or its refluent wave again inun- 
date the community ? Shall political parties become gener- 
ous rivalships in the cause of freedom, humanity, and the 
highest capabilities of man ; instead of mere squabbles for 
place and power, or a slavish adherence to names after prin- 
ciples have been abandoned ? Shall religious sects continue 
more sedulous for creeds than conduct, more anxious to 
fetter than to free the mind, to make converts than to im- 
prove men ; or shall they, generous and self-forgetting, be- 
come rivals only in truth, holiness, and love ? Coming gen- 
erations, rise and answer ! 






April 23, 1783, From 

April 24, 1783, « 

Sept. 26, 1789, «« 

Oct. 31, 1789, « 
June & Oct. 1790, " 

Sept. 15, 1795, 

<( << « 
April 22, 1796, 

June 14, 1796, 

Sept. 27, 1796, 
Oct. 14, 1796, 

June 9, 1797, From 

August 5, 1798, " 

Sept. 6, 1799, " 

Dec. 2, 1802, " 

May 14, 1803, " 

April 5, 1804, « 

April 6, 1805, 

March 6, 1806, 
Oct. 195 1808, 

March 18, 1808, 
March 29, 1808, 
April 4, 1809, 

Jan. 23, 1811, 

March 9, " 
Sept. 12, " 

Dec. 17, " 

Gushing line to the N. line of E. 

Libbey's lot. May 7, 1803. 

William Lermond's barn to the 

Great FaUs, Sept. 8, 1785. 

John Lermond's to Co. road by 

E.. Montgomery's. 
Union line to A. Crawford's. 
Waldoborough line to Stirling 

E. Libbey's to Union line, (Mid- 
dle road,) March, 1796. 
Meeting-house to M. Cobb's, May 2, 1796. 
E. Libbey's to Alexander Kel- 

loch's, Jr. May, 1796. 

Waldoboro' line to Capt. Mal- 
colm's, June 27, 1796. 
" « " « Aug. 21, 1797. 
On the west side of North pond, Nov. 1796. 
On the west side of South pond, 

to M. Hysler's, Nov. 7, 1796. 

Isaac Fuller's to Union line, Aug. 21, 1797. 

David Boggs's to the Falls, Sept. 3, 1798. 

Town road at A. Crawford's to 

Union line, 1800. 

S. Anderson's to J. M. Paskiel's, April 4, 1803. 
J. Andrews's to Peabody's mill, Dec. 24, 1803. 
the road to the river by J. Craw- 
ford's land. May 5, 1804. 
Thomas Starrett's to J. Ler- 
mond's back lot, " " 
South pond to Waldoboro', May 5, 1805. 
Head's store to A. Malcolm's 

south line, " " 

James Matthews's to S. Ftdler's, April 7, 1806. 
Alexander Kelloch's, Jr. to T. 

Robinson's, Nov. 7, 1808. 

J. Storer's land to P. Hysler's, April 4, 1808. 
J. Mclntyre's to P. Stahl's, 
Head of the tide to James Craw- 
ford's, April 1, 1811. 
J. Maxey's to the road by J. 

Eokes's, March 4, 1811. 

S. Watts's to C. Copeland's, April 1, 1811. 

A. Farrington's, Jr. to Thomaston 

line, Dec. 28, " 

S. Kelloch's to Union line, " " 

to Seth Andi-ews's, July 27, 1812. 





March 22, 1820, 
April 17, 1821, 
March 25, 1826, 
March 22, 1828, 
April 5, 1828, 

March 24, 1830, 


1815, From J. Wyllie's to D. Patterson's, 

" H. lloffsis's to H. Winchenbach'i 
*' D. Patterson's to J. Page's house, 

A. Kelloch's to I. Da^ds's, 
Josiah Maxey's to Wm. Crane's. 
J. Wyllie's to D. Patterson's. 

B. Andrews's to D. Patterson's, 
"William Starrett's to Samuel 

Spear's, private way, 
To Edmvmd Starrett's,' 
July 28, 1833, From James Copeland's to the Meadow 

March 31, 1834, " Thomaston line to Charles Cope- 
April 1, 1834, Thomaston line to Nath. Cobb's, 

May 16, 1834, To Philip Montgomery's, 

April 1, 1835, From M. Crane's to C. Copeland's, 

W. Wyllie's to D. Patterson's, 

John Creighton's to St. George's 

C. Crane's to Waldoboro' line, 
M. Crane's to C. Copeland's, 
O. W. Cornice's to S. Sumner's, 
M. Stetson's to the Co. road. 
Union line to T. Bxirton's, 
W. O. Matthews's to S. Spear's, 
J. Maxey's to M. Crane's, 
Village to T. P. Burgess's, 
J. S. Marston's to H, Payson's, 
J. Wliitney's to the road from 

E. Starrett's, 


June 3, 1836, 

March 29, 1837, 

Feb. 13, 1838, 
March 20, 1840, 
March 27, 1840, 
Aug. 26, 1841, 
April 24, 1841, 
Feb. 1841, 

Sept. 3, 1841, 
Sept. 24, 1841, 

W. Robinson's to W. Jordan's 
road, private, 
« " To land of J. Peters and others, 

Sept. 9, 1843, To Amasa Carriel's, 

March 25, 1843, From A. Starrett's to J. M. Paskie?s, 

Mav 10, 1845, 
April 24, 1846, 
March 21, 1846, 
March 29, 1847, 

May 20, 1848, 

Wm. Bisbee's to Packard's mill, 
A. Crawford's to J. F. Paskiel's, 
John Spear's to Mero Kelloch's, 
I. Peter's to near J. Peter's, 

J. W. Head's store to J. H. 

Counce's south line, 
E. Cushing's west line to Wal- 
doboro' line, 
Upper bridge to near J. Kirkpat- 

March 4, 1816. 

Nov. 16, 1818. 
Sept. 1821. 

April 20, 1829. 

April 7, 1828, 
April 9, 1831. 

April 7, 1834. 
(( (( 

May 24, 1834. 
April 6, 1835. 

Sept. 12, 1836. 
April 3, 1837. 

May 12, 1838. 

April 8, 1839. 

April 6, 1840. 

«( (( 

Sept 6, 1841. 

April 5, 1841. 
Sept. 6, 1841. 

Oct. 3, 1842. 

Oct. 3, 1843. 
Sept. 9, 1843. 
April 7, 1845. 
May 17,. 1845. 
March 1, 1847. 
April 6, 1846. 

Jxme 3, 1848. 
Aug. 25, 1849. 







Acres Tillage Land, 
" Eng. mowing, 
Fresh meadow, 
Salt Marsh, 
Unimp'd land, 
Unimpv'bl " 
Tons of Hay, 
Bushels of Rye, 
" Wheat, 
" Oats, 
" Corn, 
" Barley, 
" Peas & Beans, 
Horses 3 yrs. & up. 
Oxen 4 yrs. & upds 
Steers & Cows, 
Swine, 6 months, 
Stock in trade, 
Bank Stock, 
Public Stock, 
Tons of vessels, 
Tan Houses, 
Pleasure Carriages, 



























































































































































































To this add for 1840, Shipyards 2, Horse Wagons, 138. 

" « 1850 « 11, Bridge Shares, 53, Geo. Canal 
Co. Shares, 54, Carding machines, 8, Looms, 5, Spinning frames, 2, 
Gondolas, 5. 

t Those in 1790 were marked " part log-houses. 
* According to the census. 





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Kir— IrHr— If— IrHp— li— ( 






Town Clerk. 

J 777. 







er Lertnond 



Lerniond, Jr 




































































































[ 1830. 


C. Burgess, 








Alexander Lermond, 




Alex'er Lermond, Jr. 

Thomas Starrett, 

William Boggs, 
Daniel Dunbar, 
William Lermond, 

William Boggs, 

Daniel Dunbar, 



Thurston Whiting, 



William Lermond, 

Thomas Starrett, Jr., 




















Jesse Page, 
Thomas Starrett, Jr., 






Stephen C. Burgess, 
Thomas Starrett, 



None sent, 
Moses Copeland. 

Thomas Starrett. 
Patrick Pebbles. 

Thomas Starrett. 

Alex. Lermond, Jr. 
J. W. Head (ill Con.) 
Tliomas Starrett. 
Thurston Whiting, 
Saml. S. Wilde, 
Saml. Thatcher. 

Benj. Brackctt. 
John Wyllie. 
Saml. Thatcher, 
Cyrus Eaton. 
C.Eaton, S.Thatcher 

Wm. Hovey. 
Cyrus Eaton. 
C". Eaton, Jesse Page. 
Jesse Page, 
John Miller. 
Saml. Thatcher. 

Amos H. Hodgman, 
David Patterson. 
John H. Counce. 
Jonathan Huse. 



TABLE Y .— Continued. 


Toivn Clerk. 
Stephen C. Burgess, 










James Brackett, 

Thomas Starrett, 





Niven Crawford, 











Amos H. Hodgman. 
Edward O'Brien. 


Ambrose Lermond. 
Edward O'Brien. 
Thomas Hodgman. 
Edwin Smith. 
Amos H. Hodgman. 
Wm. Jameson, Jr. 
Reuben Hall. 

Joseph Spear. 
Zebulon Davis. 
Joseph Spear. 
David Lermond. 


1777. William Watson, 

1778. do. 

1779. do. 

1780. do. 

1781. Thomas Starrett, 

1782. Patrick Pebbles, 

1783. do. 

1784. do. 

1785. do. 

1786. Hatevil Libbey, 

1787. do. 

1788. Thomas Starrett, 

1789. do. 

1790. do. 

1791. do. 

1792. William Lermond, 

1793. do. 

1794. do, 

1795. John Wylie,* 

1796. Thomas Starrett, 

1797. Thomas Starrett, Jr. 

1798. do. 

1799. do. 

1800. do. 

1801. Rufus B. Copeland, 

1802. do. 

1803. do. 

1804. do. 
18U5. do. 


Hatevil Libbey, 



Samuel Creighton, 
William Boggs, 

Thomas Starrett, 

William Watson, 
Hatevil Libbey, 


Hatevil Libbey, 



John Libbey, 
James W. Head, 
John Andrews, 

Stephen Peabody, 
John Wyllie, 







Thomas Starrett. 



Hatevil Libbey. 
Hopestill Sumner. 
William Lermond. 


John Watts. 

William Lermond. 

William Boggs. 

John Wyllie. 

Thomas Starrett. 

do. * 
John Watts. 

John Libbey. 








* Wyllie and Starrett resigning, T. Starrett, Jr., and John Andrews 
•were chosen in their room, and John Watts was also chosen Select- 
man in June. 


TABLE V . — Continued. 


Rufus B. Copeland, 

John Wyllie, 

John Libbey. 






























John Wyllie, 

John Libbey, 

Rufus B. Copeland. 




David Patterson. 


Rufus B. Copeland, 


















John Miller, 



Hatevil Libbey, 



Palmer Mclntyre, 









Edmund Buxton, 

Jesse Page. 
















David Patterson, 


David Patterson, 

Peter Fuller, 

Edward O'Brien. 


Peter Fuller, 

Edward O'Brien, 

Palmer Mclntyre. 






Palmer Mclntyre, 

Reuben Hall, 

Alexander Libbey. 


Reuben Hall, 

Alexander Libbey 

Ambrose Lermond. 


Ambrose Lermond, 

Peter Fuller, 

Jabez Kirkpatrick. 


Peter Fuller, 

Edward O'Brien, 







Ambrose Lermond, 

Reuben Hall, 







Reuben Hall, 

Jabez Kirkpatrick, 

Edward O'Brien. 











Edward O'Brien, 

Benjamin F. Buxton 


Edward O'Brien, 

Benj. F. Buxton, 

Hugh Anderson. 



Hugh Anderson, 

Reuben Hall. 


Beni. F. Buxton, 


Lewis Spear. 




Oliver L. Kelloch. 






Hugh Anderson, 

Reuben Hall, 

Joseph Spear. 






William L. Starrett, 

David Creighton, 


£. L. Farrington. 

1777. WiUiam Watson, 

1778. do. 

1779. William Boggs, 

1780. do. 

Hatevil Libbey, Thomas Starrett. 

do. do. 

Alex. Lermond, Jr., Patrick Pebbles. 
John Spear, do. 



TABLE V . — Continued. 


John "Watts, 

John Wyllie, 
Thomas Starrett, 

Daniel Dunbar, 
John O'Brien, 
Thomas Starrett, 



James W. Head, 

Thurston WTiiting, 
Kufus B. Copeland, 



John O'Brien, 





David Patterson, 








Rufus Crane, 

CjTTus Eaton, 
Rufus Crane, 
Palmer Mclntyre, 



CjTus Eaton, 







Peter Fuller, 

Jabez Kirkpatrick, 


Samuel Counce, 

Reuben Hall, 
William Watson, 

John Lermond, 
Rufus Crane, 
William Lermond, 
John O'Brien, 








Thurston Whiting, 


Jesse Page, 

Thurston Whiting, 
John Creighton, 






















Daniel Yaughan, 
Amos H. Ilodgman, 
Palmer McInt^TC, 
Edward O'Brien, 

Ambrose Lermond, 


Robert Montgomery. 

John Kirkpatrick. 
Hatevil Libbey. 

Hopestill Sumner. 
John Crawford. 
Hatevil Libbey. 



Rufus Crane. 





















David Patterson. 
Cyrus Eaton. 
Jacob P. Davis. 



Stephen C. Burgess. 





Thurston WHiitmg. 

Niven Crawford. 

Pahner McLitjTre. 


Waterman Sumner. 


TABLE V .— Continued. 


Jabez Kirkpatrick, 

Elijah Morse, 

Waterman Snmner. 


Lewis Vaughan, 

Sumner Leach., 

Elijah Morse. 


Elijah Morse, 

Lewis Vaughan, 

James Cobum. 


Lewis Yaughan, 

Jabez Kirkpatrick, 

Stephen C. Burgess. 







Wm. L. Starrett, 

Stephen C. Burgess. 










Oscar Eaton, 

Gilbert Anderson, 

William L. Starrett. 


Da\'id Lermond, 


David Creighton. 










Oscar Eaton, 




David Creighton, 

Da^'id Lermond, 

Oscar Eaton. 



Oscar Eaton, 

Sumner Leach. 






Oscar Eaton, 

Joseph Starrett, 

Lewis Spear. 




Patrick Pebbles, September 26, 1782. 

Moses Copeland, January 19, 1802. ditto & quorum, August 23, 1804, 

James W. Head, 1805. 1812. ditto and quo. August 27, 1819. June 

29, 1826. 
Benjamin Bracket, 1806. 1813. ditto and quo. January- 29, 1820. 

Ded. po. July 7, 1820. June 21, 1827. October 17, 1834. 
Rufus B. Copeland, 1812. August 27, 1819. June 29, 1826. 
William Lermond, February 9, 1815. 

Manasseh Smith, July 3, 1816. Dedimus potestatem, July 7, 1820. 
Cyrus Eaton, November 30, 1816. February 5, 1825. ditto and quo. 

February 3, 1832. Februarv 5, 1841. 
John MiUer, June 26, 1820. June 21, 1827. ditto and quo. February 

16, 1837. February 1, 1844. 
Thurston Whiting, June 30, 1820. Ded. po. July 7, 1820. quo. 

Februarv 7, 1828. 
Jesse Page, FelWary 13, 1821. February 7, 1828. June 26, 1835. 
Edmund Buxton, February 13, 1821. February 7, 1828. 
Samuel Thatcher, and quo. February 11, 1822. February 13,1829. 
Amos H. Hodgman, February 27, 1824. 
Palmer Mclntyre, February 1, 1825. 
William Hovey, February 1, 1825. 
Edwin Smith, March 16, 1826, and quo. February 7, 1831. Ded. po. 

December 31, 1836. December 25, 1839. January- 31, 1848. 
John H. Counce, February 13, 1829. 
Jonathan P. Bishop, March 10, 1830. 





Lore Alforcl, 2d., December 21, 1832. 

William McLeUan, and quo. March 12, 1833. 

Edward O'Brien, February 9, 1834. February 6, 1840. 

Joshua Patterson, June 20, 1834. February 24, 1842. 

Ambrose Lermond, January 26, 1837, and quo, February 22, 1844. 

Amasa Russel, March 2, 1837. 

George W. WaUace, April 27, 1838. 

Peter Fuller, and quo. March 7, 1839. March 8, 1847. 

Edmund Starrett, and quo. October 23, 1841. October IG, 1848. 

David Lermond, February 10, 1842. 

Samuel E. Smith, and quo. June 21, 1843. 

Manasseh H. Smith, and quo. October 17, 1843. 

Joseph Clark, February 22, 1844. 

Joseph Spear, and quo. June 26, 1846. 

Sumner Leach, and quo. November 20, 1846. 

Oscar Eaton, and quo. May 5, 1849. 


S. Thatcher, Sheriff, Feb. 10, 1814. 

P. Fuller, Sheriff, Feb. 22, 1831. 

" " Feb. 12, 1835. 

Edwin Smith, Co. Attomev, July 

14, 1824. 
Edwm Smith, Co. Attomev, Dec. 

26, 1836. 
John Miller, Co. Commissioner, 
June 29, 1831. 
" June 27, 1833. 
Ambrose Lermond, Co. Commis. 
June 26, 1837. 
" " " March 21, 1839. 

" Feb. 3, 1842. 
James W. Head, Assist. Just. C. 

of Sessions, June 18, 1819. 
John Wakeheld, to solemnize mar- 
riages, March 3, 1821. 
Reuben !Milner, to solemnize mar- 
riages, Jan. 17, 1827. 
Jonathan Huse, to solemnize mar- 
riages, March 3, 1821. 
John Miller, Coroner, Feb. 5, 1824. 

P.FuUer, Coroner, March 16, 1826. 
" " " March 10, 1830. 

Thos. Kirkpatrick, Inspec. of lime. 
May 11, 1821. 
" •' Feb. lo, 182.5. 

Feb. 13, 1829. 

March 8, 1833. 

Thos. Kirkpatrick, 
Ebenezer Lermond, 
Seth O'Brien, 
James Starrett, 
llobert llobinson, 
Paul Boggs, 
John Smith, 
Edm. StaiTctt, 
W. Kirkpatrick 
Ichabod Jones, 
Peter Fuller, 
Edm. Starrett, 
John Smith, 

June 20, 

Sept. 20. 1834. 
Sept. 25, 1834. 

Nov. 12, 
March 10, 
May 2, 
June 25, 
Feb. 10, 
Nov. 20, 


Geo. M. Jameson, Insj^ect. of fish, 
Oct. 22. 1834. 



1762. John North, Hugh McLean, retailers. 

1763. Andi-cw Malcobn, to sell tea. 



TABLE VII. — Continued. 

1764. Andrew Malcolm, George Light, Alexander KeUocli, Samuel 

Briggs, John Mclntyre, innholders. 
1767. John Burton, David Fales, innholders. 

1769. Mason Wheaton, George Light, innholders 

1770. David Fales, Patrick Porteriield, innholders. 

1773. Jonathan Nutting, Elisha Snow, retailers. 

1774. Patrick Pebbles, innholder. 

1776. Micah Packard, Philip RobbinSj innholders. 


1778. William Boggs, innholder. 

1782. Moses Copeland, retailer. 

1784. Rufus Crane, retailer, Nathan Sprague, innholder. 

1787. James W. Head, retailer. 

1789. Thomas Starrett, retailer. 

1790. Thomas Starrett, J. W. Head, John Martin Schaeffer, Brackett 

& Davis, retailers. 
1793. Ichabod Frost, innholder. 

1796. Joseph Boggs, Rufus Crane, innholders. 

1797. William McBeath, retailer. 

1801. Miles Cobb, retailer. 

1802. Jonathan Fuller, innholder. 

1803. Timothy Parsons, innholder. 
1805. William Hovey, retailer. 

1811. Matthias Isley, John Miller, Thomas L. Mallett, innholders. 

1812. Joseph Wetherbee, innholder. 

1816. Thompson Rawson, innholder. Robert and John Thompson, 

1819. Benjamin Brackett, James Head, retailers. 

1820. John Burton, Alexander Lermond, 4th, retailers. 


Fisher Rawson in 
John Thompson, 
William McLellan, 
James W. Head, 
Benjamin Brackett, 

1821 to 1826. 
1821 to 1829. 
1821 to 1823. 
1821 to 1822. 

Wm. Hovey, 1821 to '29, & in '34. 

Thompson Rawson, 1821. 

Joseph Boggs, 1822. 

Lemuel Andrews, 1822 to 1827. 

Thomas Hodgman, 1822 to 1830, 

and 1834. 

WiUiam KiUsa 1822 to 1824. 

John M. Gates, 1822. 

James Stackpole, 1823 to 1827. 

Thomas L. Mallett, 1823 to 1828. 

Joseph Comcry, 1823 to 1825. 

Seth O'Brien, 1824 to 1829. 

James Chaples, 1824. 

Levi Gerrish, 1824 to 1825. 

Amos H. Hodgman, 1824 to 1827. 

Steph. C. Burgess, 
Nathan BuckHn, 
Samuel Thatcher, Jr, 
Seth B. Wetherbee, 
John Miller, 
David Libbey, 
Samuel Kelloch, 
Jesse Page, 
Caleb Prince, 
Green & Jordan, 
Theo. Dillingham, 
George J. Trask, 
John Balch, 
Jonah Gay, 
Alden Miller, 
James Brackett, 
John L. Mallett, 
E. B. Lermond, 
Samuel Libbey, 
John S. Marston, 

1825 to 

1826 to 

1827 to 
1827 to 
1827 to 
1827 to 

1828 to 

1829 to 

1829 to 

1830 to 






Years. Governor. 

1788, John Hancock, 

1789. John Hancock, 

23 votes, el. 
19 " el. 





















John Hancock, 
James Bowdoin 
John Hancock, 
John Hancock, 
John Hancock, 
Elbridge Gerry, 
William Gushing, 
Samuel Adams, 
Samuel Adams, 
Samuel Adams, 
Increase Sumner, 
Increase Sumner, 
Increase Sumner, 
Increase Sumner, 
Caleb Strong, 
Elbridge Gerry, 
Caleb Strong, 
Elbridge Gerry, 

Caleb Strong, 
Elbridge Gerry, 
Caleb Strong, 
Caleb Strong, 
James Sullivan, 
Caleb Strong, 
James Sullivan, 
Caleb Strong, 
James Sullivan, 
Caleb Strong, 
James Sullivan, 
Christopher Gore, 
James Sullivan, 
Christopher Gore, 
Levi Lincoln, 
Christopher Gore, 
Elbridge Gerry, 
Christopher Gore, 
Elbridge Gerry, 
Caleb Strong, 
Elbridge Gerry, 
Caleb Strong, 
J. B. Varnum, 
Caleb Strong, 
Samuel Dexter, 
Caleb Strong, 
Samuel Dexter, 



























Lieut. Governor. 
Gen. Lincoln, 
Gen. Lincoln, 
Samuel Adams, 
Samuel Adams, 


William Cushing, 
Moses Gill, 
Moses Gill, 

Moses Gill, 
Moses Gill, 
Mos6s Gill, 
Moses Gill, 










Edward H. Robbins, 65 
S. Phillips, 1 

H. Knox, 1 

E. H. Robbins, 109 

Gen. Wm. Heath, 2 

Edward H. Robbins, 83 
Edward H. Robbins, 62 

William Heath, 
E. H. Robbins, 
William Heath, 
E. H. Robbins, 
William Heath, 
E. H. Robbins, 
Levi Lincoln, 
David Cobb, 
Levi Lincoln, 
David Cobb, 
J. B. Varnum, 
David Cobb, 
William Gray, 
William Phillips, 
William Gray, 
William Phillips, 
William King, 
William Phillips, 
William King, 
William Phillips, 
William Gray, 
William Phillips, 
William Gray, 















TABLE Y II I.— Continued, 

Years. Governor. 

1816. John Brooks, 134 
Samuel Dexter, 88 

1817. John Brooks, 122 
Henry Dearborn, 68 

1818. John Brooks, 108 
B. W. Crowninshield, 58 

1819. John Brooks, 96 
B. W. Crowninshield, 59 

Years. Governor. 

1820. William King, 109 r. el. 

1821. Ezekiel Whitman, 98 f. 












57 R 

3 R. 

76 F. 
63 R. el 
60 R. el 
73 R. el 

83 R. el 
80 R. el 
93 R. el 
97 R. 

Ezekiel Whitman, 
Albion K. Parris, 
Joshua Wingate, 
Ezekiel Whitman, 
Albion K. Parris, 
Albion K. Parris, 
1824. Albion K. Parris, 
Avery Rawson, 
Albion K. Parris, 
Enoch Lincoln, 
Enoch Lincoln, 
Enoch Lincoln, 
Samuel E. Smith, 177 d. 
J. G. Hunton, 95N.R.el. 
Samuel E.Smith, 229 d, el. 
J. G. Hunton, 134 n. r. 
Samuel E.Smith, 221 d. el. 
Daniel Goodenow, 90 n. r. 
Samuel E. Smith, 211 d. el. 
D. Goodenow, 122 n. r. 
Samuel E. Smith, 138 d. 
Daniel Goodenow, 95 n. r. 
Robert P. Dunlap, 61 d. el. 
Thomas A. Hill, 20 a. m. 
R. P. Dunlap, 256 d. el. 
Peleg Sprague, 320 n. r. 
Thomas A. Hill, 7 a. m. 
R. P. Dunlap, 
William King, 
R. P. Dunlap, 
Edward Kent, 
Gorham Parks, 
Rufus Mclntyre, 
Edward Kent, 


Elijah L. Hamlin, 106 w. 



S. Fessenden, 
John Hubbard, 
E. L. Hamlin, 

180 D 
55 N 

197 D. el. 1849. 
68 w. 
82 D. 

33 D. 1850. 
122 w. el 
Explanations: el. elected ; f. Federal; r 
cratic; n. r. National Republican ; a. m. Anti-masonic; w. 
and AB. Abolition. 


F. el. 






Lieut. Governor. 
William Phillips, 
William Dexter, 
William Phillips, 
William King, 
William Phillips, 
Thomas Kittredge, 58 
William Phillips, 96 
Benjamin Austin, 59 

John Fairfield, 

Edward Kent, 

John Fairfield, 

Edward Kent, 

John Fairfield, 

Edward Kent, 

John Fairfield, 

Edward Kent, 

John Fairfield, 

E. Robinson, 

James Appleton, 




293 D. el, 
164 w. 
270 D. el. 
309 D. 
155 w. el. 
303 D. el. 
145 w. 
262 D. el. 
132 w. 

4 AB. 

Hugh J. Anderson, 66 d. el, 
Edward Robinson, 95 w. 
Edward Kavanagh, 96 d. 
James Appleton, 11 ab. 

1844. H. J. Anderson, 269 d. el, 

E. Robinson, 140 w. 
James Appleton, 15 ab. 

1845. H. J. Anderson, 175 d. eh 

F. H. Morse, 96 w. 
S. Fessenden, 11 ab. 

1846. John W. Dana, 171 d. el. 
David Bronson, 109 w. 

S. Fessenden, 11 ab. 

1847. John W. Dana, 141 d. el. 
David Bronson, 96 w. 

S. Fessenden, 6 ab. 

1848. John W. Dana, 199 d. el. 

3 ab. 
366 D. el. 
124 w. 

11 AB. 

John Hubbard, 175 p. el. 
Wm. G. Crosby, 107 w. 
Republican; D.Demo; 









All other Pro- 
Town ceeds 


1796 $333,33 




























For Town Proc'ds 
sch. Char- of Fish- 
$ ! ges. 1 ery. 
500 $1050 $183,50 
531 878 175,00 
500! 153,00 
850j 156,00 
700; 267,00 
700 amt.not 
314 ascer'd. 
600 730,00 
500 not as't. 
1602; " 

Pau- Am't For 
per rec'd licen- 
Exp. from ' ses. 
Bank $cts. 


53 1! 



2100 not as't. 

2200 '« 






$ cts. 




425 104,51 
464 116,51 
420 157,18 
456 214,88: 5,00 
496 201,60 
449 187,46 
395 161,90 
499 130,09 

249 122,28 
172 113,97 

250 105,36 



* Amount not ascertained, and said to be little more than cost of 
t Paid by selectmen, and amount not ascertained. 





























No. chi'd'n 

bet. 4 «fc21 

years, May 

1, 1849. 


Whole No. 




sum. term. 













































Whole No. 




win. term. 













































school in 

of Wag. of tea- 
chers exclu, 
of board. 

S'r. W'r 










I 978 I 534 j 408 j 613 | 563 | 11531 

Amount of money raised by town for schools 1849, ,g900. Do. received from 
the State, ^103,72. Ditto from school fund, ^200. Number of schools sup- 
plied with blackboard, 14. Other school apparatus or libraries, 0. Number 
of school-houses owned by town or districts, 18. Number which are well 
constructed, commodious and in good repair, 16. Text books most exten- 
sively used ; in spelling, Tov/n's and Emerson's; Reading, Leavilt's series j 
Arithmetic, Smith's and Robinson's j Grammar, Smith's and Weld's. 

* Males per month. 

t Females per week. 


general's office, arranged ALPHABETICALLY ; WITH SOME OBTAINED 

Alexander, Henry, Captain, about 1739. 

Alford, Lore, Ensign, Aug. 25, lb27, Capt. Aug. 7, 1830, of the East- 
ern Company. , 



TABLE XI.— Continued. 

Andrews, Lemuel, Lieut. Capt. about 1813, E. Co. 

Andrews, Benjamin, Lieut, about 1813, E. Co. 
Anderson, Alexander, Lieut. July 10, 1822, of the Western Co. 
„ Ayer, Dr. Benjamin, Surgeon's Mate, April 24,1828, of the Artillery 
Blake, Willing, Capt. of W. Co. about 1798. 
Bracket, Benjamin, Major, about 1800. 
Buckland, Nathan, Capt. about 1807, of W. Co. 
Burgess, Stephen C, Capt. May 21, 1821, E, Co. 
Burgess, Thomas P., Ensign, April 28, 1836, Lieut. May 2, 1840, of 

Rifle Co. 
Burgess, Wm. C, Capt. Aug. 12, 1837, of Artillery. 
Burton, Benjamin, Lieut, in Revolutionary Army, Lt. Col. 1785 
or 6, Col. 1796. 
■^ Buxton, Dr. Edmund, Surgeon, about 1800. 
-^Buxton, Dr. Benjamin F., Paymaster, Sept. 20, 1827. 
Chadbourne, I>ovel P., Ensign, Aug. 17, 1839, W. Co. 
Cobb, Lewis V., Ensign, May 15, 1841, Lieut. April 23, 1842, of 

Rifle Co. 
Copeland, Joseph, 1st, Lieut, of Guards sent to Machias in 1776. 
Copeland, Moses, Adjutant, about 1770. 
Copeland, Rufus B., Quartermaster, about 1803 or 4. 
Copeland, David, Lieut, about 1804, of E. Co. 
Copeland, Joseph, 2d, Lieut. Oct. 13, 1817, of Artillery. 
Copeland, John, Ensign about 1813, Capt. July 10, 1822, W. Co. 
Copeland, Oliver, Ensign, about 1813, Capt. about 1818, E. Co. 
Copeland, John, 2d, Ensign, May 2, 1840, E. Co. 
Counce, Oliver W., Lieut. May 23, 1828, W. Co. 
Crane, Rufus, Ensign, about 1788, Capt. about 1798, of E. Co. 
Crane, William, Quartermaster, Sept. 25, 1817. 
Crawford, Charles, Ensign, May 21, 1821, Capt. April 16, 1824, E. 

Creighton, James, Ensign, May 2, 1840, Lieut. May 15, 1841, Capt. 

April 23, 1842, Rifle Co. 
Creighton, George Y., Ensign, Aug. 7, 1830, Lieut. June 25,1831, 

Capt. March 29, 1834, E. Co. 
Davis, Aaron, Lieut, about 1798, Capt. about 1804, of E. Co. 
Davis, Jacob P., Lieut, about 1798, of W. Co. 
Dunbar, Richard, Ensign, April 16, 1824, Lieut. Aug. 25, 1827, E. 

Eaton, Oscar, Capt. April 28, 1836, Rifl